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Gardeners Didlionary. 

Containing the Methods of 

Cultivating and Improving 


Trees, Vlants^ and Flowers, 

F O R T H E 

Kitchen^ Fruity and Pkafure Gardens \ 


Thofe which are ufed in Medicine. 


Directions for the Culture of VINEYARDS, 

and Making of W I N E, in England. ' 

In which likewife are indaded 

The Practical Parts of HUSBANDRY. 

Abridged from the laft Folio Edition, 
Bythe Author, PHILIP MILLERyF.K.S. 


Member of the Botanic Academy zt Florence ^ and Gardener to the WorfhipAd 

Coxnpany of Apothecaries, at their Botanic Garden,. at Chelfea, 

- •■-- — 

T>igna manet divini gloria runs. Virg. Geor. 



The Fourth Edition, Correfted and Enlarged. 


Printed for the Author; 

And Sold by John and James Rivington, at the BIIU 

and Crovmj in St. PauPs Chnrcb-Tard^ 


^„ '■:'■- 
■7' 2 I.' ^ 7 


Gardeners Didionary* 

Vol. III. 

PADUS, TVBinl-cbeTrr. or 
The Churaair, are; 
f%« EwptltmiKt ef ibt Flnatr it 
Ml-M^, cm/lfting «/ n* £m/, 
'vUti txfmJl M Ibr Brim, lubtrt it 
ii Jiigbtij cut itUa fivi Peril : ibt 
PUmtr ■ it amp^id if fvt rtandifi 
Fttait^ nuhitb or* im/irtti in tht 
imfmltmtM, wU art Jprtad tpen : /« 
tbt Ci*trt »f Ibt Tltvjir it filuattd 
Ibt Fmval, Btlimdtdhj a irial Nnm- 
itr tf Stamina, •uihicb «-f iafertti 
h lie Empaltrntnl : tbt Ptiiria/ af- 
ttr^uamri cbmngti It a rmaidifi) Birry, 
imclajimg «H njw/ AW, 

1. pADUt glmiaalU iumhui hafi 
M»rtM fiAj^'t. Li». Hart. CSf. 
The commoa ffiid-cberrf, 

2. Pasvi ftlUt 9-aeHt /erratii, 
filitlii riSii, Jpita fienm hrtvitri. 
TUCoT»/b Chemr. 

3. fAvnt/tiiii ImHitolalii gkbrit, 
^mxferrmtii, fraSu uirrt, Jauritan 

P A 

4. Padws fitiit femfervirrwlthmt 
UnKnlatO'tvatii. Um. Hart. Cliff. 
The common LaunI, or Gicrry- 

5. PADtrt faliii Jhftrvirtnlihut 
tvatit. Lin. Hmti. Ciif. The P»r- 
/sfa/Lanrel; by fome called tba 
Ptrtugal Chary 1 tad m Ptrftigiujf, 

The MO fiift Spedes have been 
genendly rane'd la tlie Genu* of 
Cheirie), till Dr. Lhnnem (epamed 
them from that Genng, and added 
the two bit Species to them, and 
applied thii Title of Pat^ to them 1 
which is an old Name giren by Tbtt- 
pbrafiai to one of the Species : but 
ihcDoAor, in hti laft Edition of hi* 
Method^ feemi 10 join theft to the 
Cfaerries again. Butaathefe produca 
their Frnit in a long Ibjrfi, or 
Banch, I think they may be fepft- 
rated from the Cherry on that Ac- 

The firft Sort is very common in 

iereral Parti of En^iaiui, butpartl- 

Rrr 4 cularlji 


ctiUrly in the North, where they and of a ihining black Coloar when 
grow in the Hedges in great Plenty, ripe. The Leavet of this Tree re* 
This will rife to the Height of eigh- main green ontil Decembtr^ unleft 
teen or twenty Feet ; bat generally hard Frofls happen early, to decay 
fends out a great Namber of Shoots them. The Wood of thii Tree is 
from the Bottom, which, if fuffer- very beautifully vein'd, for which 
ed to grow, will form a Thicket, the Inhabitants. oijSmerica greatly 
and prevent the upright Growth of efteem it. 

the Tree. The Branches of this All thefe Sorts may be propagated 

Tree are generally irregular, and by laying down their young Branches 

grow vtry confufed 5 fo that it is in OStober, which, in one Vear, will 

rarely feen to grow handfome : but have made good Roots : or they may 

when it is mixed with other Shrubs be grafted upon each other; asalfo 

in Wildernefs-quarters, it makes an upon the common Cherry*ftock : but 

liandfome Appelu^nce during the thefe grafted Trees never grow to the 

Seafon of its flowering, which is Sizeofthofewhich are propagated by 

commonly in the Beginning of Aftfy: Seeds or Layers. But they are feU 

at which time the whole Tree is co- dom propagated by Seeds ; becaufe 

ver*d with long Spikes of white the Birds generally eat them, unlefs 

Flowers ; but thefe have a very the Fruit are faeened from them : 

ftrong Scent, which is vtry difagree- and as the moil expeditious Method 

able to many Ferfons j fo there (hould of raifing the. Plants is by Layers, fo 

not be many of them planted too that is generally ufed by the Garden* 

liear the Habitation. ^ crs near London. 

The fecond Sort will rife to a The common Laurel is fo well 
greater Height than the £rfl, and known, as to need no Defcription ; 
may be trained up with a regular it being very common in cvtxy Gar- 
ftrait Stem, to the Height of twenty den. This Tree was brought from 
* Feet, with an handiome regular O^r/^ffZ/Vr^^/r about the Year 1^78. 
Head: for the Branches of this Sort and was for many Years kept in 
are naturally difpos'd in a regular Pots and Tubs, and preferv'd in 
Order. The Flowers of this Sort Green-houfes in Winter : but after* 
are produced on (horter Spikes than ward it was planted againfl warm 
thole of the former Sort ; but in Walls, to preferve it ; being ht" 
other refpe^ls are very like them. quently injur*d by fevere Froil. Af- 
The third Sort is a Native ofJmi- ter thi^ the Plants were trained into 
fiV/7, from whence the Seeds have Pyramids and Globes ; and oonflant- 
been brought, and the Plants are ly kept (hear'd ; by which the broad 
now commonly fold in the Nurferies Leaves were generally cut in th^ 
rear London, It grows plentifully Middle, which rendered the Plants 
in the Woods in Carolina ; where the vtty uniightly. Of late Years they 
Fruit is particularly efleemed for have been more properly difpofe4 
makingCherry 'brandy .TbisTree is of in Garden s, by planting them to bor- 
middling Growth, and the Branches der Woods^ and the Sides of Wil- 
generally grow very irregular : the demefs-quarters ; for which Par^ 
Leaves are very fmoQtb, ao<i of a pofe we have but few Plants fo Wjcll 
(hining Green : the Flowers are pro- adapted ; for it will grow upder the 
doced in long Cluften, like the Drip of Trees, in Shade or Sun 1 
f Qxmer Sort i but the Fruit is i^fger* and the Branches will fprcad to ^f 



GnKind« to zs xm form a Thicket ; 
tod the Leaves being large, and 
having a fine glofiy green Coloar, 
theyfetoflrtheWoods and other Plan- 
(adons in Winter, when the other 
Trees havecaft their Leaves; and in 
Siimmer they make a good Contraft 
with the Green of the other Trees. 
This Tree is foxnetimes injured in 
very feverc Winters, efpecially where 
they fiand fingle, and are much ex« 
pofed; hot where they grow in 
Thickets, and are fcreen*d by other 
Trees, they are feldom much hart : 
for in thofe Places it is only the 
yoong tender Shoots which are in- 
jured ; and there will be new Shoots 
prodaced immediately below thefe, to 
(app\Y theiV Place; fo that in one 
Year the Damage will be repaired : 
bat whenever fuch fevere Winters 
happen, thefe Trees (hould not be 
cat or pruned till after the follow- 
ing Midfummer % by which time it 
will appear what Branches are dead, 
which may then be cut away, to the 
Places where the new Shoots are 
produced: for by haftily cutting 
thefe Trees in the Spri^^^j^the dry^ 
ing Winds have free Egrels to the 
Branches I whereby the Shoots fuffer 
as much, as they had done by the 

Thefe Trees are alfo ytrj oma* 
mental, when they are mix*d with 
other ever-green Trees, in forming 
Thickets, or to {hut out the Appear- 
ance of cUfagreeable Objeds : for 
the Leaves, being very targe, make 
a very good Blind, and are equally 
niefal for fcreening from Winds i fo 
that when they are planted between 
flowering Shrubs, they may be train- 
ed fo as to fill op the Vacancies in 
the Middk of fuch Plantations ; and 
will anfwer the Parpofe of fcreening 
in the Winter, and (batting oat the 
View thro* the Shrubs in all Seafons: 
tlierc are alfo many oiber Parpofes 

P A 

to which this Tree may be applied^ 
fo as to render it very ornamental. 

In warmer Conntries this Tree 
will grow to a large Size ; fo that in 
fome Parts of Itatj there are larg^ 
Woods of them ; bat we cannot hope 
to have them grow to fo large Stems 
in England ; for fliould thefe Trees 
be pruned up, in order to form them 
into Stems, the Froft would then be- 
come much more hurtful to them, 
than in the manner they ufually 
grow, with their Branches to the 
Ground : however, if thefe Trees are 
Planted pretty dofe together, in large 
Thickets, and permitted to grow 
rude, they will defi^nd each other 
from the Froft, and they will grow 
to a confiderable Height : an In&nce 
of which is now in that noble Planta- 
tion of ever-greenTrees, made by hit 
Grace the Duke c^BtdfirJ^ at H^9od* 
boum-Ahbey ; where there is a confi- 
derable Hill, covered intirely with 
Laureb : and in the other Parts of 
the fame Plantation, there are great 
Numbers of thefe intermixed with 
the other ever-green Trees, where 
they are already grown to a confi- 
derable Size, and make a noble Ap- 

This Tree is commonly propaga- 
ted by Cattings, which mould be 
planted in Siptembtri and in taking 
off. the Cuttings, if a Joint of the 
former Year's Shoot is cut to the 
Bottom of each, there will be no 
Danger of their growing : and thefe 
Cuttings will have much better Roots, 
Chan thofe which have only the fame 
YearVShoot ; which, being veiy foft 
and tender, do not pnt oat Roott 
from the Bottom in the fiune manner 
as the others, and they fieqaently 
mifcarry. Thefe Cattmgs fhould 
be made about fifteen Inches long, 
or fomiewhatfi)orter} and tfaeyihould 
be platited feyen or eight Inches into 
the Ground, ebfenring to tread the 



Sardi down doTe to them. ^ TheTe ft&ly ripe ; whicb is fddom earlier 

Cattings (hould be planted in a fofc than the Latter-end ofSeptemh$r, or 

Idaniy Soil, not fo ftrong as to de- the Beginning otOaohgri for the/ 

tsdn the Wet, nor fo light and dry flioald hang unUl the outer Pulp is 

as to admit the Sun and Wind eafily quite black. When thefe Berries 

to the lower Part of the Cuttbgs : are gathered, they (hould be fown 

in fuch Soil as this, the Cuttings foon after; for when they ai« kept 

muft be duly watered in the Spring, out of the Ground till Spring; thev 

Otherwiie they will mod of them fau: frequently mifcarry ; and there will 

whereas, in a gentle Loam, fcarce be no Hazard in fowing them in Au- 

one in an hundred will mifcarry, and tumn, provided they are put in a 

theywill make much greater Progrefs. dry Soil: and if the Winter fhould 

The commonMethodof planting thefe prove fevere, the Bed in which they 

in the Nurferies is, to lay out the are fown is covered wich rotten Tan, 

Ground into Beds, about four Feet Straw, Peas -haulm, or auy light 

broad, with two Feet Alleys betwen Covering, to prevent the Froft from 

^em, for the Conyeniency of go- penetrating of the Ground. The beft 

ing between them to water them in Way will be to fow the Berries in 

dry Weather ; and in thefe Beds Rows at about fix Inches Diihmce, 

they plant the Cuttings about five or and one Inch afunder in the Rows : 

fix Inches afunder : but where there if Drills are made about three Inches 

is a loamy Soil, it will be a better deep, and the Berries fcattered in 

Methidd to plant the Cuttings in them, and the Earth drawn over 

Rows, about a Foot or fifteen Inches them, it will be a. very good Me« 

afujsder, and at fix Inches Diibnce thod. The following Spring the 

in the Rows: in this Method the P&ats will appear, wh^tney&ould* 

Cuttings will have more room to be kept clean from Weeds} and. if 

STOW, and there will be room to hoe the Seafonjhonld prove dry, if shey 

between them in Summer,* to keep are dul y wa tered, the Plants will 

them dean from Weeds ; and when makS'fp^Kd Progrefs, as to be fit 

they are removed, they may be taken for tranfplantii^ w following" Au* 

up without injuring any of the tumn, when they fhould be carefully 

Plants, which cannot be avoided taken up, and planted in a'Nurfery, 

where they are very clofe together, placing them in Rows at three Feet 

There are feme Peribns who pro- afunder, and the Plants one Foot Di« 

pagate thefe Trees from their Ber* fiance in the Rows. In this Nur- 

lies, which b certainly the beft Way fery they may remain two Years i 

to obtain good Planu; for thofe by which time they will be fit to 

which come from Seeds, have a Dif- tranfplant where .they are defigned 

^fition to an upright Growth i to remain, 

whereas almoft all thole which are The beft Sealbn for tranfplanting 

laifed from Cuttings, incline mor^ thefe Plants is in the Autumn, as 

to an horizontal Growth, and pro* foon as the Rain has prepared the 

duce a greater Number of lateral Ground for Planting i tor altho* 

Branches. When any Perfoi^ is de- they often grow, when removed in 

firous to propag^ this Tree by the Spring, yet thofe do not take 

Seeds, the. Berries muft be siarded near fe wdl, aor makefo good Pro* 

from the Birds, .ptherwife they will grefs, as thofe which are removed ia 

devour them bcf(^ (hey are per* the Autumn telj^ially if the Planu 

P A 

are taken from a ligLc Soil, wUch 
geoerallj falls away froin their 
Roots : but if they are taken up 
with Balls of Earth to their Root^ 
and removed bat a (mall Difiance, 
there will be no Danger of tranfplant- 
ing them in the Spring, provided it 
is done before they begin to (hoot ; 
for as thefe Plana will fhoot veiy 
early in the Spring, fo if they are 
rtmoyed after they have ihot, the 
Shoots will decay ; and many times 
the Plants intirdy fail. 

There are fome Perfons who, of 
hate^ have baniihed thefe Plants from 
their Gardens, as fuppoiing them 
pofiefled of a poifonous Quality i 
becanfe the diitiUed Water Ms 
proved fo in many loftances : but 
however the diMled Water may 
have been found deftnifUve to Ani- 
mals, yet from numberlefs Experi- 
menu, which have been made both 
of the Leaves and /Fruit, it hath not 
appeared, that there is the leaft 
hurtful Quality in either j fo that 
the Whole rouft be owing to the Oil» 
which may be carried over in Diftil- 

The Berries have been long ufed 
to pat into Brandy,, to make a fort 
of Ratafia $ and the Leaves have al- 
fo been put into Cuftards, to give 
them an agreeable Flavour: andal- 
tho^ thefe have been for many Yean 
much ufed, yet there hath been no 
one Infiance of their having done 
the leaft Injury : and as to the Ber* 
ries, I have known them eaten in 
great Quantities, without Prejudice. 

There are fome Perfons who have 
grafted the Laurel upon Cherry* 
fiocks, with Defiga to inlarge the 
Trees s but altha' diey will take very 
wdl upon each othert yet theyfeldom 
mak^ much Prooefs when either the 
Laurel is giafted on the Cherry ,dr the 
Cbeify upon the Laurel s fo Aat .it 
is onljr a thio^ of Cnripfity,- attend*. 

P A 

cd with no real Ufe: and I wouU 
recommend to Perfons, who have 
this Curioiity, to graft the Lan^nl 
upon tLe Cormjh Cheny, rather tbHi 
any other Sort of Stock, becaoie the 
Graft will unite better with this; 
and as it is a regular Tree, and 
grows huge, fo it will better anfwer 
the Pnrpofe of producing laig« 

The Vortngal Laurel has not been 
vtty long cultivated in the Englifr 
Gardens, nor is it, as yet, become 
common here ; but it de&rves to be 
propagated as much as any of the 
ever-green Trees ; for the Leavci 
have a moft beautiful fliining Ver- . 
xluie, and, in June^ the Trees are 
covered with long Spikes of white 
Flowers, which, together with the 
bright-red Bark of the young Shoots^ 
make a very beautiful Appearance: 
and in the Autumn, when the Ber* 
ries ripen, they likewife make a 
goodly Shew ; and what renders this 
Tree more valuable iA^ its being A> 
v^ hardy, as to defy the ifevereft 
Cold of this Country : for in the hard 
^lok of the Year 1 740. when almoft 
fytvf other ever -green Tree and 
Shrub was ieverely pinched, thel^ 
Trees retained their Verdure, and 
feemed to have felt no Injury. 

This will grow (o the Height of 
ten or twelve Feet in England (but 
probably, in their native Country, 
they may be much larger) \ but £ 
have not feen any which are higher 
here : they generally fend out their 
Branches near the Ground, and form 
large fpreading Heads s but they 
may be trained up with Stems, ef^ 
peaally fuch Plants as are produ" 
ced from the Berries, which are more 
difpefcdtogPOW'Upright^ thanthofo 
wJuch arepropagaud from Cotdngs : 
therefore where the.Berria can ,be 
procured in Plenty, I would recom. 
mend die propagating thefe Trees 


P M 

from them, radier than by the Cat- 
tiDgs : and as there are many Trees 
Vk England^ which produce the Ber- 
ries in plenty, fo, if they are care- 
fully guarded from the Birds, there 
may be foon plenty of the Berries in 

Thefe Berries muft be managed in 
the fame way as hath been before 
directed for the common Laurel ; and 
if it is propagated by Cuttings, they 
ihoald be treated in the fame man- 
ner as the common Laurel. 

This Tree delights in a gentle 
loamy Soil, which is not too wet, 
nor over-dry ; tho' it will grow up- 
ofi almoft any Soil ; but the Plants 
do not make fo great Progrefs, 
nor appear fo beautiful, when plant- 
ed in a very dry Soil, or in Ground 
tha't is too wet. The time of tranf- 
planting this is the fame as for the 
common Laurel. 

P^ONIA, The Peony. 
The CharaBers are ; 

// bath a Fhwer comfos*d offe^oi" 
ral Leaves f vfbich are placed 9rbicU' 
iarly^ and expand in form of a Rofe ; 
9ut of nxhofe Emfalement rtfes the 
Pointaif nubicb afiemnard becomes a 
Fruity in nubicb feveral little Horns ^ 
bent downward, are gatber^d, as it 
vfere, into a little Head, covered 
nnitb Down, opening lengtbwife, con- 
iaining many globulous Seeds, 
The Species are ; 

1. Paonia folio nigricante fplen^ 
dido, quet mas. C, B, P. The Male 

2. Paonia mas major, Jlore in' 
eamato, Hort, Ayft. The greater 
Male Peony, with a flefh- coloured 

3. Paonia tommnnis vol faemina.' 
C. B. P. The Female Peony. 

4. Pjeonia fcembm, fiore pleno 
ruhro niajore. C. B, P: Female Peo^ 
ay, with a large double red Flow- 
er. . ^ . 

5. P^onia pleno Jlore ruhro, mi* 
nor, y. B, Peony with a lefier double 
red Flower. 

6. PiEONrA fore exalbido pleno , 
major, C. B. P. Greater Peony, with 
a double whitiQi Flower. 

7. PiEONiA Lmjitanica, fiore fim» 
plici odorato. Inft, R, H. Portugal 
Peony, with a fingle fweet-fcented 

8. Pjeonia mas, foliomm fegmen^ 
tis amplioribus, C. B. P. Male Peony, 
with Leaves having broader Seg- 

9. P^.ONlA tenuius laoiniata, fnh» 
tiu pubefcens,fiore purpureo, C. B, P. 
Peony with narrow jagged Leaves, 
which are downy underneath, and a 
purple Flower. 

10. P/EONiA aquilintefiHis. C. B, 
P. Peony with a Colnmbtne-leaf. 

^ 1 1 . P JSON I A fiore variegato, C, 
B. P. Peony with a ftrip^d Flow- 

12. Pa ON I A folio fnhtns incam, 
fiore albo velpaUido. C4 B. P. Peony 
with Leaves hoary underneath, and 
white or pale Flowers. 

The firft of thefe Sorts is chiefly 
propagated for the Roots, which arc 
a»M in Medicine $ for the Flowers, 
being fingle, do not afford near fo 
much Plcafure as thofe with double 
Flowers, nor will they abide near fo 
long in Beauty. 

The fecond Sort bathlarger finglf 
Flowers than the firft; but they are 
of a paler Colour : this is preferv*d 
by Perfons who are curious in coU 
letting the various Kinds of Flow* 
ers ; but is not fo much efteem*d at 
thofe with double Flowers. 

All the Sorts with double Flowen 
are prefervM in curious Gardens for 
the Beauty of their Flowers ; which, 
when intermix*d with other large- 
growing Plants in the Borders of 
large Gardens, will add to the Va- 
riety I and the Flowen arc very or^ 


JYaUJ.^t/ire- 4^^ 

P M 

wnental iq Baiios or Flower-pots, 
wJien placM in Rooms. 
Thejr are all extremely hardy, and 
win grow in almoft any Soil or Situa- 
tion, which renders them more vala- 
able i for they will thrive under the 
Shade of Trees; and in fuch Placet 
they will continue much longer in 

They are propagated by parting 
their Roots, which multiply vtxy 
6ft. The beftSeafon for tranfplant- 
ingthem is toward the Latter - end 
sAAugmfi^ or the Beginning of ^tp- 
ttmhtr ; for if they are remov'd after 
their Roots have (hot out new Fi- 
bres, they feldom flower llrohg the 
focceeding Summer. 

In parting of thefe Roots, yon 
Ihoold always ob&rve to prefer ve a 
Bad opon the Crown of eath Oft-fet, 
otheiwife tb^y wilt come to nothing i 
nor Jhould you divide the Roots too 
finall (efpecially if you have regard' 
to didr blowing the following Year); 
for when their OfF-fets are weak, 
they many times don*t flower the 
facceeding Summei^, or at lead pro- 
duce but one Fldwer upon each 
Root : but where you would mul- 
dply them in Quantities, you may 
divide them as yon pleafe, pro- 
vided there be a Bud to each OfF-fet,' 
Imt then diey (hould be planted in 
t Nurfcry-bcd, for a Seafon or two, 
to get S(rengthjbef ore they arc plac'd * 
in the Flower-garden. 
The fiogle Sorts may be propaga- 
ted from Seeds (which they general- 
ly prodace in large Quantifies, where* 
^ Flowers are permitted tp re- 
main); which fhonld be (bwn in the 
middle of Augufi upon a Bed of 
irdh light Earth, covering them 
over about half an Inch thick Wich 
the fame light Earth : the Spring 
foUowmg the Plants will come 
up : when they (hould be 
carefully cleared from Weeds, and 
i& very dfy Weather refreih*d with 

P A 

Water, which will gtMlly fortrard 
their Growth. la this Bed thef 
ihould remain two Years before they 
are tranfplanted, obferving in Aa- 
tamn,when theLcaves are aecay*d,to 
fpread fome frelh rich Earth over 
the Beds about an Inch thick, and 
con&antly to keep them clear from 

When you tranfplant them (which 
ihould be done in Stftember)^ yoa 
mud prepare fome Beds of frdh 
light Earth, which ihould be dug,and 
well dean'd from the Roots of alt 
noxious Weeds ; then plant the 
Roots therein iix Inches afunder, and 
about three Inches deep. In thele 
Beds they may remain nntil thcjr 
flower; after which they may be 
tranfplanied where you ceiign ther 
ihould grow. It is very probable 
there may be fome Varieties obtain*d 
from the Seeds of thefe Plants, as ia 
dommon in nioft other Flowers ; fo' 
that thofe which produce beauti&f 
Flowers may foe placM in the Flow- 
er-garden ; but fuch as continue iingle 
or ill-colour*d,may be planted inBeids 
to propagate for medicinal Ufe. 

The Portugal Peony may alfo be ' 
propagated either by Seeds, or part* 
ing of the Roots, in the fame nian- 
ner as the other Sorts ; but ihould 
have a lighter Soil, and a warmer 
Situation. The Flowers of this 
Kind are iingle ; but fmell very 
(Weet i which renders it worthy oft 
Place in every good Garden; 

The four Sorts lail - mentioned 
are not fo common in the EngHJb 
Gardens at prefent, as thofe before 
enumerated ; but they are equally 
hardy, and may be propagated in 
the ia me manner. 

PALIURUS, Chrift's Thorn. 
The CharmStrt are j 

// batb long Jharf Spines : . the 
Fltnuer cftnfifts of five Lean/a^ *whicb 
eiepanJ iH form of a Rofo : out of the 
Flower-cup ('which it diiiided into 


-P A 

fenftrmt^tgmtnts) rtfis ihi 'T^infal^ 
nubUbheccnes a Fruit Jhaf^d Uli a 
fomut,- bowing a Shell almofi ghhu- 
^mr^'wbidf is £*videdtnto tbrte Ctlls^ 
im eocb of lubicb it coutain'd ont 
wmmdifi Sud, 

We have bat one Sptciis of this 
Plant ; vis. 

Pauurus.D^/ Chrift*8 Thorn* 

Thifi Plant U ranged in the Genas 
of Rbamnus by Dr. Unn^us, who 
ilas alfo joined the Frangulm of 
fwrmfort^ the Alatemus 4ind Zixi- 
fbits, to the fame Genus ; bat if the 
Frait of thefe Planu are admitted at 
a chara£lerifiic Note in difHog^fli- 
ing the Gemra, thefe cannot be 
brought together. 

This is by many Peribns fappos*d 
CO be the Plant from which the 
Crown of Thorns, which was put 
spon the Head of oar Saviour, was 
composed ; the Trath of which it 
IbpporCed by many Travellers, of 
Credit, who affirm, that it is one of 
the moft common Shrubs in the 
Country of Judia ; and from die 
Piiablenefs of its Braoches, which 
may be ea£Iy wrought into any Fi« 
gorr, it may afford a Probability. 

This Shrub grows wild in mofi 
Parts of the Li^ma^ as alfo in Itafy, 
Spain, dwtngal, and the South of 
Franci^ efpecially near Momtpelier^ 
from whence their Seeds may be 
procured; for they dd not ripen in 
England. ThefeSecds fhould be fown 
as foon as poflible, after they arrive, 
in a Bed of light Earth, and the 
Pknts will come up the following 
Spring: but when the Seeds are. 
kept out of the Ground till Springy 
they will not come up till the next 
Year, and very often Biil : therefore 
it is much the bed way to fow rhem 
in the Autumn. Thefe Seedling- 
plants may be tranfplanted the fw 
lowing Seifon into a Norfcry to get 


Strength, before they are planted 
out ior good. ^ 

It may alio be propagated by lay*" 
ing down its tender Branches in the 
Spring of the Year ; which, if care- 
fully fupply'd with Water, in dry 
Weather^ will take Root in a Yearns 
time, and may then be taken off from 
the old Plants,and tranfplanted where 
they are to remain. 

The beft time for tranfplanting 
this Plant is in theAatumn, foon af- 
ter the Leaves decay, or the Begin* 
ningof ^r/7, juft before it begins 
to ihoot, obferving to lay fome 
Mulch upon the Ground abont their 
Roots to prevent them from dryings 
as alfo to rcfrefli them now-and- 
then with a little Water, until they 
have taken freih Root, after which 
they win require but itry little 
Care. They are very, hardy, and 
will grow to be ten or twelve Feet 
high, if planted in a dry Soil, and 
a warm Situation. There is littla 
Beauty In this Plant; but it is kept 
in Gardens as a Curiofity. 

PALM A, The Palm-tree. . 
The Cbaraaers are ; 

It batb afingU unbrancVd Stalk : 
ibi Liava are diffos^d in a circular 
Form on tbe Tof, wbicb v;ben tbe^ 
nmtbtTf or Jail off nvitb Age, nenv 
ones ahuay arife out oftbi sniddle of 
tbo rtmaining oni»i among 'wbicb^ 
certain Sbeatbs or Spikes break fortb^ 
opening from tbe Bottom to tbe Top, 
nfory full of Flowers, assdClufiert of 

The Species are ; 

1. Palm A major. CS.P. The 
greater Palm, or Date-tree. 

2. Palma minor. C. B, P, Tha 
Dwarf Palm, with prickly Pootfialks. 

3. Palma Brafilienjis prunifera^ 
folio plicatili feu fabelUformi, cau" 
dicefquameuo, Rsui Jiiji. The Pal- 


4. Palma 

P A 

4.PALIIA mliiffima nmt Jfinofa^ 
JnBu fnanfwrmi miwre rucem$fi 
Jftrfi. Skam. Cat. The Cabbage- 

$. Palma filignm fe^cm/is J^i^ 
u^s^frwBu frmnifirm Imito cifofi^ 
Sbtm. Cat, The oilj Palm-tree. 

6. Palma totajfinfifa m^9r^frm» 
thfnmfirmL Sham. Cat. ' The great 

7. Palma hmilis ioBytifira^ ra* 
£tt nfntiffinut frMifera^ fiiio fia* 
iei£f§rm, ffAncmk wx fftnoft, 
Imh. hi. The Dwarf Palm, with 
ibite any Prickles npon the Foot- 

8. Palma folih iwgiffimii pendu^ 
hy ahfpu mUa ftimncmlo $x camdice 
^Amnath. Boirb. Ind. TheDra- 

.Palma Japomca^ Jfinojis pedt- 


tults, fofypodli fiUff. Par. Bat. The 
Palm-tree from 7^*9 'with prickly 
Foot&dks, and a Leaf like Poly-, 

10, Palma cufas fruBus fejftlit 
farfdScitMr.C.B.P. The Palm- 
tree, whole Froit is called Faufel. 

11. Palma altijjima non J^nofa^ 
Jham tblamgo. Houjt. The tidleft 
ftiooth Palm-tree, with oblong Fmit, 
oiled Mountain Cabbage. 

12. Palma c^cdfera^ c9mpRcat9 
fiii$y froBu mnwre. H. L. The nut-'' 
bearii^Palm. with a folded 'Leaf» 
and fmaHer I^uit. 

1 3 . Pa lm a Malaiarica^ ' Jlofculit 
filtatisyfiuBu hngo JquamatD. Plum. 
Palm-tree of Mmaiar, with finall 
ilarry Flowers, and a long icaly^ 

14. Palma daOjltfiray fmBn 
aeerrm$. Plum. Date-bearing Falm- 
tree, with a (harp Fruit. 

1 5 . P A L M A montana Malabarteaf 
folh uuigno comfUcato acut§, Jlorg al- 
^ racemofiy fruQn rotundb. Plum. 
Mountain Paim - tree of Malahar, 
with a large (harp folded Leaf, white 

p A 

Flowers growing in Bonchei, and t 
roand Fruit. 

16. Palma frumfirm Jaf^utnju. 
H.L.B, Plum-bomng Palm of 

17. Palma daSyUftra Ig ^iui^' 
ftra. Plum. Date and wine-btar* 

ing Palm-tree. 

18. Palma doByUferm aculemtm 
mfamm. Plum. The leaft prxckljr 
date-bearing Palm-tree. ' 

IQ. Palma r0rr^«, cofiarumta^ 
ttritus atuliatis. Phm. Nut-bear- 
ing Palm-tree, with Spines growing' 
on the Stalks. 

20. Palma daayUfera htifilUi. 
Plum'. Broad' lea v'd date -bearing 
Palm -tree. 

21. Palma tudiea eoccsfera angu^ 
Ufa. C. S. P. The Cbcoanut^ 

The tenth Sort here mentioned it 
a Native of the Bajf-Indies : the 
Fruit of this Kind is dire^ed by the 
College of Phyfidans to be nfed in 
Medicine ; but it is rarely brought 
to England. The eleventh Sort wat 
diicoveredby the late Dr. ffai^««r» 
growing on the Hills near La Vera 
CruK : the Fruit of this Kind is about 
an Inch and an half in Length, and 
near two Inches in Circumference. 
The Flower-buds, which are pro* 
duced in the Centre of the Plants^ 
are by the Natives cut, and boiled 
to eat with their Meat, and are bjr 
them can*d the Mountain Cabbage. 

The twelfth Sort grows plenti- 
fully in feveral Parts of the SfautjH 
Weft'IndieSy from whence I have re« 
ceived the Fruit. Thefe Fruit are 
fhapM exa£Uy like the Cocoa-nut^ 
and are inclosM in a Shell in the 
fame manner as that; but thefe are 
not fo large as a Man*s Fift, where- 
as the Cocoa-nuts are larger than a 
Man^s Head. 

The thirteenth, fourteenth, (ix« 
teentb, (eventeenth, eighteenth, and 




■ineteenth Softi g^yvr in ,ftf cral 
Places in the Eaft and WtftAnfiui- 
for by the fcvend Writera they are 
abentioned to grovr i^ the^ Eaji;^ and 
I have receivM Fruit of all thefe^rt^ 
^m the IFift-hdies, ' ■• ' 

Thefe Plants may be eafily pro- 
daced from the Seeds (provided they . 
vefrelh) ; which fhpald be Town in 
Poti fiird with light rich Earth,i and 
plunged into an Hot-bed pf Tamiers . 
Bark ; which ihould be kept in a 
moderateTemper, and the Earth fre- . 
quently refrefh*d with .Water. 
' When the Plants are come up, they 
(hoald be each planted into a fepa- 
nte fmall Pot Bird with the fame 
light rich Earth, and plunged into 
an Hot-bed again, obferving to re- 
/re(h them with Water, as alfo to 
Ttl them have Air in proportion to . 
the Warmth of the Seafon, and the 
Bed in which they are placed. Du-- 
ring the Summer-time they ihould 
remain in the (ame Hot*bed ; but in 
Jugujt you fhould let them have a 
great Share of Air to harden them: 
againft the Approach of Winter j 
for if they are too much forcM, they 
will be fo tender as not to be pre- 
ftrv'd thro* the Winter without 
much' Difficulty, efpecially if you 
Kave not the Conveniency of a Bark 
fiove to keep them in. 

The Beginning of O^ober you 
muft remove the Plants into the 
St6ve» placing them where they mav. 
have a great Share of Heat (the4 
being fomewhat tenderer, while 
young, than after they haveacquir'd 
fome Strength)! tho* indeed they 
may be fometimes preferv'd alive in 
a cooler Situation^ yet their Progrefs. 
would be fo mudi retarded, as not 
to recover their Vigour the fucceed- 
ing Summer. Nor is it worth the 
Trouble of raifing thefe Plants from 
Seeds, where a Perfon has not the 
Conveniency of a good Stove to for- 


ward their Growth i for where this 
is wanting, they will not grow to 
any tolerable Size in eight or ten 

Whenever thefe Plants are re- 
moved (which ihould be done once a 
Year], you muil be very careful not 
' to cut or injure their large Roots, 
which is very hurtful to them ; but . 
you ihould clear oS all the fmall 
Fibres which are inclinable to 
Mouldinefs ; for if thefe are left on^ , 
they will in time decay, and hinder 
the frcHi Fibres from coming out^ 
which Will greatly retard cheGrowth 
of the Plants. 

. The Soil in whidi thefe Plants 
ihould be planted, muil be compofed 
in the following manner; v/«. A 
third Part of frefh light Earth taken 
frooL Pafture-groundsa third Part 
Sea-fand ; and the other Part rotten 
Dung,, or Tanners Bark: thefe 
ihould be carefully |nixed, and laid 
in an Heap three or four Months at 
leaft before it is ufed ; but ihould be 
often turn'd over» to prevent the 
Growth of Weeds^ and to.fweeten 
the Earth. 

You ihould alfo obferve to allow 
theia Pots proportionable to the 
Sizes of the Plants; but you mttH 
never let them be too larger which 
is of worfe Confeqnence than if 
they are too fmall. During the 
Summcr-feafon th^y ihould be fre- 
quently refreihed with Water i but 
you muft be careful not to give it in 
too great Quantities ; and in Win- 
ter they mn& be now-and-then re- 
ffeihed, efpecially if they are placed 
b a warm Stove; otherwife they 
will require very little Water at that 

Thefe Plants are moil of them 
very ilow Growers, even in their 
native Countries, notwithlbnding 
they arrive to a great Magnitude ; 
for it has been often obferv^ by few 


P A 

ipenl of the old IiihabS^tt of thofb 
GMiDtries. that the Fhuics of fomc of 
thefe Kinds have not advanoed two 
Feet in Height in twenty Years ; fo 
that when they are brought into 
thefe Coantries, it can't be expeded 
they Ihouki advance very fail» efpe- 
aahy where there is not doe Care 
taken to preferve them warm in 
Winter : bat however flow of 
Growth thefe Plants are in their oa^ 
tire Coantriesy yet they may be 
with as greatly for.waxded»by place- 
itg the Pots into an Hot-bed of Tan- 
ners Bark ; which (hoald be renew* 
td as often as is neceflary, and the 
Plants always preferred therein both 
Winter and Summer, obferving to 
fliift them into larger Pots as they 
advance in Growth^ as-alfoto fap- 
ply them with Water : m which 
Management I have had feveral of 
them come on very faft; for I ob- 
ierve the Roots of thefe Plants are 
very apt to root into the Bark» if 
their Pots remain a confiderabie 
time without ikifting, where they 
Beet with a gentle Warmth t aixi 
the Moiftare arifing from the Fer- 
mentation of the Bark doth preferve 
their Fibres plump and vigorous. 

The Date-pabn is of very ilow 
Growth with us ; bot js eailly po^ 
doced ^m Seeds taken out of the 
Froit^rwhich are brought into Eng* 
Und\n great Plenty ; but there are 
very few of thefe Plants of any com 
fiderable Siae at prefent in the Eng" 
ajo Gardens. 

The Dwarf Palm, with prickly 
Footftalks, as alfo that with few 
Prickles, are of humble Growth in 
their Dative Countriest feldom riliRg 
above four or live Feet hight but 
eicend their Roots very far, aod im 
creafe thereby in the fame manner as 
-the common Fern doth s fo that the 
•wafte Ground, which is notculti- 
Vtttedi is over- run with the Plants ; 


1> A 


the Lhivds of which the Inhabitant ^ 
cut, and fend into thefe Countries t^ 
niake Flag - brooms. Thefe grow 
in Spain i .Portugal ^ and Italy v and 
are much hardier than any of the 
other Sorts. ^ 

The Palmetto ' tree is brought 
from the Wifi^lndtts^ where it grows 
to be a very large Tree i the Leaves 
of which the Inhabitants thatch • 
their Houfes withal ; for which 
Piirpofe they are very ufeiul in thofe 
Countries. . The X>eavqiy . jbefore 
they, aj-e expanded, are cut, and 
brought into England to make Wo- 
mens plaited Hats, .which were, a 
few Years fince, greatly in Faihion i 
and the Berries of thed Trees were 
formerly much in Ufe in England 
for Buttons. Thefe were fome of 
the chief Commodities which the 
Bermuda-IJlandi di4^aiFord for Ma- 
i)ufa€lory ; but, at prefent, they are 
both difus*d in EngUmd* 

The Cabbage- tree is very com# 
mon in the Caribhei-J/lands^ where it 
grows to a prodigious Height : Li" 
gMf in his Hiftory ^. Barhud»s^ fays. 
There are fome of thefe Trees above 
two hundred Feet high, and that it; 
. \% commonly an hundred Years be- 
fore they arrive at Maturity enough 
to produce Fruit : the Leaves of 
this Tree envelope each other ; fo 
that thofe which are inclosed, being 
deprived of the Air, are Ijlanch'd, 
which is the Part the Inhabitants cut 
for Plait for Hats, i^c, a^d the Gm- 
flr«r, or yOupg Shoots, are pickled, 
and fent into England^ by the Name 
of Cabbage : but .whenever this 
Fart is cut out, the Trees are de- 
fboyed ; nor do they riie again fsom 
the old Roots ; fo tk^at ^here are very 
few .Trees l^(\ rem^iining near Plan- 
tations, except for^Orn^unent ; for 
their Stems bdi^. .exceeding flrait, 
and their Leaves being produced ve- 
ry regularly at Top« afford a mod 
S f f beautiful 


befttttifiil Frofpe6i ; for which Rca* fed aNative of the MaUktis^ and dia 

fon thePlanters generally fpare twoor dc(ait Iflandt of the Eap-lkdia : from 

three ofthem near their Habitatbns. whence it is foppofed it hath been 

The oily Palm grows in great tmn(poned to all the warm Parts of 

Plenty on.the Coaft of Guinij^ as al- Jhntrica ; for it is not found in any 

fe on Caf€ Vtrd Iflafli, where they of the inland PartSt nor any* whene 
grow as high as the Main-mall of a hx diilant from Settlements. It is 
Ship: but thefe Trees have been one of the moft ofefiU Trees to the 
tranfplanted to 7««r«fV« «od ParJtf • Inhabitants oS Jmiried^ who have 
Ai» in both whkh Places they thrive many of the common Necefiaries of 
very well. The Inhabitants make Life from it. The Bark of the Nut 
en Oa from the Pulp of the Fruit, ia made into Cordage, the Shell of 
and draw a Wine from the Body of the Nnt into Drinking-bowls i the 
the Trem» which inebriates ; and Kernel of the Nut affords them a 
with the Rind of thefe Trees they wholfome Food ; and the Milk 
make Mats to lie upon. This Sort contained in the Shell, a cooling Li- 
will eafily rife from Seeds } and^ if qoor. The Leaves of the Trees are 
kept warm, will grow much faAer ofcd for thatching their Hoofesyand 
than the Dfttepalm. are alfo wrought into Bafkets, and 

The Macaw-tree b very common moft other things which are maJe of 

in the Caribbii-Ifiatids^ where Ae Qfiora in J?«ri/#. 
Nigr^is pierce the tender Fruit, from. This Tree is propagated by plants 

whence flows out a pleafant Liquori ing of the Nuts, which in fix Week» 

ef which they are very fond; and the or two Months after planting will 

Body of the Tree swords a folid come up, provided they are irdh. 

Timber, with which they make Ja- and thoroughly ripe, which is what 

velins. Arrows^ Vc and is by feme few of them are^ which are broo^l 

fuppofed to be a fort of Ebony. toEmgUMdi for they always gathev 

This Tree grows very flow, and re* them before they are ripe, that they 

^uirvs tobe keptverywarminWinter. may keep during their Fafllagc : fo 

The Dragon-tree is very common that the beft Way to bring the Nuts 

in the MiMra\ and 'the Cmmafy to EngUmd for Planting, would be 

IJlanis^ where they grow to belarge to take fuck of them as are folly 

TVees ; from the BcKlies of which it ripe, and put them up in dry Sand 

is fuppofed the Dragon's Blood doth in a Tub, where the Vermin may 

flow. This Plant arifes very eafily not come to them i and thefe will 

6om theSeeds \ and, when it hasac- often fprout in their Paffiige, which 

quired ibme6ti«n2th,is prcttyhardy. will be an Advantage, bccaufe then 

TheT^i;^ Palm-tree is, at pre- they may be immediately planted in 

fent, very rare in EmgUmi^ being Pots of Earth, and plunged into the 

enly in two or three curious Gar* Bark-bed. 
dens : it will oOflM up liem Soedsi Thefe Plants in thehot Iflands of 

if they are ficfti : but tne ilams mnft AmtricA make confiderable ProgreA 
be k^ very warm, cfpedaUy while in their Growth \ in wluch Places 

young, otberwife they will not live there are fom^ Trees of ^^ great 
thro* our Whitt»« MaKnicude : but in Eurvft this Plaix 

The G)Coa- not is caldvated in is or much flower Growth, being 
mod of the inhabited Parts of the many Years before it advances to 
E^fi and Wtfi^him % but is fuppo- any confidenUc Height : but as tlie 


P A 

;^ttg Leaves of thefe fhnts are 
pcity large, they makiB a good Ap- 
pearuice axnongil other tender Exo- 
tic Plants, in one or two Years time. 
This Plant is prefer ved in fome cu- 
rioQs Gardens in SnglanJ^ for Va- 
riety, where it mnft be placed in the 
Birk-ftove, and managed as h^th 
been direAed for the other Kinds of 
Palms ; obferving, as often as they 
are tranfplanted, not to cut their 
AmngRoois ; which is generally 
Death to moft of the Palm kina. 
Thefe Plants muft not be too much 
toofined in their Roots ; for if they 
tre, they will make but little Pro- ' 
|refs : therefore, when tjie young 
Plants have filled the Pots with their 
Roots, they fliould be ihifted into 
Tubs of a Dodeiate Sisey that their 
Roots may have room to extend : 
but thefe Tubs mui! be kept con- 
ilantly jdunged into the Bark-bed^ 
otherwiife the Plants wiO not thrive. 
The Method of raifing thefe Plants 
from the Nats, when they are plant- 
ed before they have fproutcdy is ful- 
ly defcribed under the Article of raif- 
ing Exotic Seeds. 

AD the Sorts of Palm-trees are 
Male and Female, in different Trees ; 
md it hath been always fuppofed 
scceflary, that the two fiiould grow 
ftsar each other, that the Male Tree 
night impregnate the Female, in or- 
der to render the Female fruitful : 
iad where it has fo i»appeiied, that 
t Female Tree grew Angly, it has 
been aflerted, that the Inhabiunts 
bare carried Branches of the Male 
Flowers^ taken from Trees which 
grew at a Diftance, and have faften- 
id them to the Female Trees^ with- 
nt which they have infixed, that 
^FemaleTrees would not prod ace 
uy Fruit : but this is refuted by Pa-* 
^ Lahat^ who affirms that he 
knew a ibgle Tree of the-dace^bear'^ 
jag Palm, which grew by the Side 

V A ' 

of an antient Convent in Mariwho^ 
which producM a large Quantity of 
fair Fruit annually ; tho* thefe vTas 
not any other Palm-tree which grew 
within two Leagues of this : but he 
alfoaffirn^s, that the Stones of thefe 
Dates would not grow; for they had 
planted many of them for feveral 
Tears fuccciilively, without ever 
raiHng a fingle Plant ; and were af- 
terwards obliged to procure fome 
Dates from Barbary^ in order to 
propagate them : fo that he con- 
jedured, that alt the Female Trees 
may produce Fruit, which may ap« ' 
pear very fair to the Eye ; but, upon 
Examination, they will be found td 
want the Germ or Bud, which is tht 
£mbryo of the future Plant. 

This may account for the Fruit of 
the different Sorts of Palms not 
growing when they are brought to 
England \ for if they are gathered 
from a Tree growing iingly, having 
no Male Tree near it to impre^oatt 
the Ovary, it may be the true Caufb 
why they do not fucceed : therefore 
thofc Pcrfons who colledt thtfe Fruit 
to propagate them, ihould always 
obferve to take them from fuch Tree* 
as grow in the NeighboOrhood of 
the Mate. 

Ail the Sorts of Palms are worth/ 
of being preferved by thofe who art 
carious m maintaining Exotic Plants, 
fof the fmgular Strudore of their 
Parts, aiftd §eaaty of their Leaves^ 
which make an agreeable Variety 
amongft other curious Plants. 

PANCRATIUM, Sea-dafltbdil/ 

. The CharaSers are ; 

It hath a tvhulous Itly-flyaptiTUnOim 
ir^ confifiing cf om Leafy *which ti 
ieefly cut into fin farU : in fhw Mid* 
dli is a Cup, twhich is bell-Jhafid aild 
fix*c(/mertd, hailing a Chi<^e fM^ted^ 
ing from each Qomer \ and it joined 
thereto as a fart of the Cap^ being of 
fh femu Cfl^fr mt Bottom t but the 

$ff a 


P A 

Fart immiiiatily unitr the Apex it 
gnen : in the Centre rifes the Pointai, 
which extemds beyond the Cbi<ves: 
the Empatemcnt affer*ward becomes a 
roundijh Frnit, which ij triangular, 
and M*vided into three Parts^ con^ 
taining many flat or roundijh Seeds. 
The Species arc ; 

1. Pancratium Monffefulanum, 
multis S cilia alba parva, j. B, Sea- 
daffodil of Montpelier^ by many 
called, The leiTer-white Squill. 

2. Pancratium floribus rubris. 
Lob, Pan, Sea- daffodil with red 

3. Pancratium Jllyricum, flori- 
bus albis. Sea-daffodil of Illyricum^ 
commoDly called* The third Nar- 
ciffus of Mattbiolus. 

4. Pancratium Jmericanum^ flo- 
ribus ni'veis, odore balfami Peruvians. 
American Sca-daffodil, with fnowy 
Flowers, fmelling like the Balfam of 

5. Pancratium Amerieanum^fo* 
liis latiffimis, floribus ni*ueis snajori- 
bus, odore balfami Perun/iani. Asne* 
rican Sea - daffodil, with ^tty broad 
Leaves, and large fnowy Flowers, 
fmelling like the fialfam of Peru. 

6. Pancratium alterum 'vernnm 
Indicusss. J, B. Another Indiast Sea- 
daffodil of the Spring. 

7. Pancratium Zeylanicum, flore 
albo odorato. Sea-daffodil of Ceylon, 
with whrte fweet-fmelling Flowers. 

The firfl Sort is very common on 
the Seacoafts of the Mediterranean, 
where it grows in the Sands: it alfo 
crows plentifully on the Sea-(hore at 
Minorca', from whence I have re- 
ceived the Roots and Seeds : this Sort 
flowers in England the Beginning of 
Augufi ; and the green Leaves remain 
all the. Winter ; fo that the be(i cime 
to tranfplant the Roots is in the 
Spring, as foon as the Leaves de- 
cay : but this Sort ihould not be of- 
ten removed \ for that will prevent 
their Flowering. 

p A 

The fecond is a Variety of the 
firfl, differing only in the Colour or 
its Flower. 

The third Sort grows plentifully 
on the Sands near Naples, and in 
Sitily ', as alfo in feveral Iflands of 
the Archipelago, but particularly in 
Zant, where all the Ditches ar« 
ftored wi:hit. 

Thefe Plants are very hardy in rc- 
fpe£l to Cold, and may be propaga- 
ted by Offfets from the Roots ; for 
tho* the third Sort will produce ripe 
Seeds in England, yet, as the Seed- 
ling-plants are many Years before 
they come to flower, the y are fcldom 
propagated that way. Thefe Roots 
fhould be tranfplanted in July, after 
the Leaves and Flower-flems are de- 
cayed : they fliould be planted in aa 
Ead Border, where they will thrive 
vtry well, and continue longer in 
Flower, than when they are more 
expofed to the Sun : but in ever/ 
other refpefl they may be treated at 
hath been directed for the better Sort 
of Narciffus. 

The other four Sorts arc very 
tender, and will not live in England, 
unlefs they are preferved in the 
warmed Stoves. Thefe may be 
procured from the Countries of'^theijr 
natural Growth, from whence their 
Bulbs may be eafily brought, if they 
are taken out of the Ground when 
their Leaves begin to decay ; and 
after drving tjiem in the Shade, they 
fhould be put up in Nets or Bags, 
and bung up, that the Vermin may 
not come to them. 

The fourth Sort is very con^moR 
in Jamaica, and mofl of the Iflands 
of America, The fifth Sort wis 
brought from the Bahama - Iflands. 
The fixth is very common in the 
Spani/h tV eft -Indies : and the feventh 
is a Native of the Ifland of Ceylon. 

All thefe Plants increase by Off- 
fets from their Roots, and flower 


P A 

extiwncly weH, if they arc planted 
in Pots filled with light rich £arth, 
aod plunged into the Bark - bed in 
the Stove, and managed as hath 
heen dire£led for the tender Sorts of 

PANSIES. ^^z Viola Tricolor. 

PANICUM, Panic. 
The CbaraSiers arc ; 

// ii a Plant of tbt Millet^kind, 
fiffningfrom that, by tbi Di/p^- 
tiem 9f tbeFlvwers and Seeds \ njubicb, 
rftbis^ grtFW in a clofe tbick Sfiki. 
The Species arc ; 

t. Pan X CUM Germanicum^ five 
fnnicnla miaarefiava. C. B.P, Yellow 
Gfrar^nr Panic, with a fmaller Spike. 

2. Panicum Germanicum^ Jive 
fonicula minore alba. C. B.P. White 
German Panic,with a fmaller Spike. 

3. Panicvm Germanicum, fi«ue 
fanicnJa minore furfurea. C. B. P. 
Purple German Panic, with a fmall- 
er Spike. 

4. Panicvm Italicnrn, five pant- 
cnia majore. C. B. P. Italian Panic, 
with a larger Spike. 

5 . P A N J c u M Indicuniy /pica eibtufa 
carrnlea. C. B. P. Indian Panic, with 
a bine obtufe Spike. 

6. Panicum Ltdicum^ /pica longif- 
fona. C. B. P. Indian Panic, with a 
very long Spike. 

7. Panicum Americanum^ fy*^^ 
^tvfa brevi. Infi. R. H. AmericUn 
Panic, with a /hort obtufe Spike. 

8. Panicum Americanum^ Jfi^^ 
hmgiere acuta. Infi. R, H. American 
Panic, with a longer-pointed Spike. 

9. Panicum Indicum altijpmvm^ 
fpicif' fimplicibus moUibus^ infoliorum 
alis UngiJJimis fediculis infidentibus. 
Infi. R. H. The talleft Indian Panic, 
with a foft iingle Spike, which is 
produced on a long Footflalk from 
the Wing of the Leaf. 

The tnree firft Sorts arc only Va- 
jXieties, which differ in the Colour of 
die Grain. Thefc are fowed in fe- 


vcral Parti of Europe^ in the Fields, 
as Corn, for the Suftenance t>f the 
Inhabitants : but it is reckoned not 
to afford fo good Nourifliment aa 
Millet; however, it is frequently 
ufed in fome Parts of Germany^ to 
make Piiddens, Cakes, and Bread. 
This is not fo much efteemed as the 
Italian Sort ; but as it will ripea 
better in cold Countries than that, 
it is generally cnltivated where a 
better Sort ofGrain will not fucceed. J 

The Seeds of thefe Sorts may be 
fown in the Spring, at the fame time 
as Barley is fown, and may be ma- 
naged exadly in the fame Way : but 
this (hould not be fown too thick ; 
for thefe Seeds are very fmal?, and 
the Plants grow ftrongcr 5 therefore 
jeqaire more room. The German 
Sort doth not grow above three Feet 
high, nnlefs it is fown on vtry rich 
Land ; in which Cafe it will rife to 
be four Feet high ; bet the Leaves 
and Stems of this Corn are vtty 
large; fo require to Hand four or 
fivelnches apart ; otherwife they will 
grow up weak, and come to little. 
Thefe large -growing Corns (hould 
be fown in Drills at about eighteen 
Inches apart, fo that the Ground 
may be hoed between the Rows of 
Com, to keep them clear from 
Weeds ; and the fiirring of the 
Ground will greatly improve the 
Corn. In Juij the Corn will ripen, 
when it may be cut down and dried; 
and then ihould be houfed. 

The Italian Panic grows much 
IsU'ger than the German^ and pro« 
duces much larger Spikes ; fo thla 
(hould be allowed more room to 
grow, otherwife it will come to lit-> 
tie. This is alfo later before it ri« 
pens ; fo it is not very proper for 
cold Countries. 

The other Sorts are Natives of 
very warm Countries, where, they 
are ufed by the Inhabitatns ID ;nake 

S ff^ ^lead. 

P A 

Bretd. Thcfc grow very large, 
and require a good Summer, other- 
wife they will not ripen in this 
Country. The Seeds of tbefe Kinds 
ihould be Town the Latter«end of 
March, jor the Beginning of Jfri/, 
on a 9ed of light rich Earth/ in a 
warm Situation. They ihould be 
fown in Drills about three Feet 
afander ; and when the Plants come 
up, they muft be kept clear from 
Weeds, and thinned where they are 
too clofc. When the Plants are 
grown pretty ta]l» they ihould be 
fupported by Stake?, otherwifc the 
Wmds will break them down : and 
when the Corn begins to ripen, the 
Birds mud be kept from it, other- 
wife they will foon deftroy it. Thefe 
Sorts are preferved in fome curious 
Gardens for the f^ke of Variety s 
but they are not worth cultivating 
for lJ(e in England, 

PAPAVER, Poppy. 
The CbaraQeri are ; 

The Tlvwir, for the wiofl fart^ 
ewjiftt gf f§ur Learnt i^ nvhicb are 
placed orbicularly f an^ expand inform 
ef a Rhfe i out of fwhefe Thnjoer-cuf 
(*which cunfijli of itvo Leaves J rifes ' 
the Pointalf nuhicb aftemuard be* 
€omes the Fruit or PoJ^ nuhicb is oval 
or oblong, and adomid nvitb a little 
Head; under 'whieb, in feme Species, 
is open'd a Series of Holes quite round, 
into the Cavity of the Fruit, vohich is 
defended lengthnmfe nvith various 
Leaves or Plates ; to vfhich a great 
Number ofveryfmall Seeds adhere^ 
The Species are ; 

I. Pa PAVER hortenfe, femine aU 
hot fativum Diofcoriiis^ album Pli^ 
nio. C. B. p. Garden Poppy, with 
white Seeds. 

a. Pap AUK R hortenfe, femine ni* 
gro^fylvtftre Diofcoridts, nigrum Pli» 

9so, C B. p. Garden Poppy» with 

Ijl^^ Seeds. 

. ' |. Paf AVER J!ore flem^ rubrwa. 

V A 

ff.rt, Eyjl. Double red Poppy. 

4. Pa PAVER fore pleno, album. 
C, B, P. Double white Poppy. 

5. Pa PAVER flote pleno purpurea 
C. B, P. Double pHrpk Poppy. 

6. Papa V BR pleno fore, nigrum, 

C B, P. Black double - flowered ~ 

7. Papavir laciniatis forihus. 
C B. P. Poppy with jagged Flowers. 

8. pAPAVfiR fore p/eno laciniato 
eleganter ftriato. Hort, Ed, Double 
jagged Poppy, with beautiful Uriped 

9. Papaver Orient ale hirfutijjt^ 
mum, Jlor4 magno, Tourn. Cor, Very 
rough oriental Poppy, with a large 
Flower. ' 

10. Papaver erraticnm maJuSff 
posdc Diofcoridi^ Plinio, Theophraflo. 
C. B, P, Red Peppy, or Corn- 

11. Papaver err at i cum majus, 
foliis forum variegatis. H. R. Par, 
Great wild Poppy, whofe Flower- 
leaves are variegated. 

12. Papaver erraticum, fore plc' . 
no. C. B. P. Double wild Poppy, . 
commonly called,The Dwarf Poppy. 

1 3. Papaver errnticum, fore ple- 
no miniato. H. R, Par. Wild Poppy, 
with a double vermilion -coloured 

14. Papaver erraticum, fore plen^ 
igneo. H. R. Par. Wild Poppy, with., 
a double firy Flower. 

15. Papaevr erratia/m, fore ple- 
no igneo, marginibus candidis. H. L» 
Wild Poppy, with a double firy 
Flower, edged with White. 

16. Papaver erraticum,for4 ple^ 
no phapniceo, nnguibus a Ibis. H. R. 
Par. Wild Poppy, with a double 
purple Flower, and white Bottom. 

17. pAPi^VER erratic um minus. C 
i[. P, Leifer wild Poppy, or Dwarf 

18. Papaver Imteum percnne, la* 
ciniato folio, Qunbn - Britamricum, 


P A 

lUU iym. Wff/b^ or Yellow wild 

Tlic firftSort is cnltiTated in Gar* 
dent for siedidnal Ufe, and it by 
feme foppofed to be tke Plant from 
wlieace ihe O^tam is procured : of 
tkts there are federal Varieties, whick 
cbicfl jr differ in the Colour of their 
fkmtTti but they are no more than 
faninal Variations 2 and therefore 
not worth enumerating in this Phice. 

The black Poppy grows wild in 
divers Firts of Ewgland: the Seeds 
of thb Kind are ibid to feed Birds, 
bjp die Name of Mawfeed. Of this 
Sort there are a vaft Number of Va» 
rictiet ; feme of whkh prodnce ex- 
ceeding large dooble Flowers of 
various Coioars, nod beautifully 
ftrip^d: but theie are apt eo vary 
from Soed ; therefore you fliould 
nereriave the Seeds of any fuchasare 
not Tery double, and well-coloQr'd ; 
Aom which you may always cxped 
to have good Sorts prodaoe. 

The Oriental Poppy is an abiding 
Plant, which produces a large iingle 
Flower in May^ which makes a beau- 
tiful Appearance : this may be pro*> 
pagated from Seeds, or by parting 
their Roots : the beft time to tranfplan t 
^S^tmhziMicbaelmat : this mu ft have 
a light Soil, andawarmSitttatiott. 

The red Poppy, or Com-rofe, it 
never propagated in Gardens ; bnt 
is very common upon chalky dry 
Soils in almoft every Part of Etrg' 
hm4^ where the Plants come up 
amongft the Com, and are ytty 
troablefome : the Flowers of this 
Kind are brought into the Markets 
fer medicinal Ufe. There are many 
Varienes of this Plant with double 
Flowers, which are cuttivacfd in the 
Flower garden ; bnt efpsctally the 
Dwarf Sort, of which there are feme 
with very doable Flowers, which are 
beautifully edged with White : thefe 
arc by many Pf rfel^ few(& fer £dg^ 

P A 

iiigt to the large Borders of thePbt* 
fure-garden i dio* I think them, no- 
ways proper for this, fince their 
Flowers are but of a (hort Durations 
^nd the Plants, when their Seeds are 
perfeded, immediately decay; fe 
that they appear anfightly : befidet, 
where they grow very dofe, the 
Flowers are generally imall : Imt if 
they are fown in Patches npoo the 
Borders, and, when the Plants oome 
up, are thinned out, fo as to leive 
bet three or feor in each Piace» ibey, 
will flower very well» and look very 

AH the Softs of Poppies (hoold 
be fewtt in Autumn ; for, when they 
are fown in the Springs thePhmti 
have not time enoogh to px, Strength 
befere the hot Weather caofes theoi 
to run up to flower ; fo that their 
Flowers are never fo large or double 
as tfaofe fown in Autumn. Whea 
the Plants come up, they fliould be 
carefully cleared from Weeds, which 
u all the Culture they require, ex- 
cept to pttU them up where they are 
too thick; for they thrive better 
when they are fullered to remain 
where they were fewn, than if they . 
were tranfplanted : bnt yon fliould 
obferve to let them have room in 
proportion to the Growth of the 
riants. The Sort firft-mentioned 
grows very large and tall; therefore 
fliould be not defer than eight or 
ten Inches : but the black Sort may 
fland femev^ hat nearer; tho* tbis ap» 
pears handlbmcr when the Plants 
fland fingle; therefore it is the bet» 
ter way to fcatter the Seeds of thofe 
which have beautiful Flowers veiy 
thin over the Borders of tbe Flower* 
garden : and, when the Planta come 
up, they may be pulled ont where 
they are not well fitaated, leaving 
here-and there a Plant, as the other 
Flowers in tbe Borders will admit % 
where, at the Seafonof thfir Ffewer- 
Sff^ isg. 


IngV tliey'will make a pretty Variety 
aiDongft the Flowers : but they are 
of (hort Duration ; and having an ill 
Scent, they are lefs efteemed of late 
Years, fince the Plenty of other more 
valuable Flowers. 

TUM. VHe Glaucium. 


PAPAYA, Papawtrce. 
The Chora ffers arc; 

// hath afimpli Stalk : the Flow- 
en 0r# Male and Femali in different 
Plants: the MaU Flowen fivhich 
are barren J are tubuleus^ eonjifting of 
Me Leaf^ and expand in the Form of 
a Star : the Female Flowers confifi of 
feviral Leaves f which expand in form 
of a Refe^ out of nxiheje Flower- cup 
rifes the Pointal^ nvhich afterguard 
becomes a fifflty Fruity Jhap$d like a 
Cucumber or Melon^ containing many 
fmail oblong furrow d Seeds, 
The Species are ; 

1. Papaya fruQu melopeponls fffi- 
^ie.Plum. The Female Papaw tree, 
bearing a Fruit like the Melopepo. 

2. Papaya fruSu maximo, pepo- 
mis effigie. Plum. The Female Pa 
paw- tree, bearing a Fruit like the 

3. Papaya mas. Boerh hd, Thp 
Male Papaw-tree. 

Thefe Plants are very common in 
the Caribhee J/lands, where they arife 
from Seeds, and will produce Fruit 
ID eight or ten Months aftei. 

The Fruit is cut before it is ripe, 
And afterwards diced, and foak'd in 
Water until the milky Juice be out, 
mod then boiPd and eaten as Tur- 
neps, or baked as Apples ; and when 
ripe, it is eaten as Melons^ with Pep* 
per and Sugar, by the Inhabitants 
of thofe Countries. 

The Flowers of the Male Sort, as 
tlfp the Fruit of the Femalcj are pre- 


ferved, andfent over as a Sweetmeat 
to Europe, and are faid to be vtry 
cooling and cordial. 

In England thefe Plants are pre* 
ferved as Curiofities, by fuch as de- 
light in Exotics : they'are eafily raif^^ 
ed from the Seeds (which are gene* 
rally brought from the fTeft'Indies * 
in plenty every Year), which (hould 
be (own upon an Hot-bed in Fcbru* 
ary or March ; and when the Plants 
are come up, they, fhould be planted 
each in a feparate fmall Pot filPd 
with rich light Earth, and plunged 
into a moderate Hot-bed of Tanners 
Bark, obferving to water and ihad^ 
them until they have taken Root ; 
after which, you (hould let them 
have Air in proportion to th« 
Warmth of the Seafon, by raifing 
the GlaiTes with Bricks, bfc, and yoa 
mud often refrelh them with Water. 

V\ hen the Plants have grown fo 
as to fiJ the Pots with their Rootsj 
they muft be (haken out of chcm, 
prefer ving the Larth as in tire as pof- 
fible to their Roots, and placed in 
larger Fob j which (hould be filled 
with the fame light Earth, and plung* 
ed again into the Hot-bed ; obfervf 
ing to give them' Air and Water, as 
was before directed : and thus from 
time to time, as the Plants increafe 
their Stature, you (hould (hift them 
into larger Pots, which wiJl\caufe 
them to be wtTy (Irong ; and if you 
keep them in the Hot- bed all the 
Summer, and give them due Attend* 
ance, they will rife to fix or fevcn 
Feet high before Winter. 

In October they (hould be placed 
into a new Hot-bed in theBark-Aove 
with other tender Exotic Plants, 
where, duwng the Winter - feafon, 
they muft be carefully look*d after, 
to water and cleanfe them well fron| 
Vermin and Filth 1 and the Stove 
0iould be kept nearly to the An^-r 



Qt'sHeU; as mark'd on the Bota- tk^r Seeds ia Automo, ppoa a drf 

luc Thermometera, in which they gravelly or flony Soil ; where thej^ 

will cbrive, and reuin their bcauci- will thrive much better thao in a rich 

hi large Leaves all the Winter : and Soil, and are preferable for Ufe to 

the Male Sort will continue to pro- thofe which grow in a moid rich. 

dace frelh Flowers all tha( Seafon, Ground ; for though in fuch Placet 

provided yoa do not I^eep them too they will often be very rank, yet 

dry. The fecond Ye&r the Female they are not near fo ftrongly fceat- 

Soit will flower, and, if duly at- ed. -^ 

tended, will perfe^ the Fruit the PARIS, Herb Paris, Tnie*Iov^ 

Jbllowing Spring. or One-berry. 

Thefe Plants make a very beauti-r The O^ara&trs are i 

fill Appearance (when grow large) ^bt EmfaUmtnt pf the FUvugr i$ 

imongft other Exotics in the Stove, umpofedoffiur LemviSt which expand 

and deferve a Place in every CoUe* inform of a Crc/s ; the Flower alfo 

fiion of rare Plants. hath four Leaves^ which ffread of en 

PARIETARI A, Pellitory. in the fame maimer : in the Centre ^ 

The CharaQers are \ the Flotuer ii fitmated thefquare Fein^ 

hhatb an afttalous Flower^ who/e tal^ attended by eight Stamina, each 

Damtr-cap is divided into four Parts I being crowned <with an oblong treS 

which is fometinus bellfhafed^ and Summit : the Pointal afienward 

Qt other times Jhaped iike a Funnel, changes te a roundi/h Berry ^ having 

with four StSLXnimf or Threads) fur- four Cells, ivhich are filled nuitb 

rstndivg the Pointal ; which Pointal Seeds, 

htcomes, for the mofi part^ an oblong We know but one Species of this 

Sied, furrmsnded by the Flontier-cup : Genus; *uiz, 

!• which may be added ^ The Flowers Paki% foliis fuatemis, Lin. Ver^, 

Are p/oducid from the Wings of th* Herb Paris, True - love, or Ono- 

Uaves, berry. 

The Species are ; This Plant grows wild in moift 

1. Parietaria offieinarum^ (if fliady Woods, in divers Parts of 
Diifioridis. C B, P. Pellitory of the England, but efpecially in theNorth* 
Wall. ern Counties ; and it is with great 

2. Pakibtaria minor ^ ocymi fo- Difficulty preferred in Gardens. 
h> C. B. P. Lefier Pellitory, with The only Method to procure it is, 
a fiaiil-leaf. to take up the Plants from the Places 

The Erft of thefe Plants is fup- where they grow wild, prefer ving 

pofed to be the true Sort, which is good fialb of Earth to their Roots, 

tecomroended by Diofcorides for me- and plant them in a ihady moift 

dicinal Ufe : this is the mod com- Border, where they may remain un- 

mon in Germany, and fome other difturbed: in which Situation they 

Countries ; but it is vtry diflPerent will live fome Years ; but as it is a 

from that which grows wild in Eng' Plant of little Beauty, it is rarely 

land, which is more like the fecond preferved in Gardens. 

Sort, tho' I can't poatiydy affirm it PARKINSONIA. ^ 

to be the fame. The Char/i^ers are ; 

Thefe Plants grow wild upon old It hath a pofypetalous anomakni 
}ValIs and Buildings in great Plenty ; Flower, confifting of five dijffsmilar 

Vat n^y be ciiUivated by (owing Lea^ves, from ^hofe Cup arifes th$ 


P A 

F^/if^tl, njiihitb afiirnnari hcmrns a 
mugb JQtuted Pod ; each Knot or Joint 
tmtaining one kidnty-fiafi Seed, 

We know but one Sfedes of this 
Plant ; which ii, 

iisy uni coftif adnexis. Plum Noiv.Gen, 
Prickly Parkinfonia, Vitb very fmall 
Leaves, faftened to one middle Rib. 
This Plant was dtfooverM by Fa- 
ther Plumier in America ; who gave 
it this Name, in Honour to the 
Memory of Mr. John Parkirfoninho 
publilh'd an univerfal Hidory of 
Plants in Englijb^ in the Year 1640. 
It is very common in the Spanifi 
Wef ^Indies % bat of late Years it has 
been introduced into the EngUfi 
Settlements in America^ for the Beau- 
ty and Sweetnefs of its Flowers. 
This, in the Countries where it 
grows, naturally rifes to be a Tree 
of twenty Feet high, or more; and 
bears long ^(lender Bunches of yel- 
low Flowers, which hang down af« 
ter the fame manner as the Labur- 
num. Thefe Flowers have a moft 
agreeable fweet Scent, fo as to per- 
fume the Air to a confiderable Di- 
ftance round about the Trees ; for 
which Reafon the Inhabitants of the 
Weft-Indies plant them near their 
Habiutions. And though this 
Plant has not been introduced many 
Years into the Englifl> Settlements^ 
yet it is now become fo common in 
all theiflands, that but few Houfes 
are without fome of the Trees near 
it ; for it produces Flowen and 
Seeds in plenty, in about two Years, 
from Seed ; fo that it may foon be 
made common in all hot Countries : 
but iViEurope it reqiures a Stove, 
otherwife it will not live through 
the Winter. 

This Plant is propagated bySeeds, 
which fhould be fown in fmallTots 
filled with light frefh £arth early in 
the Spring ; and the Pots muft be 

P A 

plunged bto an Hot bedofTanaer* 
Bark, where, in about three Wedks 
or a Month's time, the Plants will 
comeup; when they (hoold be kepc 
clear from Weeds, and frequently 
refreihed with Water. In a ]ittl« 
time chefe Plants will be fit to ttanf* 
plant ; which (hoold be done very 
carefully, fo as not to injure their 
Roots. They muft be eadi planted 
into a feparate Halfpeny Pot filled 
with frefh light Earth, and then 
plunged into 3ieHot-bc^ again,- ob- 
ferving to ftir up the Tan; and if 
it hath loft its Heat, there (hould be 
fome frefh Tan added, to renew the 
Heat again : then thePlants (hould be 
fcreened from theHeat of theSun, un- 
til they have a newRoot ; after which 
time they (hould have fre(h Airadmitt** 
ed 16 than every Day,in proportion to 
the Warmth of the Seafon 1 and they 
mot be con(bintly fupplied with 
Wafer every other Day, in warm 
Weather. With this Management 
the Plants will grow fo ftft, as to fill 
the Pots with their Roots by the Be- 

S'nniag of July : at which time they 
ould be (bifced inp Pots a little 
larger than the former, and plunged 
again into the Bark-bed, provided 
the Phmts are not too tall to remain 
under the Frame, without Danger of 
being foorched by the Glafinrs »* in 
which Cafe they muft be plunged 
into the Bark-bed in the Stove, where 
they may have room to grow. But 
before the Weather becomes cold, 
it will be the beft way to inure the 
Plants by degrees to bear the open 
Air, that they may be hardenM be- 
fore Winter s for if they are kept 
too warm in Winter, the Plants wil( 
decay before the next Spring. The 
only Method by which I have fuc- 
ceeded in keeping thefe Plants thro^ 
theWinter, was by hardening them 
in Ju/y and Ju^ufi to bear the open 
Air i Seftemifr I placed them 

P A 

OB Sbdr^ in tk« dry Store, at the 
ptateft DiftanceinMn the Fire, fo 
that tbey were in a very temperate 
Warmtb t and there tbey retained 
their Leaves all the Winter, and 
continued in Health, when thoie 
which were placed in a warmer Si- 
tuation, aa alfo thofe in the Green- 
houfe, were intirely deihroyed. 
PARN ASS IA,Gra(s of Partuilirm. 
The C bar offers are ; 

b hatha rwfi'Jhafid Fltwir^ C9m^ 
ffiimgrffoQe Lio^^ts^ at tbt Bottom 
ifnvhich are fmaUfriugtd LeoKts^ of 
mrroenifif Cointr, which are floiod 
orkeularlj : out of the Flower • ctif 
rifts tho Pointal^ which etfter*ward 
ttms to a Mesnhranaeeotu Fruit /which 
if 9va/, baling hut out Qell^ which 
iifUidwith Seeds ^ that^ for the tm/t 
fort, adhere fo a fourfoid?]M£€ntk, 
The Spocies are ; 

I. ?AKKASSiikfuIufirisifvuIgeB' 
ris. Imft, R. H. Common Marlh- 
gnfs of Paruajfiu, 

z, FARiiMsih*vu/garis,JlorefIe' 
m. Common Grafs fA Farnajfu4% 
with a dooble Flower. 

The former of thefe Sorts growi 
wild in saoift Meadows, in ieveral 
Parts of Buglaudy bat particularly in 
the North ; but it doth not grow in 
the Neighbourhood of Loudou, any 
nearer than on the other Side of 
Watfordy in the low Meadows by, 
Zaffobtrry^ where it is in pretty 
peat Plenty. 

The other Sort is an accidental 
Variety of the former; which haa 
been difcovered wijd, and tranfj^ans- 
ed into Gardens. This is bat rarely 
to be foaod, beiog in very few Gar- 
dens at prefent. 

Thefe Plants may be taken np 
from the natural Places of their 
Growth, with Balls of Earth to their 
Roots, and planted into Pots filled 
witb pretty ftrong frefh nndang^d 
£atth, and placed in a (hady Sitaa- 

P A 

tion, where, if they are conflan^ 
watered, they will thrive very well» 
and flower every Summer : but if 
the Plants are jplanted in the fuU 
Ground, it flftouid be in a very moift 
ihady Bolder, otherwife they will 
not live ; and thefe flioald be as du- 
ly watered, as thofe in the Pots in 
dry Weather, to make them prodnoe 
ftrong Flowers. 

They may be propagated by part'* 
ing of their |(oou, which Oiould be 
done in March^ before they put out 
new Leaves : but the Roots fliould 
not be divided too (mall ; for that 
will prevent their flowering the fol- 
lowing Summer : thefe Roots fliould 
always be planted in pretty ftrong 
frefh Earth ; for they will not thrive 
in a light rich Soil. In the Spring 
they muft be conftandy watered, if 
tlie Seafon fliould prove dry, other* 
wife they will not flower j nor fliouU 
they be parted oftener than every 
third Year, to have them ftrong. > 
Thefe Planu flower in Julj^ and 
their Seeds art ripe the latter End of 

It is caDed Paraafus, from Mount 
Pame{ffuSf On which it was fappofed 
to grow ; and from the Cattle fecd« 
ing on it, i( ¥i^aa called a Grafi» 
though the Plant has no Refem bianco 
to anv of the Grafs-kind ; bat is 
more like to the Ranunculus in Flow- 
er } and the Leaves are pretty broad* 
oblong, and fmooth. 



l*he CbaraSers are ; 
It bath em apetalosie Flower^ co^* 
fifiing of fe*vfral Chides, tvbich rift 
from the FkwtT'Cuft which itjhafei 
like the Pelvis, and cut into fi^e Parts^ 
for the moft part like a Crown : the 
Point al after*ward becomes a rovnd- 
Seed, ivrapt up in a Jive conserodHuJk^ 
which luas Ifeforo tboFlower-cup^ 
The Speeies are i 

I. Paro* 

P A 

1. Paronychia Hifpaniea, Cluf, 
Hijp, Spanijb Mountain Knot grafs. 

Ba. Iftft. R, H. Upright Mountaia 
Knot- grafs of Nor tonne. 

3. Paronychia Hifpaniea fufina 
AlJinifQliaf capitulis minus compacts, 
Infi. R. H. Low Spanijh Moun- 
tain Knot-grafs, with a Chickweed- 
leafy and the Heads lefs €ompa6l. 

4. Paronychia Hifpaniea fru- 
ticofa, myrti folio, Inft, R. fl. Shrub- 
by Spamfh Mountain Knot-grafs, . 
with a Myrtle-leaf. 

5. Paronychia hufitanica^ poly- 
goni folio ^ capitulis ecbinatss. Inft.R. 
//. Portugal Mounuin Knot-grafs, 
with prickly Heads. / 

6. Paronychia Orient a //; bumi- 
Jiija, firpylli folio, Tourn, Cor. 
Dwarf Eallem Mountain Knot-grafs, 
with a Mother-of-thyme-leaf. 

Th« five Sorts firft - mentioned 
grow wild in Spain, Portugal^ and 
the South of France, where they ge- 
nerally are found near the Sea, 09 
the Sides of Banks; but the fixth 
Sort was discovered by Dr. Toume- 
fort in the Levant. They are all 
(except the fecond and fourth Sorti) 
low Plants, which trail on the 
Ground, in the fame manner as our 
common Knot-grafs ; but continue 
feveral Years. 

Thefe Phints are preferved by 
thofe who are curious in Botany, for 
the fake of Variety ; but are feldom 
admitted into other Gardens; though 
the firft Sort may have room in eve- 
ry good Garden, for the fine Ap- 
pearance it makes in Aatumn« when 
the filvery fcaly Heads, which are 
produced at every Joint of the 
Branches, make a goodly Shew. 

They may all be propagated by 
{owing their Seeds on a Bed of light 
frelh Earth, in an open Sitoacion, 
about the Middle or Latter-end of 


Marrh; and when the Plants come 
up, they fhould be carefully weed- 
ed ; and if the Seafon fhould prove 
dry, they muft be now-and-then wa- 
tered. When the Plants are large 
enough to tranfplant, they fhould 
be carefully taken up, and fome of 
them planted in Pots, and the others 
on a warm Border, where they may 
be (heltered in Winter ; otherwise 
they Will not live in this Country. 
Thofe which are planted in Pots^ 
fhould be placed under an Hot-bed- 
frame, where they may be fcreened 
from hard Frofl ; but fhould have 
as much free Air as poffible in mild 
Weather. With this Management 
the Plants may be preferved many 
Years, and will Hower every Seafona 
but they rarely produce any Seeds ia 
this Country. 

PARSLEY. Fiile Apium. 

JPAKSNEP. r/Vif Paftinaca. 

PARtHENlUM,Baftaxd Fever- 

The CharaSiers are ; 

// bath a radiated difcous Plover ^ 
confifling offen)eral Florets, nvbicb oc* 
cupy the Di/k, but are barren : the 
Half florets, ivbicb arefhapsd like an 
Heart, are fucceededby black Seeds ^ 
«wbicb are naked, baving no Deutm 
adhering to them : to <wbich may be 
added. The Flotjuer-cup is fimple, an4 
cut intofi*ve Parts in the Bottom. 
The Species are ; 

1. Parthenium foliis compofste 
multifidis. Un, Hort, Cliff. BafUrd 
Feverfew, with a Mugwort-leaf. 

2. Parthxnium foliit Gratis 
crenatis. Un. Hort. Cliff. Baftard 
Feverfew, with an Elecampane- 

3. ? AUTVlEViiVM fo/iis lanceo/atii 
ferratis. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Shrub- 
by Baftard Feverfew, with fpcar- 
fhap'd Leaves, by fome falfly call'd^ 
Tli Jcfuits Bark-grec. 


P A 

The firft Sort grows wild in great 
Plenty io the Ifland o^^amaua^ and 
in fome other of the Englijb Settle- 
nenti in the Weft -Indies^ where it 
u called wild Wormwood, and ii 
ofed by the Inhabitants as a vulne* 
rary Herb. 

The fecond Sort grows plentiful- 
ly in feveral Parts of the, Zfatdjb 
W^-hdits i from whence the Seeds 
have been brought to Enrgfe. 

The firft is an annual Plant»which 
may be propagated by fowing the 
Seeds on an Hot-bed early in the 
Spring; and when the Plants are 
come np, they fhould be tranfplant- 
cd oa another Hot-bed, at about 
iivecHr fix Inches Diffamce, obferv- 
mg to waiter and fhade them until 
they have taken new Root ; after 
which dme they mud have a pretty 
large Share of frefli Air in warm 
Weather, by raifing of the Glaflea 
of the Hot*bed everyDay;and they 
muft be duly watered every other 
Pay at leaft. When the Plants have 
grown fo as to meet each other, 
they (hoold be carefully taken up, 
prderving a Ball of Earth to their 
Roots ; and each planted into a (c- 
parate Pot filled with light rich 
Earth ;" and if they are plunged into 
a moderate Hotbed^ it will greatly 
ficilitate their taking frefh Root ; 
bot where this Conveniency is want- 
ing, the Plants fhould be removed 
to a warm*(heltered Situation, where 
they mud be (haded from the Sun 
until they have taken new Root i 
after which time they may be expo- 
fed, with other tender annual Plants, 
in a warm Situation ; where they 
will flower in 7«/y, and their Seeds 
will ripen in Stptembtr, Bat if the 
Seafon (hould prove cold and wet, it 
will be proper to have a Plant or 
two in Shelter, either in the Stove.or 
under tall Frames, in order to have 
good Seeds, if thofe Plants which 

P A 

are expofed ihould fail, whereb/tJbf 
Species may be preferved. 

The fecond Sort is a perennial 

Plant,which dies to the Ground ever: 

ry Autumn, and ihogts up again the 

following Spring. The Seeds of 

this Sort were fent me by my good 

Friend Dr. Tbrnnas D^Ufirom &«M« 

CaroIiMp where the Plants gro«^ 

wild. This noay be propagated by 

parting of the Roots in Autonm,an4 

may be plam^ in the full Ground, 

where it will abide the Cold of our 

ordinary Winters very well. This 

Sort flowers in Ju/j, bat feldom 

produces good Seeds in England. 

The third Sort has been manf 
Years preferved in the Ewgif/b Gar- 
dens. This was brought from Jme*^ 
riea for the true Jefuits Bark- tree ^ 
but it hath been iioce difcovened» 
that the Tree from whence that 
Bark is taken, b of a diiFcrefit Get 
nns from this ; and, by the S«d vef- 
fels, appears to be near akin to the 


. This Plant was generally preferv- 
ed in Pots, and houfed in the Win» 
ter ; but, of late Year5^ it hath been 
planted in the open Air, where it 
thrives, and endures the Cold very 
well, provided it is planted in a 
(heltered Situation. It may be pro- 
pagated by Cuttings, which fhould 
be planted in Marcb^ upon a Border 
of loamy Earth ; and if the Spring 
fliould prove dry, they muft be ofcea 
watered, oiherwife the Cuttings wii^ 
fail : but if they are properly m«r 
nag'd, they will be well rooted by 
theAutumn, and may then be tranf- 
planted. It may alfo be propagated 
by Layers, which will be well rooted 
in one Year ; or from Suckers, 
which are often produced in plenty 
from the Roots of the old Plams : 
but as there is little Beauty in the 
Plant, and as the Shoots are very 
irregular, and thinly difpofedi few 

Per (6ns 

P A 

F«rftns care topreierve the naiiti» 
tukfs it be for the fake of Varieqr. 

PASSE RINA» Sptrroir^wort. 

This Title WIS aqppiied tiy Trmgw* 
to a Plant of another Genos s but 
Dr. Litmaus has oonftitated a new 
tScnus bjr this Name. 

The CktraSin are i 
. Ti^ Flower bmik m MmfUdmint^ 
mad cdnfifii rfme L$af^ nukich is /e- 
imUus, and cut iniofiwr Fartrat the 
Brim: imthCeniPf of tht Fiowtr 
is fiituaod fh§ FMiai, mittmdtd fy 
^iigbi Sianuna : thi Foimialaftemuttrd 
iimtges to an o^fal Frmitf hawngone 
Citt^ in nnbicb to kdged one oval- 

The Sfoeiis are ; 

I. P*tsBaiiiA foliis iinemribnt. 
tin. &rt. Giff. Sparrow • wort 
with very narrow Leaves. 

1. PA9SlRiHA\/i/ffV laneioiatis, 
tin. Hori. Ciijf. Sparrow -wort, 
with fpear-lhap*d Leaves. 

The firfi Sort hath been mention- 
cd bv ibme Authors under the Title 
^fnpnelta tomento/n^ &c. and the 
6coBd Sort under the Tide of Ericn 
Jfrieann^ &c. and both of them 
have had feveral Names applied to 
them ; which were io confufed» as 
sender it very difficult to know the 
Plants they mentioiied« 

Theie Plants grow to the Height 
tX four 09 five Feet, in EngUnd^ and 
«inay be trained up veiy regular 1 and 
M they are ever green* there nay 
be a Pbat or two of each Sort at- 
kiwed to have a Piece in the Greed- 
bonfe, where a CoUedtion of rare 
.Plants is maintained. 

Thefe ffe both propagated by 
Cntt8ig»» whkh ffliould be planted 
m the Sprbg, open a moderate Hot- 
bed ; where, ir they are duly wa» 
teredi and fcreened from. the Son, 
iIkj wiUttakeRoot m about ihree 

P A 

Months, lb as to be fit to remove t 
when they (hould be each tranfplant- 
ed into a fmall Pot filled with frdh 
light Earth, and placed in a fliady 
Situatfon until they have taken 
Root ; after which time, they may 
be placed in a fheltered Situation^ 
with other hardy Exotic Plants, till 
OSoher ; when they muft be remo- 
ved into the Green-houfe for the 
Winterfeafon, and may be treated 
in the fame manner as hath been di* 
. re^ed for Hirmanmn^j. 


PASTIN ACA, Parfnep. 
The CbaraSert are; 

It ha FUaU wtb rofe and nmhot* 
iated Fkwert^ tonfifting of many Ft* 
tais or Loavti placed orHcularfy^ and 
rejling on the Emfalemenf % niobicb 
fnmj to a Fmit^ eompofedoffvao SeeJs^ 
nvbicb are owil^ large^ tbin, bordtr*d, 
andgeneralfy cafting offtbeir Conner : 
totbefe Marks muft be added ^ Tbat the 
Loaves are tvingedand large. 
The Species are ; 

1. Pastinaca fatinja latifeBa^ 
C. B, F, Garden Parfnep. 

2. Fastiv AC K /jfiveftris /atifolia. 
C. B. F. Wild Parfnep. 

3. Fastih ACA fyhefiris alti^ma. 
Tonm, The talleft wild Parfnep, or 
Uercnles'9 All-heal. 

The fecond Sort grows wild in di- 
ven Parts of England^ upon theSides 
of dry Banksi and is by foroe affirm* 
ed to be no-ways different firom this 
firft Sort, but by Cultivation : 
which is a very great Miftalce; for 
I have fown the Seedk of botM Sorts 
in the fame Bed for feverat Years ; 
but could not find, that either Soft 
alter'd in the leaft,the fecond flili re- 
taining the fame Smoothnefs. in the 
Leaf, and the fame pale Colour, and 
Largenefs of Root i as did the 
firft its ttfual Roughnefs, dark-green 
Colour, and flender Roots : nor do 


P A 

I Mioie other Sort will alter, if 
ikj woe cultivated ever fo losg. 

TKe Root and Scedt of thcfccond 
Son k Ibnetimes ofcd in Medidnei 
kot it is feldom cultivated in Gar* 
dmi, the Marketi being fiippUcd 
horn the Fiekb : yet the DrouiAa 
cwuBooly fell the Seeds of the Gar- 
den-kind for it i which they vulj 
patchatr nc aa'eafy Price, when it it 
MO old to grow. 

The firft Soit it coltivated in 
Kitchen gardens i theRoou of which 
are large, fweet, and accounted very 
nooriflring. They are propagated 
by Sccdsy which fliould be lown in 
tthrmmtyat Mmreb^ in a rich melbw 
Soil I Tihirh mnft be well dag, that 
IOCS aaay ran downward ; the 
ExocUeocy being the Length 
andMgnefs c^tbeRoots.Thefemay be 
lbwnalone,or withCarrots,as 'm prac- 
tiied by the Kitchen- gardeners near 
Lmdtn I fome of whom alfo mix 
Leeks, Onions, aod Lettuce, with 
ihetr Parfneps : bat this I think very 
wrong ; for it is not poffible, that 
h many different Sorts can thrive 
well together, except they are al- 
lowed a conliderable Difiance ; and 
iffo, it will be equally the fame to 
ibw the different Sons ieparate. 
However, Carrots and Parfnepe 
may be fown very well, efpccialJy 
wbcre the Carrots are dciigned to 
he drawn oflF very young i becaufe 
^Parfneps generally fpread moft 
loward the Latter-end of Summer, 
which is after the Carrots are gone i 
fa that there may be a double Crop 
upon the fame Ground. 

When the Plants are oome up, 
you fhoflld hoe cbem out, leaving 
them about ten Inches or a Foot a- 
fonder ; obierving at the fame time 
to cot up all the Weeds, which, if 
permitted to grow, woukl foon over* 
bear the Plants, arid choak them : 
this muft be rqxiated three or four 
liaes in the Spang, according as ^\i 

P A 

find the Weeds grow ;'bttt in tho 
latter Part of Summer, when the 
Planu are (b flrong as to cover tho 
Ground, they will prevent tho 
Growth of Weeds i fo that after 
that Seafon they will require no far- 
ther Gate. 

When the Leaves begin todecay^ 
the Roots may be dug up for Ufe t 
before which time they are feldom 
wellufted : nor are they good for 
much late in the Spring, after they 
are fhot out again : fo that tbofe 
who would preferve thefe Roots for 
Spring- ufe, (hould dig them up in 
the Beginning of Fthruar^ and bu* 
ry them in Sand, in a dry Place, 
where they will remain good until 
the middle oi AptU^ or later. 

If you intend to fave the Seeds oC 
this Plant, you (hould make choice 
of fome of the bngefU«fbaiteft, and 
Urged Roou i which fhould be 
planted about two Feet afuoder,in 
fome Place where they may be dor 
fended from the Uroog Sooth and 
Well Winds i for the Stems of thefe 
Plants commonly grow to a great 
Height, and are very fubjeft to be 
broken by ftrong Winds, if expofed 
thereto : they Siould be confbntly 
kept clear from Weeds i and if the 
Seafon fhould prove very dry, yon 
muft give them fome Water twice a 
Week, which wfll caufe them to pror 
duce a greater Quantity of Seeds i 
which will be much ftronger than iff 
they were wholly negle^ed. To- 
wand the Latter-end of Auguft^ or 
-the Beginning of Sifttmhtt^ tho 
Seeds will be ripe ; at which time 
you fhould carefmlly cot off tho 
Heads, and fpread them upon n 
coarfe Cloth for two or three Days^ 
to dry J after which, the Seeda fhould 
be beaten off, and pat up for Ufe t 
but you moft never truft to thefe 
Seeds after they are a Year old ; for 
they will feldom grow beyond thai 
Age. Tho 


The third Sort ispreferv'd in Bo^ 
tsntc Gardens, amongft Tome other 
Sorts of thefe Plants, for Variety ; 
bat is feldom propagated for Ufe. 
*rhis is by many fuppofed to be the 
the Panacis Sjriacum of the Antients, 
from whence the Opppamax is taken» 
which is fuppofed to be the concrete 
Juice of thtis Plant ; as is the JJa 
fatiia fuppofed to be the concrete 
Juice of one Species of this Genus. 

All thefe Sorts may be cultivated 
byliPKring their Seeds early in the 
Spring, or in Autumn, foon after 
they are ripe ; and ihould be ma- 
naged as the Garden - kind, with 
this DiiFerence ; ntm, the Plants 
iKoald not ftand nearer than two 
Feet and an half Diftance ; but then 
they need not be reduced to this 
until the fuoceeding Spring. Thefe 
JRoots are perennial, and may be re- 
moved with Safety at any time after 
their Leaves are decayed : they fel- 
dom produce Seeds until the third 
Year after they are fown. 

PAVIA, The Scarlet Flowering 
Horfe-cheftnur, n)ulgo. 
The Cbara&tn are ; 

^ht Lea*oes are like ibo/e of ihg 
Jiarfi'cbeftnui : the Flonuer is af an 
mnomalous Figure^ and cmfifis of five 
LeaiveSf w^jbicb arefo difiofid as t§ 
refembli a Lip-ftmutr : tbe ttuo upper* 
woft are united t and form a fort of 
Helmet : tbe tbree uudermoft appear 
fomcvjbat like a Moutb gaping : tbefe 
Flowers are difpofed into a Spike^ and 
are of a beautiful fear let Colour : tbe 
Ovary y nubicb rifei in tbe Centre' of 
tbe Flower-cupp afterward becomes an 
oblong pyramidal Fruit, divided into 
Jibree Cells^ in eacb ofwbicb is lodged 
one globular Seed. 

There is but one Species of this 
Tree i wk. 

Pavia. Boerb. Ind. The Scar* 
let Flowering Horfe-cheftnut* vul- 

P A 

This Tree is a Native of Anteri" 
ea, from whence the Seeds wer^ 
iirft brought into Europe : it grows 
in great Plenty in the Woods of 
Soutb-CarolinUf but is very hardy^ 
enduring the fcvereft Cold of our 
Climate in the open Air. 

It may be propagated by fowing 
the Seeds in the Spring, upon a warm 
Border of light iandy Earth ; and 
when the Plants come up, they 
ihould be carefully cleared from 
Weeds : but they mull not be tranf- 
planted until the Year following, 
fiutas thefeSeedling-plants are tender 
while they are young, fo they (hould 
be covered with Mats the next Win- 
ter; and this (hould be. carefully 
performed in Autumn, when the 
early Frofts begin : for as the Top 
of thefe young Plants will be very 
tender, fo a fmall Froft will pinch 
them ; and when theTops are kilPd^ 
they generally decay to the Ground} 
and when this happens, they feldom 
make good Plants after . Therefore 
this ihould be conftantly obferv'd 
for two Years, or three at moft, by 
which time the Plants will have got- 
ten Strength enough to reiid the 
Froft ; when they (hould be removed 
juft before they begin to (hoot, and 
placed either in a Nurfery to be 
trained up, or elfe where they are to 
remain ; obferving, if the Seafon be 
dry, to water them until they have 
taken Root, as alfo to lay fome 
Mulch upon the Surface of the 
Ground, to prevent the Sun and 
Wind from drying it too fail : and 
as the Plants advance, the lateral 
Branches ihould be pruned off, ia 
order to reduce them to regular 

You muft alfo obferve to dig the 
Ground about their Roots every 
Spring, that they may be loofe, to 
admit the Fibres of the Rcots, 
which, while young, arc too tender 


P E 

to penetftte Ae Ground^ if it be ve- 

With tUs Maoagement the Plants 
wiM gready advance, and in four or 
ii^e Years will produce Flowers and 
Fraits, which in warm Seafons are 
pe ifcd c d enough to growi fo that 
the Pknu may be maltiplied thete- 
fiom very fail. 

This Tree may alTo be propaga- 
ted by budding or inarching it upon 
Sht common Horfe-cheftnut ; which 
is dks common Method praflifed by 
the Nuriery-men : but the Trees 
thus railed will never arrive co near 
tbeSizeof thofe which are produ- 
ced from Seeds ; nor will they grow 
■car fo fa£L 

Sach of thefe Trees as are railed 
fiom Seeds, if planted in a good 
SoQ, win grow to twenty - Ave or 
thirty Feet hifth, and produce great 
Numbers of beautiful red Flowers, 
which comzaonly appear the Begi ri- 
sing of ytngf ; at which Seafon it 
aakes a beautiful Appearance a- 
moagft other hardy Trees. 

PEACH. ^iVif Periica. 

PEAR. FIJfFyriu. 

PEAS. Fiji Pifum. 


PEDICULARIS, Rattle, Cocks- 
comb, or LonTewort. 

There are four different Kinds of 
diis Plant, which grow wild in Paf- 
tnrcs in feveral Parts of EnglanJ^und 
ia feme low Meadows are very 
tnmUelometo the Paftures ; efpeci- 
aO)r one Sort with yellow Flowers, 
which rifet to be a Foot high, or 
attre, and ia.ofien in fuch Plenty, as 
to he the moft predominant Plant : 
but this is very bad Food for Cattle} 
and when itis mowed with the Grafs 
forHay, renders it of Itttle Value. 
The Seeds of this Plant are general- 
ly ripe by the time the Grafs is mow- 
f d : fo that whenever Perfons take 

Vol. III. 

P E 

Grafs-feed for fowing, they (honld bt 
very careful, that none of this Seed 
is mixed with it. As tbefe Plants 
are never cnltivatedf I (hall not 
trouble the Reader with their feve- 
ral Varieties. 

The CbaraBirs are ; 
// bath a pafHioHaciout (tr Pta* 
hhvm) FUwir^ out of^lyfi Emfaie' 
ment ri/es the Potntml^ which after^ 
tvard hecomis a plain hieapfuiar and 
bivalve Pod^ indented $n each Sidi 
like a SanjCy and filled vnitb plain kid* 
ney Jhaped Seeds, 

We know but one Spedes of this 
Plant; *viz. 

Felecivvs vulgaris, Injf. R, H. 
Common Pelecinus. 

This Plant is preferv'd in Botam'c 
Gardens, for the iake of Variety : 
it is an annual Plant ; fo the Seeds 
fhould be fovvn early in Jprtl, on a 
Bed of freih light Earth, in Drilb 
about eighteen Inches afunder : and 
when the Plants are come up, they 
ibould be carefully cleared from 
Weeds ; and where they are too 
dofe, they fhould be thinn'd, leav- 
ing them fix or eight Inches DiAancc 
in the Rows, and obferve always to 
keep them clear from Weeds, which 
is all theCulcure they require. Thefc 
Plants fpread on the Ground, and 
from the Wings of the upper Leaves 
the Flowers are produced on flender 
FootlUlks, which are fmall, and of 
adinyred Colour ; thefe are fuc- 
ceeded by Pods, which axe flat, and 
indented on both Sides, refembling 
the Saw of the Saw-fiHi. 

WALL. Tfif Parietaria. 


PENY-ROYAL. Fid^ Pulegi- 
PEONY. Fide Paofiia. 
Ttt The 


1» E 

The Cbaraffirs ai*c ; 
^be Flfwer confifii of one Leaf 
nvhicb is hiiljhaped^ trpanded at the 
7c^, and cut imo fcveral Segments : of 
tbrfe FU'wersfimt are Mah^ andfome 
are Female^ as in tbe Cucumbers and 
Melons : tbe Female Flowers grew 
ujon tbe Top of tbe Embryo, *wbicb 
fiJtemiutrdbeceiHes an oblong or round 
flejhy Fruity bannngfometrmes an bard^ 
rugged^ or uneven Rind, *witb Kjiebs 
and Furrows ; and is often din)idcd in^ 
to tbree Parts, inclojingflat Seeds, tbat 
are edged or rimmed about, as itHvere^ 
twitb a Ring, and fix'd to a Jfongy 

The 5/fr/« arc; 

1. Ptpo obloMgus. C.B,P, The 
greater oblong Putnpion. 

2. Pepo 'vulgaris. Rati Hi^, The 
common Pumpion. 

3. Pbpo rotundas, our antii forma. 
C B. P. Orange-ihap'd Pumpion. 

4. Pepo frudu pamfo fyri/ormi. 
fourn, Pear-ibapVl Pompion. 

5. Pepo fruQu mnimo fpbatrico. 
Tostrn. Pnmpioa with a very fmall 
fpherical Fruit. 

There arc feveral other Varietiei 
f>f thefe Fraits, which feem to be 
only femlnal Variations ; (o that it 
would be needlefs to mention them 
all in this Place, iince the Seeds taken 
from any one of the Sorts will not 
continue the fame three Years toge* 
ther, if fbwn in the fame Garden, as 
I havefeveral times experienced. 

The two firft Sorts are by fome 
Perfons cultivated for their Fruit ; 
which, when ripe, they cut open, 
and take out the Seeds, und then 
flice fome Apples into the Shells^ 
miodng them with the Pulp of the 
Fruit and Sueaf! this they bake in 
an Oven, ana afterwards eat itfpread 
upon Bread ^nd Butter : but it is 
too fbong for Perfons of weak Sto- 
mach?, Mid' only proper for Coun< 

p fi 

try - people, who ufe much "ixet" 

The Seeds of thefe Plants are ufed 
as one of the four cold Seeds !n 

The other Sorts are prefcrvcd by 
fome carious Perfons, for Variety } 
but are of little Ufe, being good for 
nothing when grown old ; but while 
they are very fmall, fome Perfona 
gather and boil them, like Tumepi, 
or as they do the Squafhes ; and axte 
very fond of them. 

Thefe nray be propagated tn the 
&me manner as was direded for thb 
Gourds ; to which I (hall refer the 
Reader, to avoid Repetition. 

PERESKI A, Barbados Goofebef- 
ry, vulgo. 

The Cbaraffers are ; 

tt batb a rofe-Jbafed Flo*wer con-* 
fining of federal Lea'ves,'wbicb are 
placed orbicularly ; nxjbofe Cup after" 
Huard becomes a foft fiejhy globular 
Fruity befet ivitb Leaves : in tbe 
middle of tbe Fruit are many flat 
roundijb Seeds, included in a Muci^ 

We know but one Species of tfaia 
Plant ; <vix. ' 

PsRCSKfa aculeata, fore albof 
fruQu flavefcente. Plum, Nov. Gen. 
Prickly Pcrefkia, with a white 
Flower, and a yellowifh Fruit. 

This Plant grows in fome Parts of 
the Spanijb Weft-Indies, from whence 
it was brought to the Englifls Settle- 
ments in America, where it is caird 
a Goofebcrry, and by the Dutcb it is 
caird Blad-apple. This Plant hath 
manv ilendcr Branches, which will 
not lupport themfelves 3 fo moft bo 
fupported by Stakes, ctberwife they 
will trail on whatever Plants grow 
near them. Thefe Branches, asalfo 
the Seem of the Plant, are bcfct with 
longwhicifli Spines, which are pro* 
duc'd in Tufts, The Leaves are 


? E 1? E 

ttMuidUh, ytiy thick and Taccttlenri we may ctpeA fomc of tbem will 
and the Fruit is about the Size of a flower in a (horc time. 
Walnut, having Tufti of fmall PERICLYMENUM, Trumpet- 

Leases on it, and hath a wlutilh ^ honeyfuckle, vulga, 
macilaginoni Pulp. The Choral erj are t 

It may be propagated by planting . // J^ath the nvholi Afptarama $/ 
the Cuttings during any of the Sum- tht Honey/uckk (/ram luhich it Offers 
Acr-raonths t thefeCuttingi fhould be in the Shaft of tht FUwtr)^ which 

planted in Pots filled with frefh light // tuhulo/e or htlljhaptd^ and exfamU 

^rth) and plunged into a moderate mt tht Top^ whtre it is cut imttfevf^ 

Hot-bed of Tanoers Bark, obferving ral almofi equal Stgmentj, 
to (hade them from the Heat of the The Species are ; 

Day, as alfo to refrefh chem every i. pEaiCLYMBNuii f^irgtHtauumf 

third or fourth Day with Water, femper njirtns \i florens. H, L, Fir* 

In about two Months the Cuttings ginian Scarlet Honey fuckle, «smi^o* 
will have made good Roots» when a. Periclymbnum ractmofum^ 

they may be cuvfully taken out of Jforejiavefcente^ fruQu nin)to. Plum. 

the Pots» and each planted iiv a fe- fah, Hort, Eith. Branching Trum* 

parate Pot fiU'd with freih Earth, pet - honeyfuckle, with a yellow 

and then plunged into the Hot-bed Flower, and a fnowy Fruit, com* 

again, where they may remain du« monly call'd in Barbados^ Snowber- 

rii^ the Summer-feafon ; but atM- ry-bulh. 

r^Az/nraj, when the Nights begin to 3. Periclymenum arhtrefeent^ 

be cold, they ihould be removed in- ramulis inflexis^ fion iuteo. Plum* 

to the Stove, and plunged into the Cat. Tree-like Trumpet - honey* 

Bark-bed. During the Winter-fea* fuckle, with a yellow Flower, 
fon, the Plants mull be kept warm, 4. Periclymenum aiiud arhort* 

and (hould be watered twice aWeeki fcens^ ramulis infltxis^JlQrt corailint, 

but in cold Weather it (hould not Plum. Cat, Tree-like Trumpet* 

be given in large Quantities. In honeyfuckle, with a coralline Flow- 

Sommer they muft have a large er. 

Share of Air, and mud be more The fird Sort \^ a Shrub gteatly 

plentifully watef d : but they ihonld efteemM for the Beauty oF its Flow- 

confbmtly remain jb the Stove ; for crs, which are of a fine fcarlet Co- 

^ugh they will bear the open Air lour, the Leaves continue all th9 

in Summer, in a warm Situation, Year green, and it continues flower* 

yet they will make no Progrefs, if ing mod Part of the Summer, 
they are placed abroad ; aor do they It may be propi^ted by laying 

thrivenearfo well in the Dry- dove, down the tender Branches in the 

as when they are plunged in the Spring, obferving in dry Weather to 

Tan ; fo that the bed Way is to (et refrefh them with Water, which 

them next a Tidlace, at the Back of will greatly facilitate their Rooting : 

tkeTan-bed,to which their Branches the Spring following, they will be 

may be fiadened, to prevent their fit to traniplant ; when they (hould 

tiauing on other Plants. This Plant be cut oflf from the old Plants, and 

has not as yet produced either Flow- carefully taken up, fo as not 10 iu' 

ers or Fruit in Engiand\ but as there jure their Roots. The bed time to 

arc feveralPlants pretty well grown remove them is in Mareh^]M^ before 

io the Gardens of the Curious, fo they ilioot out ; but you mud ob«^ 

Till ferve, 

P E 

fcrre, if the Seafoo Ihould prove diy^ -- 
to water them, and Uy a littleMulch 
upon the .Surface of the Ground 
near their Stems, to prevent the 
Ground from drying too faft. It 
Ihould have a flrongmoift Soil, and 
b^expofed to the Soath-eali San i 
but lAiift have the Afiiftaoce of a 
Wall or P^ to fupport the Branch- 
esy otherwile they will trail opon 
the Ground. 

This Plant, although a Native of 

Firgbna^ yet, if planted in a clear 

'Air, will endure the fevereft Cold 

'of bur Gimate very welt ; bat it 

will not thrive in clofe Places, or too 

near the City, the Smoke ariiing 

from the Sea-coal Fires being vtry 

"pernicious to it. 

The fccond Sort is pretty com- 
mon in BarhiiJoiznii JamaUa,vj\itTt 
ihe Inhabitants give it the Name of 
Snowberry-bttfb, from the extreme 
Whitenefs of the Fruit. The third 
and fourth Sorts were difcover'd by 
ftdier Pbmier in fome of the Fnncb 
Settlements mAmtricai and fince 
by the late Dr. Houftotm at La Vera 

Thefe are all of them very tender 
Plants; fo muft conftantly remain in 
the Bark-dove, otherwife they will 
not thrive in this Country. They 
nay be propagated by Seeds, which 
ihould be brought over either in 
Sand or Earth, otherewife they fel- 
dom fucceed : when they arrive, the 
Tubs of Eardi, in which 'the Seeds 
werefowD,(hould be plnnged into an 
Hot-bed of Tanners kark, obferving 
frequently to water them : and when 
Che Plants are eome up, they (hould 
be carefully tranfplanted into fepa- 
rate finall Pots filled with frelh rich 
Earth, and plunged into the Hot-bed 
again ; where diey may remain till 
about AfiV^4i^/;»tf/, when they (hould 
be' plunged into the Bark-bed in 
the S;ove, and treated as other ten- 


der Exotic Plants from &t &mc 
Countries ; and in two or three 
Years die Plants will flower, when 
they will make an agreeable Varie- 
PERIPLOCA, FirgimsM Silk, 

The CbaraBers are ; ' 
• ng F/mvgr tfmfifii of tme Ltaf, 
wuhicb is morg ifctandtd at tbt Brim 
tban tbgfe gf tbt Apocynumi thf 
Poi/tta/, wbieb rifet in the Ctrntre of 
tbt Flower ' cup ^ becomtt a Fruit fo 
nearlj reftmhUng tbat tf tbt A^ocy* 
num, as net to be difiingidfiPi tbert'^ 
froiHf but by njery curious Obfer*vers: 
to *wbicb Jbould be adicd^ It bath 
cUmbing Stalks, 

The Sfecies are ; 

1 . Pe a I p Lo c hfoliis ehlon^s, TosrrM* 
Periploca with oblong Leaves. 

2. Periploca Mottjpe/iaca, foUie 
rotundiorihus, ^ourn, Penploca of 
Montfe/ier, with rounder Leaves. 

3. Periploca foUis iblongis an^ 
gujlioribus. Inft. R H, Longer and 
narrower-leavM Firginiau Silk, or 
Climbing Dogs-bane. 

4. Pbriploca Menfpe!iaca\ fottls 
acutioribus, Inft. R. H. Climbing 
Dogs -bane of iiftf^/^f/rV, with (harp- 
pointed Leaves. 

(.Periploca Americana, fruBm 
molliter ecbiuato, Inft, R. H.' Ameri^ 
can Climbing Dogs -bane, with t, 
prickly Fruit. 

6. Periploca Americana latife* 
iia, fiUqua dura obtonga^ tumida fsT- 
glabra. Inft. R, K Broad -leav*d 
American Climbine Dogs bane, with' 
a long hard fmooth fwelling Pbd. 

7. Pbriploca Americana fcatt- 
dens^ faUcis, folio, fork 
albo. Plum. Climbing American 
Do«-bane, with a narrow Willow- 
lea^ and a white Flower. 

8. Pe R I P to c A Americana refemt ' 
umbillata, foliis citri, fiove coceineo* 
Plum. Creeping American Dogs- 

- bane,^ 

P E 

hute, with a Citron-leaf, and fcar- 
kc FlowerSy growing in an Umbel. 

9. PsaiYLOCA Jmtricana /can- 
Jms^ foii9 citrif fruEtu maxima. 
Pimm. American Climbing Dogi- 
baoe, with a Ci(roQ-leaf» and a large , 

10. PaaiPLOCA Jmericana fiam*^ 
dem, fill* cM^fohfuli^ fruQu alato. 
PUm. Jmirican Climbing Dogs-, 
ba&e^ with a Con?olvulas-leaf» and 
a winged Fruit. 

The firft Sort hath woody Branches^ 
which twin themfelves about each, 
other, or whatever Support is ^ear 
it, and will rife to the Height of 
thirty Feet or upwards : this pro- 
daces its flarry • ihap*d Flowers in 
Quftert from the Footffadks of the 
Leaves s which are of a dark- purple 
Colour, but have no Scent. 

This may be propagated by lay- 
ing down iu Branches m the Spring, 
which will take Root in a Year's 
time i wiicn the Layers may be taken ^ 
of*, and tranfplanced where they are . 
to reosain ; which (hould be either 
againfl a lofty Wall or Building, or 
elfe placed in Wildemeis«qaarters 
amongft other tall-flowering Trees, 
where thor (hould be fupported by 
ftrong Poles, al;>0Qt which thefe 
Planu will twine, and rjfe to a great 
Heigh^. This Sort is hardy, and 
will endure the CoJd of our Winters 
very well, provided ic is planted in 
a dry Soil. 

It produces Us Flowers in June 
and July I but rarely perfeds its 
Seeds in EjtglanJ. The Flowers are 
not very beautiful j but, for their 
Oddnefs, may have a Place amongd 
other hardy Shrubs in every good 

The fecond, third, and fourth 
have annual Scalks, but percnoial 
Ro'>ts, whxh grow to the Size of a 
P^fnep, and will continue many 
Years. Thefe will live in the full 

p E 

Ground in E^a$d, if they, are 
planted in a dry S(nl, and have a 
warm Situation : their Branches de- 
cay in Autumn» and friih are fent • 
out from their Roots in the Spriog, . 
which twift in the (ame manner as 
Hops, to whatever is near them, and 
grow to the Height of fix or feven 
Feet : the Ftowers are of a greenifh- 
white Colour i fo there is Uttk Beauty 
in them. 

The other feven Sorts are tender, 
being Natives of the warm Parts of 
America. The Seeds of all thefe 
Sorts were fent to Effgl^nd by the. 
late Dr.HkuJiowif whocolle^Ud them 
in Jamaica^ at Camfecby^ and Car* 
tbagena^ where they grow in great 
Plenty, and twift themfelves round 
whatever Trees grow near them ; 
and fome of them 'rife to the Height 
of forty or fifty Feet, or more. Some 
of thdb Sorts produce very large 
warted Pods, which ate full of ob« 
long flat Seeds ; to which ia fafleoed 
a very long foft white Down^ which 
helps to convey the Seeds to a great 
Diflance when ripe. This Down,, aa 
alfo that of the Apocynum, have of 
late Years been ufed to (luiF Pillows, 
Mattrefles, and Quilts, for whicb 
Purpofes there is nothing fo proper ;. 
for it is fo exceedingly Hght, that a 
Quilt of great Thicknefs is hardly to 
be fell, when fpread over a Bed ; 
which is of great Advantage to thofo 
Pcrfons who are troubled with the 
Gout, and cannot bear any Weight . 
on tba Part afle6led. It hath alio a 
very great Elafticity, fo that it ia 
not apt to flick t<^ether. This 
Down is caird in frencb^ De Im 
Wa^e^ and is greatly in U^ among 
the Quality in Frmice. 

All thefe Planrs may be propaga- 
ted by Seeds, which (hould be fown 
on an Hot-be J early in the Spring}, 
and when the Plants are come up fit 
to tranfptanc, they ihould each be 

T 1 1 3 planted 

P E 

planted into a feparate Pot fillM with 
irtOi Earth, ana pluogM into a mo- 
derate Hot-bed, obferving tofhade 
them from the Sun every Day dntil 
tkev have taken new Root; after 
which time they (hould have a large 
Share of Air in warm Weather, .and 
muft have plenty of Water. In about 
f>x Weeks or two Months after 
planting, the Plants will get up to 
reach the GlaiTes of the Ho^bed s 
when they (hould be (hifted into 
Jarger Pots, and plunged into the 
Bark -bed in the Stove; where they 
muft be fupported by an EfpaHer, 
other wife they will twift themfeives 
round whatever Plants grow near 


Thefe Plants will bear the open 
Air in Summer i but they never 
m|ike any Progrefs when they are 
cxpos'd, and rarely flower: there- 
fore, in order to have thefe Plants' in 
Beauty, they ihould conflantly re- 
main in the Stove, and -mull have a 
large Share of free Air in mild 
Weather. When they are thus 
snans^ed, they will rife to the Height 
of thirty Feet, or more, and will 
produce Flowers every Summer. 

The fourth Sort hath been by 
ftaie Perfons taken for Scammony ; 
and is by fome Authors titled Mvit- 

Sriier Scammony; the Roots and 
ranches abounding with a milky 
Tiiice : but t)ie true TurJ^y Scammony 
It a Species of Convolvulus, under 
whkh Article it is before mAitiou- 

PERFWINCLE. TiV^ Pcrvinca. 

PERSE A, The Avocado, or Avo- 
gtto Pear. 

The Cbara&ers are j 

// bath a rofe-fiapidFlofuier^ cpn- 
^fifting of federal LeaveSf wubich are 
ranged itt a Cinhifrom nuhofe Mid' 
die ar'ifes the Pointal, 'which aficr- 
fpjard becomes a/oft flfjby pear-Jhaped 
fruity in ivbch is an bard Stone or 

P E 

Seedt ba<ving f<wo Lobe^ nvbich^is 
included in a Membrane or Pericar- 

We know but one Sfectes of this 
Plant} 'viz, 

Persia. Cln/, Hift, The Avoca- 
dot or Avogato Pear. 

This Tree grows in great Plenty 
in the Spanifo ffeft-lndlet^ as alfo in 
the Ifland of Jamaica ; and h^th 
been tranfplanted into mofl of the 
Englijh Settlements in the Wefi-In- 
diti^ on account of its Fruit ; which 
is not only efteemed by the Inhabic- 
ants as a Fruit to be eaten by Way 
of DefTert, but is very neceffary for 
the Support of Life. The Fruit of 
itfclf is very infipid; for which 
Reafon they generally eat it with the 
Juice of Lemons and Sugar, to give 
It a Piquancy. It is very nourifhing, 
and is reckonM a great Incentive tq 
V cnery. Some People eat this Fruit 
with Vinegar and Pepper. 

This ^I'ree, in the warm Coun- 
tries, where it is planted, grows to 
the Height of thirty Feet, or more ; 
and has'a Trunk as large as our 
common Apple-trees: the Bark it 
fmooth, and of an AfhKX>lour; the 
Branches are befet with pretty large 
oblong fmooth Leaves, like thofe of 
Laurel, which are of a decp-greea 
Colour, and continue on the Tree 
throughout the Year : the Flowers 
and Fruit are, for the mcll part, 
product toward the Extremity of 
the Branches. 

In Europe this Rant is preferved • 
as a Curiofity, by thofe Penons who 
arefkilful in colledling Exotic Plants: 
and tho* there is little Hope of its 
producing Fruit, yet, for the Beauty 
of its fiiining green Leaves, which 
continue thro* the Winter, it de- 
fcfves a Place in every curious Col* 
legion of Plants. 

It is propagated by Seeds, which 
fhpuld be pbtjdned ^ frefli as pof- 

P E 

£Uev from tht Countries of its 
Growth ; and if they are brought 
C7cr in Sand, they will be more 
likely to grow, than fuch as are 
kottght over dry. Thefc Nuts or 
Seeds ffaould be planted in Pots fill- 
ed with light rich Earth, and plung- 
ed into an Hot-bed of Tanners 
£ark, which Ibould be kept pretty 
vmm> The Pots (hould be alfo 
freqoendhr watered, when the Earth 
appears dry, which will greatly fa- 
cihtate the Vegetation of the Seed« 
provided the Water is not given in 
large Qoantities, which would rot 
ihem. In about a Month or five 
Weeks the Plants will come up, 
when they mufl be treated very ten- 
derly ; for the Bed mufl be kept in 
a due Temperature for Heat ; and 
when the jDay proves warjoi, the 
frefh Air fhould be admitted to the 
Pbnts, by rai/ing the GlafTes a little. 
When they have grown about four 
Inches high, they fhould be care- 
folly trani'planted ; and where there 
are feveral Plants in one Pot, they 
|i3uft be parted, being careful to 
preferve a Ball of Earth to the Root 
x>f ea^by and planted into feparate 
fmall Pots &ird with b'ght rich 
£arth, and then plunged into an 
Hot-bed of Tanners Bark ^ obfcrv- 
iog to fhade them until they have 
taken new Root ; after which time 
tbeyr fhould have frefh Air admitted 
|o them in proportion to the Warmth 
of the Seafon : toward Mchaelmai 
the Plants mufl be removed into the 
Stove, and plunged into the Bark- 
bed, where, during the Winter- fea- 
foQ, they (hould be kept very warm, 
and mull be gently watered twice a 
Week. In the Spring the Plants 
fhould be fhified into Pots a 'Size 
larger than the former, and th^ 
fiark'bed (hould be then renewed 
with frefh Tan, which will fct the 
fJants in a growing State farly, 

p E 

whereby they will make a fine Pro* 
grefs the following Summer. Thefe 
Plants rouft beconftantly kept in the 
Stove ; for they are too tender to 
bear the open Air in this Country aC 
any Seafon. 

PERSICA, The Peach-tree, 
The Cbara^ers are ; 

li batb l(mg narrow Lean)is : thi 
Flower confifls of fennral Ltanjts^ 
^uhicb art ftactd in a circular Or» 
dir^ and expand in form of a Ro/e : 
tbi Pointal^ nubUb rifei from ibt 
Centre of fbe Flower- cup , become j a 
roundifiJieJhyFruit^ banking a longitUf 
dinal Furro*w^ inclofing a rovgb rugged 
StonCf njvbicb is deeply furrow d^ iy 
wbicb it is diftinguiJFd from tbi 

There are a great Variety of 
thefe Trees, which are cultivated in 
the Gardens of thofe who are curi- 
ous in collecting the feveral Sorts of 
Fruit in the different Parts oi Europe: 
I fhall therefore firfl beg Leave to 
mention two or three Sorts, which 
are cultivated for the Beauty of their 
Flowers ; after which, I fliall enu- 
merate the feveral Sorts of good 
Fruit which have come to my 

1 . P £ R s I C A n/ulgaris^ flore plena, 
Tourn, Peach-tree with double 

2. PsRSiCA Africnna nana^ ftort 
incamato Jimplici, T, Dwarf Al- 
mond, With fingle Flowers, n/uigo, 

3. pBRSiCA ^fricana nana^ flori 
incamato pleno. 7*. Double-ilower- 
ing Dwarf Almond, *uulgo. 

The firil of thefe Trees is a vtry 
ereat Ornament in a Garden earl/ 
in the Spring, the Flowers being 
very large, double, and of a beauti- 
ful red oi' purple Colour. This may 
be planted in S;andards, and, if in- 
termixed amongft o'her flowering 
Trees of the fame Growth, makes 
a very agr^.-ablc Variety : or ^t may 

T 1 1 4 ' J?c 

P E 


be planted againft the Walls of the 
Picafure-garden, where the beauti- 
ful Appearance of its Flowers early 
in the Spring will be more accept- 
able in fuch Places than the choiccll 
Fruits, which mu(t be expo fed to 
Servants, and others fo that they 
feldom can be preferv'd in large Fa- 
milies until they are ripe. This 
Tree may be propagated by budding 
it on the Almond or Plum-flocks in 
the fame manner as the other Sort of 
Peaches*; and (hould be planted in 
a good freih Soil, that is not over- 

The other two Sorts are of hum- 
bler Growth, feldom rifing above 
five Feet high : thefe may be budded 
upon Almond-docks, or propagated 
by Layers ; they will alfo uke upon 
Plum-ftocks ; but they are very apt 
to canker, after they have flood four 
or five Years upon thofe Stocks, 
cfpecially that with double Flowers, 
which is tenderer than the other, 
which fends out Suckers from the 
Root, whereby it may be eaiily 

Thefe Shrubs make a vtry agree- 
able Variety amongfl low-flowering 
Trees, in fmall Wildemefs - quar- 
ters. The fingle Sort flowers in the 
Beginning of J/tri/^ and the double 
is commonly a Fortnight or three 
Weeks later. 

I fhall now proceed to mention 
the feveral Sorts of good Peaches 
which have come to my Knowlege : 
and though perhaps a greater Num- 
ber of Sorts may be found in fome 
Catalogues of Fruits, yet I doubt 
whether many of them are not the 
fame Kmds call'd by diiFercniNames : 
for, in order to determine the various 
Sorts, it is necefTary to obferve the 
Shape find Size of the Flowcri', as 
well as the different Parts of the 
Fruit; for this does fometimes de- 
termine the Kind, when the Fruit 

p E 

alone is not fufficient : befides, there 
is a vafl Difference in the Size and 
Flavour of the fame Peach, whea 
planted on diiFcrent Soils and Af- 
pc£ts ; fo that it is almofl impofiible 
for a Perfon who is very converfant 
with thefe Fruits to diflinguifh them, 
when brought from various Gar- 

The prefcnt Confufion of the 
Names of Fruits hath been many 
times owing to the bringing over 
Trees from France i for the Perfons 
who are generally employed to bring 
over thofe Trees for Sale, arc intire- 
ly ignorant of their various Sorts, 
and do themfelves take them upon 
Truft, from the Perfons who make 
it their Bufinefs to propagate great 
Quantities, to fupply the Markets of 
France^ whither they are brought ia 
Waggons, and fold out in Parcels to 
thofe Perfons who bring them into 
England, It alfo happens many 
times, if they are received by right 
Names that thefe, in Length of 
Time, are lofl, or the Trees come 
into the PoflTeflioii of otJicr Perfons, 
who, not knowing the true Name of 
the Fruit, do often give them new 
Names, whereby there is fuch a 
Confufion in the Names of Fruit, as 
is impofiible to redify ; and hence 
fome Perfons have fuppofed a meek 
greater Variety of Peaches than 
there is in reality ; tho* as the 
grcateft Part of thefe have been ob- 
tained from Seeds, fo their Varieties 
may be multiplied annually, until 
there be no End of the Sorts. How- 
ever, I fhall content my ft. If with 
enumerating the principal Sorts now 
known in England^ which are fuf- 
ficient for any Gentleman to make 
a Collection to continue thro^ the 
whole Seafon of Fruit. 

I. The white Nutmeg (callM by 
the French^ VAnjam Pecbi Blanche): 
This Tree has (awed Leaves i but 


P E P E 

generally ihoots very weakyUnlefiB kit dom kigb-flavoared' : tht StOM i# 

budded upon an Apricot : the Flow- y^ry fmall ; fUf ripcaa aaly la 

ers are large and open : the Fruit is Juiufi. 

faull and white, as is alfo the Palp 6. The early Purple (caU*d ky tbt$ 

at the StODC, from which it fcpa- French, La Putrprie biiivi); T|u* 

nces : it is a little mufky and fogary ; Tree has finooth Leavei : (be tlo«r* 

but is oDiy efieemed for its being the en ate large and opes : the Fruit ii 

Ml Sort ripe : it is in eating pretty large, round, and of a fine red 

urly in July, and (bon becomes Colour : the Flefli is white, but ftry 

mealy. red at thf Stone; is veiy fall of 

2. The red Nutmeg (call'd by the Juice, which bu a rich rinous Fla* 
Juncb, VA'vamt Piche dg Troyex) : TQor $ and is by all food Jildg^ 
Tbis Tree has iawed Leaves : the eftcemed in excellent Peadi : thii 
Plowen are large and open : the is rips before the Middle of Atn 
Fraic is larger and roander than the fvji, 

white Nutmeg, and is of a bright 7. The large or FrmcJ^ Migitmz 

vcifflilion Colour : the Plefli is white. The Leaves ^ this Tree are fmooth; 

and Yery red at the Stone : it has a the Flowers ^are large and open : 

rich maiky Flavoar, and parts from the Fruit is a little oblongs an^ gjt* 

the Scone : this Peach is well efleem- nerally fwelling on one Side : it is of 

ed: it ripens toward the End of a fine Colour; the Juice is veij 

7*^. fugary, and of an high Flavour: 

3. The early or fmall Mignon the Fltih is white, but very red at 
(caird by the French, La Double di the Stone, which is fmall : this ia 
7r9»i, or hlignomtte) : This Tree ripe in the Middle oi AMguft, and is 
bai fmall contraded Flowers : the juftly efteemed one of the belt 
Frait is of a middling Size, and Peaches: this feparates from th« 
rooad: it is very red on die Side Stone. This Sort of Peach is ten- 
next the Son : the Fleih !s whiter der, and will not thrive on a com- 
asd feparates from the Stone, wliere mon Stock \ fo is generally budded 
it IS red: the Juice is vinous and upon feme vigorous (hoodog Peach, 
ridi: it is ripe the End of JmIj, or or an Apricot, by the Narfery-men, 
Beginning of ^ir{«^. which enhances the Price of the 

f The yellow Alberge : This Trees. But the bed Method is to 

Tree has fmooth Leaves : the Flow- bud this Peach into fome old healthy 

en arc fmall and contraded : the Apricot, which is planted to a Soutb 

Fruit ii of a middling Size, fome- or South -eafl Afped, and to. cut 

what long: the Plelh is yellow, and away the Apricot when the Buda 

d^ : it is fddom well-flavoured^ have taken, and made Shoots : upon 

bat flioald be perfedly ripe before fome Trees which I have feen, thni 

it is gathered; otherwife it is good managed, there has been a much 

kf little : it is ripe early in Augufi. greater Quantity of fairer, and bet- 

5. The white Magdalen : This ter flavoured Fruit, than I have ever 

Tree has fawed Leaves : the Flowers obferved in any other Management 1 

are large and open : the Wood is and the Trees have been much more 

generally black at the Pith : the healthy. 

Froit is round, of a middling Size : 8. The Cht'vreufe or Belli Che» 

the Flefli is wj^ite tp the Stone* from nfremfe: This Tree has fmootli 

ybicb it fepa^ltei : (he ^aice is fel- Leav^ : the Jf lowers are foudl and 


P E 

contraded : the fruit is of a mid- 
dling Shse, a Httle oblong, of a fine 
«d Cobar : the Fleih is white, but 
Tery red at the Stone» from which 
fifcparatei: it is very foil of a rich 
Ibgsiry Juice, and ripens toward the 
End of Amguft : this is a very good 
Bearer, and may be ragged with the 
good Peaches. 

9. The red Magdalen (calPd by 
Ac: French about Pitris^ Madeliine d4 
Courfin) : The Leaves of this Tree 
are deeply lawed : the Flowers are 
Hirgc and open : the Fmit is large 
and^ round, of a fine red Colour : 
the Flefti is w;liite, but very red at 
fhe Stone, ftoA which it (epsratts : 
the Jatcc is very fngatf» and of aa 
exqoifite Flavour : the Fruit is ripe 
Che End of Auguft : it k one of the 
befi Sort of Peaches. 

lO.The cSLTlyNiwittgton (or Smithes 
Nttmugt9n} : This is very like, if 
BOt che fame, with what the Frencb 
call U P/t^e himtc: thirTree has 
iawed Leaves: the Plovers are 
brge and open : the Frait is ^f t 
middling Size, is of a fine Red on 
che Side next the Sun : the Flefh is 
firm and white, but very red at the 
5u>ne, to which it dofely adheres : 
k hath a fugary Juice, and is ripe 
the End of Aagiift, . 

u.The Montauban: This Tree 
Kas fawed Leaves : the Flowers are 
large and open : the Froit is of a 
middling Size, of a deep-2«d, in- 
clining to purple next the Sun ; but 
of a pale Colour toward the Wall i 
che Flefh is melting and white to the 
Stone* from which it feparates : the 
Juice is rich, and the Tree is a good 
Bearer: it ripens the Middle XiXJi^ 
jguft^ and is well efleemed. 
• 12. The Malta (which is very 
Kke, if not the fame, with the Ita- 
lian Peach) : This Tree has fawed 
Leaves : the Flowers are large and 
open: the Fruit is of a middling 

P E 

Size^ of a fine Red next the Satt t 
the Flefh is white and melting, buf 
red at the Stone, from which it (e-^ 
parates : the Stone is flat and point- 
ed : the Tree is a good Bearer : this 
ripens the End of Augmp, 

ij.TheNobleft : This Tree has 
fawed Leaves: the Flowers are large 
and open : the Fruit is large, of a 
bright-red next the Sun: the FleOa 
i& white and melting, and feparates 
from the Stones miere it is of « 
faint-red Colour: the Juice is very- 
rich in a good Seafon: it ripens the 
End of Auguft, 

1 4. The Chancellor : The Leaves • 
of this Tree ardfmooth : the Flow- 
ers are fmall and contraded: the 
Fruit is fhaped fomewhat like die 
Belle Chforeufe^ but is rounder : the 
Flelh is white and melUng, and fe* 
parates from the Stone, where it ia 
of a fine red Colour : the Skin is 
\trf thin, and the Juice is very.rtclu 
it rif)ens about the End oi Avgufi^ 
and is efteemed one of the b^fi Sort 
of Peaches. This Tree is very ten- 
der, and win not fuccecd on com- 
mon Stocks ; fo is b^idded twice aa 
the Mignon ; and if budded on Apri- ^ 
cots, as was direfied for that Sort^ 
win thrive much better than in an^ 
other Method. 

15. The Bellegarie (or as the 
Trench call it, the Oallande) :■ Thic 
Tree has fmooth Leaves ; the Flovi^ 
ers are fraall and con traded : the 
Fruit is very large and round, -of a 
deep-purple Colouc on the Side t^ 
the Sun : the Flefh is white, melt- 
ing, and feparates from the Stone, 
where it is of a deep -red Colour: 
che Juice is very rich : this ripens 
the Beginning ofSiftemhr, and ic 
an excellent Peach ; But at prefent 
not common. 

16. The LfJIe (or as the French 
call it, La petite Violet te bdtive) : 
This Tree has fliiooth Leaves : the 


P E 

Pfewen arefmall and contnded : 
ikt Fl-ok i» of a pahcyclkras and 
adda^ ; bat adii«res to tbe Scone, 
wlicie k is wiy red : tb« juice i> 
-wftf TiDoas: tkia ripens the Begin" 
ling of S^tnA^r, 

17. The Mmirdhii : This Tirce has 
(boeck LoEvee: the Flowers are 
£n]l and contraaed : dM Finit is 
hifit, raad, and of a fine red Co> 
lonr Bent the Sun: the FleAi is 
white, meldng, and feparates fini» 
the Sson«, where it is of a Sne red 
Cdhrar : die Jnice is vinoas and lich: 
this fipens the Beginmfig of^^^Mt- 
hm-y and is greatly efteened by the 
ConcMM. The Tree beers plenti« 
faiivy and. will produce Fruit in 
Standards very wet}. 

i3. The Rifanma ; This Tree has 
ioftooth Leaves : the Flowere are 
linaU and contraaed : the Fruit is 
large> a little more long than the 
Albcrge : the Fle(h is yellow, and 
ieparaiies him, the Stone, w)^n it 
is red : the Jnice is rich and mous: 
^ ripens the Beginnieg of Sefiem* 
hr, and is efteemed a good Pudi. 
Thb ie the fane with what fonie 
caU the Pnrple, and others the red 
Alberge, k being of a fine purple 
Cofenr on the Side n0tt the Sun- 

19. The Admirable : This Trte 
has iroooth Leaves : the , Flowers 
are {mall and contraOed : the Fmit 
is large, ronnd, and red on the Side 
next the San : the Fle(b is while, 
nddng, and feparates from the 
Stone, where it is of a deep-red Co- 
loar : the Juice is fugary and rich : 
tkis ripens the Beginning of Srf- 
temttr. This is by fone calN the 
ctrty AdniraMe : but is certainly 
what the French call VAdm^U % 
and they bare no other of dris Name 
which ripens later. 

20. The old Niwingf9fi: This 
Tree has fawed Leaves : the Flow- 
lt«- tre large and open : the Fruit is 

P E 

fair and large« of a beaodful red 
C6loor next the Sun : the Flefh k 
whiter meltings and doMy adhene 
to the Stone, where k k of a deep- 
red Cobnri the Jnice is veiy rieb 
and ▼tnous*. This i» eUt^RMNl ono 
of the bell Sort 0$ Pavies : k npene 
about the Middle of Septim^ir, 

SI. The RambomHtei (comnonljp 
caird the MmmMihnJ : This l>ee 
has ijBOOth Leaves: the Flowers are 
large and open r die Fruit is of n 
middling Sine, rather ronnd dia» 
long, dMply divided by a Sklcas or 
Farrow in theMi<ldfe : it is of a fine 
rad Colonr next the Sun ; but of a 
light - yellow nex^ the Wall : the 
Fleih is Biehing, of a bright-yellow 
Celeur,an<t feparates from theStone, 
where it is of a deep-red^ Colour : 
the Joioe k nch, and of a vinous 
Flavoor : this ripens the Middle of 
Seftmisp^ and is a good Bea rer . 

22. The Beffjt (which F betrere 
to be what the French cdl Ea JUh 
dtFitry): The Leaves of this T^e 
are £iwed: the Flowers are fmall 
and ooncraClcd : the Fruit is of a 
middle Size^ roUnd, and of a pale- 
red nextdieSnn : the Flefh k whiter 
and adheres to the Stone, where it 
isred : the- Jnice k ftnons and rkh : 
thk ripens HI the middle of Seffem^ 

ij. The P9rimgai': This Tree 
has foioeth Leaves : the Flowers ate 
large and open : the Fruit k hrge, 
and of a beaudlul red Cohnir to- 
ward the Sun : the Stdn- kgenendly ' 
fpotted : the Flefli k iirm,' whkc^ 
and clofcly adheres to the Stone, 
where it k of a feint-red Coldur : 
the Stone k fmatl, bat fofi of deep 
Furrows : the Juiea is rich and vi- 
nous : thk ripens th^Middle oJBe^ 

24. /> TeHn Femts (or Femu^B 
BreaA), fo call'd from its having a 
Rifiog Itkr ;i Dng, or BM>y : This 


P E 

Treebaafmooth Leaves: theFIowers 
•re fmall and contraded : the Frujt 
is of a middling Sixe refembling the 
Adoiirable, of a . pale-red Colour 
next the Sun: theFlefli ismeiting» 
white, and feparates from the Stone, 
where it 19 red : the Jalce is fugary.. 
and rich : this ripens late inSeftem^r. 
Zj. La PoHTfrie (or at the Frtnch 
call it Pcurpree tarM*ve^ i. #. the late. 
Purple) : This Tree has very large 
Leaves, which are fawed : the Shoots 
aiw very ftrong: the Flowers are 
final! and contra£ted : the Fruit is 
large, round, and of a fine purple 
Colour : the Fle(h is white, melcing, 
and feparates from the Stone, where 
it is red ; the Juice is fugary and rich: 
this ripens laie in Siptemh$r, 

26. The Nvuettiz ThiaTree hat 
fawed Leaves : the Flowert are fmall. 
and contraded : the Fruit is laige» 
fomawhat longer than round, of a 
bt%ht-r^ Colour next the Sun, and 
of a pale-yellow on tha other Side : 
the Flefli is melting, and full of a 
rkh juice; and is very red at the 
Stove, from which it feparates : this 
is efteemed one of the bell Peaqhes : 
it ripens in the middle of Sepiiminr^ 

a;. The Royal (U RtymU) : Thb 
Tree has fmo^ Leaves : the Flow- 
ers are fmall and contra£bd : the., 
fruit is large, round, and of a deep- 
ted on tha Side next the Son, and of 
a paler Colour on the other Side : 
the Flefli is white, melting, and full 
of a rich Juice : it parts from the 
Stones where it it of a deep-red 
CoIooT : this ripens the middle of 
Sfpimdur 1 and, when the Autumn 
itfinp» it an excellent Peach. 

38. The Pirfyiu: Thit Tree 
Imt fawed Leavet : the Flowart are 
fmall and oontraded : the Fruit it . 
laigje, oblong, and of a fine red Co- 
lour next 3t» Son : the Flefli is 
mdting, and full of a rich Juice; it 
fepaiatet Imoi thcSton^ where it 

P E 

is of a deep-red Colour: the Stalk 
has a fmall Knot upon it : this niakca 
a fine Tree, and is a good Bearer : it 
ripens the End of Sgptmhr, Manjr 
Gardeners call this the Nh/ettg. 

zg. The monftrous Pavy of Pom" 
fnme (cail'd by the prtnch Li Pume 
rouge de Pampottnt) :. the Leaves of 
this Tree are fmooth : the Flowera 
are large and. open : the Fruit is very 
large and round, many timet four-- 
teen Inches in Circumference : tke 
Flefli is white, melting, and dofel/ 
adheres to the Stone, where it ia of . 
a deep-red Colour : the Outfiide. is a . 
beautiful red next the Sun, and of a 
pale Flefii-colour on the other Side : . 
this ripens the End of O&ohir^ and, . 
when the Autumn is warm, is an ex- 
cellent Peach. 

30. The Catbarhte : T\m, Trot 
has fouMth Leaves : the Flowers ars 
fmall and contrafbed : the Fruit is 
large, roui^d, and of a dark- red Co- 
lour next the Sun: theFleih is white, 
melting, and full of a rich Juice : it 
clofidy adheres to the ^tone, where 
it it of a deep-red Colour : it ripena 
the Beginning of QBohtr ; and in 
very good Seafons is an excellent 
Peach : but being fo very late ripe» 
there are not many Situations where 
it ripens well. 

3 1 . The Bloody Peach (callM by 
tha French La Sanguinolle) :. Thia 
Peach is of a middling Size, of a 
deep-red next the Sun : the Flefli ia 
of a deep-red quite to die Stone; and 
from theoce it, by fome Gardeners, 
caird the Mulberry - peach. Thia 
Fruit rarely ripent in Englmiii fo b 
l^ot ofien planted: but this Fruit, 
bakes and preferves excellently ; for 
which, as alfo the Curiofity, one or 
two Trees may be planted, where 
there b Extent of Walling. 

There are fome other Sorts of 
Peaches whi^ are kept in fome of 
the Norferies; but uofe which are 


P E P E 

htrnj o m m tn ttA, are the Sorti not call fieachei into two Sorts } vA(. 
' woidi pbntiae ; and in die Lift the P^vies and Peacbis ; tbofe art called 
chokeft only ftonld be planted : hot Peachei iriiich qait the Stooe ; and 
Ifladl jnft mention the Names of thofe whoTe Fle(h clofely adherea 
i&ofe Soru omitted, for the Satif- to the Stone, arecallM Pa vies : thefe 
Miooof cheCorioQs are mach more efteem*d in Francf 
The Siom tbe Bowrdiauxi the than the Peachet; tho* \n England 
%9alch or DtUehi die CatUJltx the the latter are preferred to the former 
£taK;thePrri^i&PAai;Yellow Admi- by the generality of PerJTons. 
table : tbe Dooble-flower. This laft ^ The French alfo diftinguifh them 
Sort is generatlyplanted more for the into Male and Female} the Pavies 
Beaocjrof the Flowen, than for the they make to be the Male, and the 
Goodnefsofthc Fruit; of which fome Peaches the Female: bur this Di« 
Yean the Standard -trees produce ftindion is without Foundation, fince 
gicat Plen^ ; boc they arc late ripe, the Kernels of both Sorts will pro- 
tad have a eoU watry infipid Juice, duce Trees equally : for the Flow* 
Thedwarf Peach isalfo preferved in en of Peach-trees are generally Her- 
fanc Places as a Coriofi^. This is maphrodite, and have all the Parts 
a very tender Tree, making vtty of Generation in them ; fo that there 

Shoots, which are very fnll of is no Necelfity of fuppofing any of 

flower • buds. The Fmit is not fo them to be intircly Male or Female : 

large as a Nutmeg, and not good, but it is likely, that this Diftind on 

nor will the Tree fad any time ; fo is of long Ibnding, before Perfons 

it is not worth cultivating! had a pei^edl Notion of Male and 

And indeed, from thefe thirty-one Female in Plants, or at lead they did 

above-named, there are not above not know how to diftinguifh then^ 

ten of them which I would advife to afunder. 

he planted ; becaufe when a Perfon The NefUrines (as I have in an^ 

GUI be fami(hed with thofe which other Place faid] are by the Frtncb 

are good, or has the beft of the Sea; calPd Bntgn9ns^ which differ from 

iba, it is not worth while to plant the other two Sorts, in having a firm 

any which are middling or indiffer- hard Flelh, and the Skins quite 

cnt, for the iake of Variety : there- fmooth, without any Down upon 

fore the Sorts which I (hould prefer them. The Sorts of thefe I have al- 

ire thefe after-mentioned: ^ ready mention'd under the Article 

The iorly Purfle ; the Groffe Mtg- NeBarines^ to which the Reader may 

aM; Btlie Cbe^rffe ; Red MagX^- readily turn : therefore I (hall not 

im; Cbaiue/hri BiUegarde\ Bour^ repeat them ifi this Phice. 
iw I R9jffanna ; RambfmilUt ; and I fiiall now fet down the good 

Ktvtttt, Thefe are the Sorts bed Qualities of Peaches, by which any' 

worth plandog ; and as they fucceed Perfon may judge of their Worth, 
each onier, fo they will fumtfli the A good Peach ought to have a* 

Table thro* the Seafon of Peaches : firm Fleih : the Skin ihould be thin, 

and where there is room, and the of a deep or bright- red Colour next. 

Situation very warm, one or two the Sun, and of a yellowiih Call nen 

Tnes of the Catharine Peach ihould the Wall : the Fleih ihould be of a. 

bve Place ; for in very warm Sea- yellowifh Colour, full of Juice, 

fims it is an excdlent Fruit. which ihould be highflavoarM : the' 

The French difttnguiih thofe we Stone fmall, and the Pulp orFIefh' 

P 6 

Yeryrhick. When a Peadi liath all 
thefe Qaalities, it may be efteeai*d 
a Taloable Froit. 

All the dtfferent Sorts of Peaches 
liave been originally obtaiaM from 
the Stones i which, bei^g planted^ 

froduce new Varietie^^ as do the 
eeds of all other Fruits ; fo that 
where Ferfons have Garden enongh 
to allow room for propagating thefe 
Fruits from Seeds, there u no doubt 
but many good Sorts may be ob- 
tainM, which will be better adapted 
to our Climate than fuch as are 
brought from warmer Countries; 
tho* it is true, that there will be 
miny of them good for nothing, as 
is the Cafe of rnoUt Fruits and Flow- 
ers which are produced from Seeds, 
amongft which there may be fome 
taluable Kinds, fuperior to thofe 
from whence the Seeds were taken ; 
yet there is always a great Number 
which are little worth : but if we 
can obtain only two or tliree valu- 
able Sorts, it is fufHcient to make 
amends for die Trouble of railing 
them: but where Perfons are fo 
curious as to plant the Stones of thefe 
Fruits, great Regard ihould be had 
to the Sorts r and if the Fruit were 
permitted to remain upon the Trees 
until they dropped off, the Kernels 
would be fitter for planting, and moie 
likely to grow. The beft Sorts for 
fowing are thofe whole Flefli is £rm, 
and cleaves to the Stone ; and from 
amongft thefe you (hould choofefoch 
as ripen pretty early, and have a rich 
vinous }ttice ; firom which Sorts fome 
good Fruit may be expeQed. 

Thefe Scones ihould be planted In 
Autumn, on a Bed of light dry 
Sarth, about three Inches deep, and 
four Inches aCander; and in the 
Winter the Beds Ihouki be coverM, 
to prote£t them from the Froft, 
which, if permitted to enter deep 
into the Ground, will deftroy them : 


in the Spring, when the.Plants 

up, they ^ould be carefully c\c2urjd 
from the Weeds^ which flioold salfe 
be obferv'd throughout the Suotmeri 
and if the Spring ihould prove verv 
. dry^ if you refreih them no w-ancT- 
then with a little Water, it wrUI 
greatly promote their Growth i ia 
tiusBed they.fliottld remain antil 
the following Spring, when they 
ihould be carefully taken up, fo ms 
not to break their tender Roots, and 
tranfplanted into aNurfery,inRovirs 
three Feet afunder, and eighteen 
Inches diilant Plant from Pknt in 
the Rows ; obferving to lay a licde 
Mulch upon the Surface of the 
Ground about their Roots, to pre- 
vent its drying too faft : and if the 
Spring ihould prove very dry, yom 
ihould give them a little Water 
once a Week, until they have takea 
Root ; after which, (hey ihould be 
conilantly kept clear from Weeds^ 
and the Ground between the Rows 
carefully dug everySpring, to loofen 
it, fo as that the tender Fibres xnay 
ilrike out on every Side. 
^ In this Nurfery they may con- 
tinue two or three Years ; after 
which, they (hould be tranfplanted 
where they are to remain, to pro- 
duce Fruit. 

In removing thefe Trees, you 
ihould obierve to prune their down* 
right Roots (if they have any) pret- 
ty ihort, and to cut off all bruifed 
Parts of the Roots, as alfo all . th# 
fmall Fibres, which do generally 
dry, and, when left upon Uie Roou 
after planting again, grow mouldy^ 
and decay $ To that they are injur!* 
ous to the new Fibres which are ihoc 
out from the Roots, and very often 
prevent the Growth of the I'rees : 
but you ihould by no means prune 
their Meads ; for the Plants which 
are produced from Stones, are gene- 
rally of a more fporgy Texture, and 


h jooft liable to decay when co^ 
diaa tfaofe which are ba44ed npon 
otkr Stocks. Befidcsi as chcfeTrces 
nedefigned for Standards (for it is 
IOC proper to plant them againft 
tfslk, ontil yoa fee the Produce t£ 
didr f roity to ihew which of them 
dderves to be cultivated), fo they 
willDerer require any other Prune- 
lag, bat only to cut out decayed 
Branches, or fitch as Ihoot out very 
irregular firom the Sides ; for more 
don this, is generally very injuri- 
OQs to them. 

In planting tbefe Trees, it will be 
tie bmer way to difpofe them (in^ 
^ in the Quarters of the Kitchen- 
^en, where they will thrive, and 
produce Fruit, much better than if 
the^ are planted pretty near each 
other in Rows ; and as they are thus 
fiogly difpofedy they will not do 
much Injury to the Crops which 
pow under them. 

When they have produced Fruit, 
yoa will foon be a judge of their 
Goodnefs : therefore fuch of them 
is jroa difiike, may be defb-oyM ; 
hot thofe which are good, may be 
popag^ed by inoculating them 
ipon other Stocks, which is the 
comxnoD Metliod now pra^ifed to 
propa^te thefe Fruits : therefore I 
ittU now proceed to treat of that 
iBore particularly ; in doing which, 
I ihall fet down the Method now 
commonly pra&fed by the Nurfery- 
{ardeoers ; and then propofe (bme 
^ Things of my own, as an Im- 
provement thereon, for fuch Perfons 
who are very curious to have good 
^roit. But, firil, 

Vou fliould be provided with 
Stocks of the Mufcle and White 
Pear -plums, which are generally 
cftetmM the two beft Sorts of Plums 
for Stocks to inoculate Peaches and 
t^ccUrines upon • as alfo (bme Ai- 

P E 

mond and Apricot-ftocks, fof bmt 
tender Sorts Of Peaches, which will 
not grow upon PJumliocks : iheie 
fliould be all produced from tk^ 
Stone (as hath been already dire^iil 
in the Article of a ^•r/iry\^ and 
not from Surkcr% for theRcaioAS 
there laid down. 

When thefe Stocks have grown 
in the NuHery two Years, they will 
be ftrong enough to bud ; the- Sea- 
fon for which is commonly about 
Midfumnifr^ or any time in Jufy^ 
when the Rind will eaiily feparaie 
from the Wood ; when you Ihould 
make choice of ibme good Cuttings 
of the Sorts of Frott you intend to 
propagate, always observing to take 
them from healthy Trees, uui fuck 
as generally produce a good Qaanti* 
ty of well-tailed Fruit \ for it is ve* 
ry certain, that any Sort of Fruk 
may be ib far degenerated, where 
this Care is wanting, as not to be 
like the fame Kind. Befides, when- 
ever a Tree is unhealthy, the Buds 
uken from that Tree will alwaye 
retain the Diflemper,in agrrateror 
lefs Degree, according as it hath im* 
bibed a greater or lefs Quantity of 
the diflemper'd Juice. Thus^ for 
Inilance, where a Peach or NedUi* 
rine-tree hath been greatly blighted^ 
foas that the Shoots have growa 
bufled, and the Leaves carled up to 
a great degree, that Difieoiper is 
feldom recovered again by the 
greatseA Art, or at leaft not vMti 
feveral Years MaaageuHpt i for lee 
the Seafons prove ever (b favourable, 
yet theie Trees will contimMl^ 
ihew the fameDiften^per; widck 
many Peribns are U^ weak as to 
fuppofe a freih Blight « .whereas is 
reality it is no other but the Re* 
mains of the foraMr Sicknefs, 
which are ^read and i|itermix*d 
wicila^ the Juices of the Tree ; fo 


- P E P E 

tint wlifttever Budt are C»keA from The Cattings with which you M90 

'fochTrces, will aiwayi retain a Pah thus to be provided, flioiild always 
of the DiAcmper. be taken from the Trees either in a 

Upon the Care which is taken in Morning or Eveniog, or etfe in a 
the Choice of the Bods, the whole cloudy Day i for if they are cut oflT 
Snecefs depends ; therefore a Perfon when the San it very hot, the 
who is curious to have good Fruit, Shoots will perfpire fo freely, as lo 

cannot be too careful in this Parti- leave the Buds deftitme of Moift* 
cnlar : for, in general, no more Is ure i which is often the Caufe of 
tegarded by thofe Nurfery - men their mifcarrying : and the fooner 
who are the moft careful in propa- they are ufed when cut from tho 

gating the feveral Sorts of Fruit- Trees, the better they will take.The 

trees, than the taking their Buds or manner of this Operation being ful- 

Grafts from the true Kinds of Fruit- ly expIainM under the Article of 

trees : but there is ftill more Care re- Inoculation, I fhall not repeat ic in 

quired to have found healthvTrees, this Place. The Management of 

efpecially in thisofPeach andNeda- thefe Trees, during their remaining 

rines : for if the Buds are taken from time in the Nurfery, is likewife ful- 

yoong Plants in the Nurfery, which ly fet down under that Article. I 

have not produced Fruit, the Shoots fhall therefore proceed to the Plant" 

of which are generally very ftrong ing of thefe Trees, either againfl 

and vigorous, thefe Buds will have Walls, Efpalicrs, or for Standards. 

fo vicious an Habit, as rarely to be But as the future Succefs of thefe 

correded, and brought into good Trees in a, great meafure depends 

Order : for they will fhoot more upon the Soil in which they are 

like the Willow than the Peach ; the planted, I fhall briefly fet down the 

Joints being extended to a great Method of preparing the Earth for 

Diftance from<each other, the Shoots the Borders where they are defigned 

very grofs, and the Wood pithy : to grow. 

therefore where the Pradiceof take- The befl Earth for Peach-trees is 
ing the Buds from Nurfery-trees is fuch as is taken from a Failure^ 
long continued, there can be little ground, that is neither too fiifF and 
Hopes of the Trees fo raifed. I moid, nor over-dry ; but of a mid- 
would therefore recommend it to dling Nature. This fhould be dug 
all ciuious Perfoni, to procure their from the Surface of the Ground 
Buds from fnch Trees as have been about ten Inches deep, taking the 
long growing, whofe Fhiit are well- Turf with it i and ihould be laid ia 
flavooredy and the Trees ptrfeStly Heaps eight or ten Months at leaft jf 
ibond i at alfo never to make choice bat that which is prepared ooeYear^ 
of tho ftronseft or moft luxuriant is (till better before it be ufed i du- 
Shoott of thefe Trees, but fuch ring which time it fhould be often 
Shootf as are well-coodition^d, and tnm^d, to rot the Turf, and break 
whofe Bads grow pretty clofe toge- the Clods ; whereby it will be ren- 
cher. And altho* thefe do not make der*d very light, and eafy to work y 
fo ftrong Shoots the following and about the Beginning of ^///oi- 
Year, as thofe which are taken from iir you Ihould carry ic into the 
Inxariant Bnndies, yet they will be Garden, and make the Borders, 
better difpofed to bear Frnit, and which moft be raifed in Height pro- 
will mak^ much bener Trees, portignable to the Moifture of the 


P E 

thidn ; for if the Ground be vtry 
wet, it will be advifeable to lay 
iome Rubbiih in the Bottom of the 
Bolder to drain off the Moiflure, and 
to prevent the Roots of the Trees 
from mnning downward ; then raife 
the Border of Earth at lead a Foot, 
or in very wet Land two Feet, 
tbove the Level of the Ground^ fo 
that the Roots of the Trees may al- 
ways remain dry *. but if the Ground 
be pretty dry, the Borders (hould 
not be railed above fix or eightlnch- 
cs higher than the Surface i which 
will be fufficient to allow for their 

As to the Breadth of thefe Bor- 
den, that can*t be too great ; but 
theyihouid never be lels than fix 
or eight Feet broad where Fruit- 
trees are planted : for when the 
Borders are made very narrow, the 
iCoots of the Trees will be fo con- 
£o'd io four or five Years time» that 
they will feldom thrive well after. 
The Depth of thefe Borders (hould 
sot be greater than two Feet ; for 
where they are prepared to a great 
beptb, it only entices the Roots of 
the Trees downward, which may be 
the Caafe of their future Barrennefs; 
for their Roots, being got down be- 
low the Influences of the Sun and 
Showers, imbibe a great Quantity 
of crude juices ; which only add to 
the luxuriant Growth of the Trees, 
and deftroy their Fruitfulnefs : be- 
fides, whatever Fruit are produced 
fiom fuch Trees, are not near fo 
weil-taded, as are thofe which grow 
opOD thofe Trees whofe Roots lie 
near the Surface, and enjoy the 
kindly Benefit of the Sun^s Heat, to 
corredafid digeft whatever Crudi- 
ties there may be in the Earth. 

Your Borders, being thus prepa- 
red, ihould lie about three Weeks or 
a Mouth to fettle ; by which time 
the Seafon forPlanting will be come, 
Vol. III. 

P E 

which (hould be perform*d as foon 
as the Leaves begin to decay, that 
the Trees may take Root before the 
Froft comes on to prevent them. 
In the Choice of the Trees, if they 
are to be procured from a Nurfery» 
never take fuch as have large luxuri- 
ant Shoots^ or that (land in the Mid- 
dle of the Nurfery ; but^rather thofe 
which grow near the Outfide^ whofe 
Shoots are generally of a redColour, 
and the Joints clofe together : for 
thofe which have produced very 
large Shoots^ when they are cut 
down, very often die after the 
Knife ; or if they do (hoot, they 
commonlyprodQce luxuriantBranch- 
es, which are not difpofed for Bear- 
ing. Then you fhould carefully take 
up the Trees out of the Nurfery ^ fo 
as not to break or bruife theirRoots; 
and with a (harp Knife you mall 
prune the extreme Parts of them, 
and cut off fmooth any broken or 
bruifed Roots ; as alfo all the fmall 
Fibres (hould be taken off, for the 
Reafons before given. 

And having thus prepared yoar 
Trees, youihould roeafure out their 
Didance) which ought never to be 
lefs than twelve Feet; but where 
the Ground is very good, they 
(hould be planted fourteen Feet afun* 
der. This, I doubt not, will be 
thought too great a Di (lance by ma- 
ny PerfonS) efpecially fmce it is con- 
trary to the general JPra£tice at thii 
time : but I am fatis(ied, whoever 
(hall try the Experiment, will find 
it no more than is fufficient for thefe 
Trees, where they arc rightly ma- 
naged ; for if they take kindly to 
the Soil, their Branches may be fo 
trained, as to fumifh all the lower 
Part of the Wall in a few Years ; 
which is what (hould be principally 
regarded, and not, as is too often 
tht Pradlice, run up the Shoots in 
Height, and leave all the lower 
U u u Part 

P E 

Part of the Tree deWtatc of bear- 
ing Wood ; fo that, in a few Years, 
there wilt not be any Frait but upon 
the upper Part of the Trees ; which 
alfo muft be the Cafe where they 
aj^ planted too clofe ; becaufe there 
being no room to extend the Branch- 
es on either Side, they are obliged 
to lead them upright ; which pro- 
daces the before > mentioned iJl 

There may alfo be fome Perfons, 
who may think this pittance too 
ftnall for thefe Trees ; becaufe 
Plums, Cherries, and moft other 
Sort^of Fruit-trees, require much 
more room : but when it is confi- 
der'd, that Peach and Nedlarine- trees 
produce their Fruit only upon the 
former Year's Wood, fo that the 
Shoots of thefe Trees mufl be annu- 
ally fliortcncd m every Part of them, 
to obtain bearing Wood, therefore 
tibe Trees may be kept in much lets 
Compafs than thofe of any other 
Sort of Fruit, and thereby tvtry 
Part of the Wall may beconftantly 
fttpplied with bearing Branches : for 
when the Trees are planted at a 
great Diftance, the Branches are of- 
ten extended to fuch Lengths, as to 
kave the Middle of the Trees na- 

And here I can*t help taking no- 
tice of another very great Error in 
planting Wall-fruit i which is, the 
placing Standard or Half-ihindard- 
trees between the others, to cover 
the upper Part of the Wall, and to 
produce Fruit, until the Trees un- 
derneath are grown up fufficient to 
furniih the Walls, when the Stan- 
dards are to be taken away. This 
IS done without cocfidering, that the 
greater N'umbcr of Trees which are 
planted in a fmall Compafs, the Icfs 
Nouriftiment they can receive, and 
fo, confequently, muft be the weak- 
er ; for the fame Space of Ground 

P E 

can't nouri(h twenty Trees eqndly 
as well as it could ten : fo that whaf^ 
ever Strength the Standard - trees 
may have, the Dwarfs will be pro- 
portionably weaker : and it is a 
common Obfervation, that moil 
Trees extend Iheir Roots as far un- 
der-ground, as their Branches fpread 
above ground ; fo that there ihould 
always be the fame Allowance given 
to the Wall-trees, if we would have 
them flrong and vigorous ; therefore 
the building very high Walls for 
Fruit is to no Purpofe ; for a ten 
or' twelve FeetWall will be fufficient 
for moft Sorts of Fruit, except 

But to return to Planting : After 
you have mark'd out the Places* 
where each Tree is to Hand, yon 
mud with your Spade makeanHole 
wide enough to receive the Roots of 
the Tree ; th.en ydU fhould place it 
down, obferving to turn the Bud 
outward, that the wounded Part of 
the Stock may be hid ; and let the 
Stem of the Tree be placed about 
four or five Inches from the Wall, 
with its Head inclining thereto; then 
fill in the Earth with your Hands, 
obferving to break the Clods, that 
the Earth may fall in between the 
Roots, fo as no void Spaces may be 
left about them. You fhould alfo 
gently fhake the Tree with your 
Hands, to fettle the Earth down the 
better ; then with your Foot gently 
prefs down the Earth about the 
Stem ; but do not tread it down too 
hard, which is many times a very 
great Fault : for when the Ground 
is inclinable to bind, the treading of 
it clofe doth often render theGround 
fo hard, as that the tender Fibres of 
the Root« can*t flrike into it; where* 
by the Tree remains at a Stand for 
fome time ; and if the Earth be not 
loof^rnM in time, it frequently dies : 
Ho that whenever you obferve the 


P E P E 

Eattk of Toar Border to be boand^ would iojare« if not deftroy^ the rmall 
eteber by great Rains, or from any Fibres. 

other Oiafey yoa ihoaid fork and Thefe Things being duly obfertT' 

loolen it again { obierving always ed, they will reqaire no farther Care 
to do k in dry Weather, if in Win- till lYxtFehruarj following ; toward 

ter or Spring s bat in Snmmer it the Latter-end of which Monch, or 

fliould be done in a moift Seafon. the Beginning of Marcby according 

Although I have here given Di- as the Seafon is earlier or later, you 

reQioott for the Choice of Trees naft cat off the Heads of the new- 

from the Nurfery, after the ufaal planted Trees, leaving only fonr or 

Method of pkiniing thefe Trees ; five Eyes above the find ; in doing 

which is, that of taking fuch as have of which, yoa jnuft be very careful 

nade one Yearns Shoot ; yet I would not to diilurb their Roou : to pre- 

prefsr thofe which were budded the vent which, yon fliould place yoor 

preceding Summer, and have made Foot down clofe to the Stem of the 

no Shoot ; for if the Bad is found Tree, and take fad hold of that Fare 

and plnmp, and the Bark of the of the Stoc)t below the Bod with one 

Stock well clofed, where the Bud is Hand, to hold it Heady, while with 

inlerted, there will be no Danger of the other Hand you gently flope o£ * 

its growing ; and when the Bud ha« the Head of the Tree with a fliarp 

iboi to the Length of five or £^ Inch- Knife at the intended Place, which 

es, if his ftoppM by pinching off the ihould always be j aft above an Eye: 

Top, it will put oat lateral Branches, thisihould always be done in dry 

which may be trained to the Wall ; Weather ; for if there ihould be 

and this will prevent any catting off much Rain foon after it is done, the 

the Head : for thefe Trees do not Wet will enter the wounded Part,and 

care for thofe large Amputations, damage the Tree : nor (houtd it be 

efpecially fome of the more tender done in frofty Weather, for the fame 

Sorts. Aod by this Method of Reafon ; for that would enter the 

planting thefe Trees in Bud, no time wounded Part, and prevent its heal- 

will be loft ; when it is confidered, ing over. Af^er you have headed 

that the Trees which have (hot, mull the Trees, yoa ihould gently looien 

be cut down, and there is an Hazard the Earth of the Borders, to admit 

of their (hooting again : therefore I the Fibres of the Roots: but yoa 

am convinced from Experience, that muft be very careful, in doing of 

it is the bell Method. this, not to cut or brnife their new 

After you have thus planted your Roots, which would alfo da- 
Trees, you (hould fallen their Hcada mage them : and if the Mulch which 
to the Wdll, to prevent their being was laid about their Roots in Au- 
ihaken by the Wind ; which would tumn be rotten, you may dig it into 
diilurb their Roots, and break olF the Border at fome Diilance from 
the tender Fibres foon after they the Roots of the Trees • and wh>a 
were produced, to the no fmall Pre- the dry Weather comes on, you 
judice of the Trees : you (hould al- ihould pare oiF fome Turf from a 
fo lay fome Mulch upon the Sur- Failure - ground, which ihould be 
lace of the Ground about theirRoots, laid upon the Surface of the Border 
before the Froft fets in, to prevent it about the Roots of the Trees, turn- 
from penetrating the Ground ; which ing the Grafs downward: whtrh 

U u u 2 will 

P E P E 

v^ill preferve a genrle Moiftare in If flrong, may be left eight Incbfis 

the Earth, better than any other long ; bu t if weak, (hould be ftiort- 

Sort of Mulch: and this will not en'd to foar or five : then you (hould 

harbour Infeds, as mod Sorts of train them horizoatally to the Wall 

Dung and Litter do, to the no fmall (as was before diredted), (6 that the 

Detriment of the Trees. Middle of the Trees may be void of 

In watering of thefe Trees, you Branches; for that Part of the Tree 

ihould obferve to do it with aNofTel will be eafily furnifiied with Wood 

upon the Watering-pot, fo as to let afterwards; whereas, if the Shoots 

it out in Drops : for when it is hadi- are trained perpendicularly to the 

ly pourM down, itcaufes the Groand Wall, thofe whick are the ftrongeft 

to bind ; and if you water over the will draw the greateft Share of the 

Head of the Tree, it will be of great Sap from the Roots, and mount up- 

Service to it. Your Waterings ward : fo that the Side- branches wiU 

ihould not be repeated too often, be deprived of their Nourifhment» 

nor fhould they be given in great and grow weaker, until they, many 

Quantity ; both which are very in- times, decay ; and this is the Rea- 

jurious to new- planted Trees. fon, that we fee fo many Peach-trees 

In the middle of May ^ when thefe with one upright Stem in the Mid- 
Trees will have feveral Shoots fix die, and the two Sides wholly un- 
or eight Inches in Length, you furniflied with Branches ; whereby 
ihould nail them to the Wall ; ob- the Middle of each Tree cannot 
ferving to train them horizontally, produce any Fruit, that being filPd 
rubbing off all fore-right Shoots, or with large Wood, which never pro^ 
fuch as are weak, whereby thofe duces any bearing Shoots : nor can 
which are preferved will be much the two Sides of the Trees be regu- 
Wronger : but if there are not more larly filPd with fruitful Branches, 
than two Shoots produced, and thofe when this Defe£l happens to them ; 
vtry ftrong, you (hould at the fame therefore this Method Ihould be 
time nip o& their Tops ; which will carefully obferv*d in the training lip 
caufe each of them to pu(h out two young Trees ; for when they are 
or more Shoots, whereby the Wall permitted to run into Diforder at 
will be better fupplied with Branch- firft; it will be impoflible to reduce 
es : you mufl alfo continue to re- them into a regular healthful State 
freih them with Water in dry Wea- afterward, the Wood of thefeTrees 
tber, during the whole Seafon, other- being too foft and pithy to admit of 
wife they will be apt to fufier ; for being cut down again (as may be 
their Roots having but little hold of pradtis*d on many other hardy 
the Ground the firft Year after Fruit-trees, which will ihoot out 
tranfplanting, if the Seafon (hould vigoroufly again) ; whereas thefe 
prove very dry, it will greatly re- will gum at the Places where thcjr 
card their Growth, if due care be are wounded, and in a few Years in* 
not taken to water them. tirely decay. 

In the Beginning of Oclaher^ The Summer following, when the 

when you obferve the Trees hnve Trees begin to fhoot, you (hould 

done (hooting, you (hould prune carefully look over them, to rub off 

them ; in doing of which, you mail all fore right Buds, or fuch as are 

(horten the Branches in proportion to ill-placed, and train thofe which are 

the Strength of the Tree ; which, dcfiga'd lo remain horizontally to 


P E 

(lie Wall, 10 thdr doe Order as they 
are produced ; for this is the princi- 
pal Seafon when you can bed order 
the Trees as yoa would have them ; 
whereas, if they are negle£led until 
Midfummer^ as is the common Prac- 
tice, a great Part of theNouriih- 
meiit will be exhaufted by fore-right 
Shoots, and other ufelefa Branches, 
which muft afterward be cut off ; . 
and hereby the remaining Shoots 
will be rendered very weak, and per- 
haps feme Part of the Wall be in- 
tirely unfarnifh'd with . Branches ; 
which might have been eafily fup- 
plied in the Beginning of May\ by 
fbppiog fome of the ftronger Shoots 
in fuch Parts of the Tree where 
there is a NecefBty for more Branch- 
es ; which would cauie each of them 
to ihoot out two or more Side- 
branches below the Ends of the 
Shoots, which may be guided into 
the vacant Parts of the Tree, as they 
are produced, fo as that every Part 
may be regularly fumifli'd with 
proper Wood ; which is the greateft 
Beauty and Excellency of Wall- 
trees : but you (hould always forbear 
flopping the Shoots in Summer, 
where there is not a Neceifity for 
Branches to fill the Wall ; for there 
cannot be a greater Fault committed, 
than that of multiplying the Num- 
ber of Shoots, fo as to caufe a Con- 
fafion, whereby the Branches will 
be too weak to produce good Fruit : 
hefides, when they are too clofe laid 
in apon the Wall, the Air is exclu- 
ded from the Shoots by the great 
Number of Leaves, fo that they 
are never duly ripen*d ; and confe- 
quently, what Fruit is produced 
thereon, can^t be fo well-tafted as 
thofe which are produced upon fuch 
Trees where the Shoots receive all 
the Advantages of Sun and Air to 
inatu rate them. 

p E 

Thus having fet down the Method 
of training up young Trees, I (hall 
now proceed to their Pruning, and 
future Management ; which, being 
the fame as with full-grown Trees, 
will ferve for general Diredions how 
to cianage thefe Sorts of Fruit. 

In the Pruning of Peach and 
Neflarine-trees (which require the 
fame Management), the two follow- 
ing Rules fhould be firiflly obferv- 
ed ; v/». Firft, That every Part of 
the Tree be equally furni(h*d with 
bearing Wood ; and, Secondly,That 
the Branches are not laid in too 
cl^fe to each other, for the Reafons 
before laid down (with fome others 
which will be hereafter inferted). 
As to the firft, it muft be obferv'd. 
That all thefe Trees produce their 
Fruit upon the young Wood, either 
of the preceding Year, or, at moft, 
the two Years Shoots, after which 
Age they do not bear : therefore 
the branches fhould be pruned fo 
as to caufe them to produce new 
Shoots annually in every Part of the 
Tree ; which cannot be done in the' 
ordinary Method of Pruning, where , 
Perfons ncglcdl their Trees at the 
Seafon when they are moft capable 
of Management, which is in April, 
May J and June ; at which time the 
luxuriant Growth of Branches may 
be checked by pinching, and new 
Shoots produc'd- where they are 
wanting, by (lopping the neighbour- 
ing Branches; which Shoots, being 
produced at that Seafon, will have 
time enough to ripen, and gain 
Strength, before the Autumn comes- 
on; whereas all thofe Shoots which 
are produc'd after the middle of 
Jufie, will be crude and pithy ; and 
though they may fomcrimes pro- 
duce a few BlofToms, yet thofe rarely 
bring Fruit ; nor are the future 
Branches good whid) are produced 
U u 3 tVom 

P E 

from fttdi Wood, the Veflels being 
too large to drain the Juices, fo that 
they eafily admit of great Quantities 
of crudeNourilhment to pafs through 
thera. Therefore thofePerfons who 
only regard their Wall- trees at two 
different Seaibns, viz, the Winter 
and Midfummer Priuiing, cannot 
poiFibly have them in good Order ; 
for when all the Branches which were 
produced in the Spring, are permit- 
ted to remain until cfae Middle or 
Latter- end of JFime (as is the com- 
mon Pradlice), fome of the moA vi- 
gorous will draw the greateft Part 
of the Nouriihment from the weaker 
^ranches ; which, when the ilxong 
ones are taken off, will be too weak 
to produce £air Fruit ; and hereby 
the Strength of tbeTrees is exhauft- 
ed, to nourifh the ufelefs Branches, 
which are aiiDually cut off again : 
and thus are too many Trees ma- 
naged, and at the fame time Com- 
plaints m^e of their Luxuriancy ; 
pecaufe two or three Shoots, by 
drawing in the gre^teft Share of the 
Mouriihment, grow very ftrong and 
woody (whereas, if the Nouriihment 
had been equally dilh-ibuted to a re- 
gular Quantity of Branches, there 
would be no Sign of their too great 
Strength); until, by often cutting 
off thefe vigorous Branches, theTreea 
are either intirely deflroy'd, or, at 
leaft, rendered fo weak as not to be 
able to produce Fruit : for although 
by thus weakening the Branches, it 
is often the means to produce a good 
Number of Bloffoms (as may many 
times be obfervM alfo upon autum- 
nal Shoots) ; yet the utmod of their 
' Strength is fpent in expanding the 
Flowers^ fo that they rarely produce 
F.ruit; and very often the greatell 
Part of the Branches die (bon afier ; 
which is fuppofed to be occafionM 
by a Blight ; as I have elfewhere faid) 
W^tn iP icglity it is poihing lefs th^n 

P E 

the Fault of thofe who have the 
Manaeement of the Trees. It is 
therefore of thegreateAConfequence 
to the Wall-trees, efpecially of theie 
Sorts, to go over them two or three 
times in the Months of May and 
June to rub off all irregular Shoots, 
and to train in the Branches that are 
left in due Order to the Wall» that 
each Shoot may haiVe an equal Ad- 
vantage of Sun and Air ;. both of 
which are abfolutely neceiiary to ri- 
pen and pepare the Wood for the 
n^t Year's Bearing. 

And by duly oblerving. the Treea 
at this Sedifoa, there will not be Oc* 
caiion lor fo much Cutting, as it 
often prafUfed on Peach-trees, to 
their great Injury ; for their Wood- 
branches are generally foft, tender, 
and pithy, which, when greatly 
wounded, are not healed over ag^in 
fo foon as many other Sorts ofTrees ; 
and the Wet, infinuating into the 
wounded Parts, doth often caufe the 
Branches to canker and die ; which 
may be intirely avoided by the 
gentle, eafy Method of pinching 
and nibbing off the Buds in the 
Spring-feafon, which never makes 
• any Wounds on the Tree : and 
hereby a vaft deal of Labour is fa- 
ved ; for onePeribo, who is ready at 
this Buhnefs, will gp over a great 
Quantity of Walling in a D^y ; 
whereas if the Trees are permitted 
to grow rude all the Spring, they 
will require fix times the Labour to 
reduce them into Order : befides, it 
is a great Difadvantage to the Fruit, 
in permitting the Branches of the 
Trees to extend frOm the Wall, and 
(hade them : and . when they have 
grown under the Shelter of thefe 
Branches and Leaves all the Spring, 
until Midfummtr^ then by pruning 
off and ihortening moft of thefe 
Shoots, and nailing the others clofe 
to the Wall, the Fruits are fuddenly 


P E 

czpofed to die Son and Air, wberebf 
they receive a verj great Check, and 
are not only retarded in their 
JGrowth« bnt often rendered ill- 
tailed ; and have tough Skins. 

The Diflance which the Branches 
of thefe Trees ihould be allowed 
againftthe Wall, mnft be propor- 
tionM to theSizeof tbeFrait, or the 
Length of the Leaves : for if we 
obTerve how the Branches of Trees 
sat natnrally difpofed to grow, we 
ifaall always find them placed at a 
^eater or lefs Diftance, as their 
Leaves are larger or fmaller, as I 
have already oblerved ander the Ar- 
ticle of Lgm/ej: and there is no furer 
Guide to a carious Arrift thanNature, 
from whence a Gardener ihould al- 
ways be diredled in every Part of 
his Profeffion ; iince his Bafinefs is 
to aid and affift Nature, where (he is 
not capable of bringing her Produc- 
tions to Maturity ; or where there 
is room, to make coniiderable Im- 
provements by Art ; which cannot 
he any otherwife effected, than by 
gently affifting her in her own Way. 
But to return to Pruning of thdfe 
Trees : The Branches being care- 
fully trained in, as before direded, 
in die Spring and Summer- feafons, 
we come npw to treat of the Winter- 
pruning, which is commonly per- 
formed in February or March : but 
the beft Seafon for this Work is in 
Oaaber^ when their Leaves begin to 
^11, which will be early enough for 
thdr Wounds to heal, before the 
Prod comes on ; fo that there will 
he no Danger of their being hurt 
thereby : and the Branches of the 
Trees being proportion'd to the 
Strength of the Roots at that Sea- 
fon, all the afcending Sap in the 
Spring will be employed to nouriih 
only thofe' ufeful Parts of the 
Branches which are left ; whereas, 
a they ^re left unprUned till Februa - 

P E 

ry, the Sap in the Branches beinc 
then in Motion, as may be obfervea 
by the fwelling of the Buds, the 
greatefl Part of it will be drawn up 
to the extreme Parts of the Branch- 
es, to nouriih fuch BlolToms as moft 
be afterwards cut off : and this may 
be eaiily known by obferving the 
ftroogeft Shoots at that Seafon.when 
you will find the extreme Buds to 
fwell fader than moft of the lower 
ones; for there being no Leaves 
then upon theBranches, to detain the 
Sap to noorifh the lower Buds, the 
upper ones will always draw from 
thofe below. 

But it is a conflant Fradice a- 
mongft Gardeners, founded upon 
long Experience, to prune weak 
Trees early in the Winter, and 
luxuriant Trees kite m the SjM-ing, 
in order to check their Luxurian- 
cy. Now it is evident, that this 
Check does not proceed from any 
coniiderable Lofs of Sap at the 
Wounds of the pruned Tree (ex- 
cepting a few of the bleeding Trees, 
when cut at that Seafon) ; but muft 
arife from fome other Caufe ; for by 
feveral Experiments made by the 
Rev. Dr. HaUs^in 6xing Mercurial 
Gauges to the Stems of frefh cut 
Trees, he found thofe Wounds were 
conilantly in an imbibing State, ex- 
cept theVine in the Bleeding-feafon. 

When a weak Tree is pruned 
early in the Beginning of Winter, 
the Orifices of' the Sap-vefiels are 
clofed up long before the Spring ; 
and confequentiy, when, in the 
Spring and Summer, the warm Wea- 
ther advances, the attracting Force 
of the perfpiring Leaves is not then 
weakened by many Inlets from freih 
Wounds ; but i^ wholly exerted in 
drawing Sap from the Root : where- 
as, on the other hand, when a luxu- 
riant Tree is pruned late in the 
Sp""gt the Force of its Leaves to 
U U.U 4. actraQ 

P E 

attraa Sap from the I^oot will be 
much rpent and lofty at the feveral 
frefhcut Inlets. 

Befides, if it were no Advantage 
to the Trees to prune them at this 
Seafon (which I think no one will 
have Reafon to doubt, after making 
the Trial) ; but that it only fucceeds 
as well as the Spring-pruning ; yet 
there it a great Advantage in doing 
of it at Michaelmas ; for that being 
a much more leifure Seafon with 
Gardeners than the Spring, they will 
have more time to perform it care- 
fully ; and then they will not havt 
too many Things come together, 
which may require to be immedi- 
ately executed : for the Spring be- 
ing the principal Seafoh for cropping 
their Kitchen-gardens, and attend- 
ing their Hotbeds, if tney are dif- 
engaged from the Bufinefs of Prune- 
ing at that time, it will be of great 
Advantage, efpecially where there 
is a great Quantity of Walling. And 
there is alfo anotherBenefit in Prune- 
ing at this Seafon ; which is, the 
having the Bordjcrs at Liberty to dig 
and make clean before the Spring ; 
fo that the Garden may Wi appear 
in Litter at that Seafon. 

Having faid thus mpch concerning 
the time of Pruning, I (hall now 
proceed tp give fome general 
Directions how it is to be performed 
on Peach and Ne£larine-trees,which 
require a very different Manage- 
ment from moft other Sorts of 

In Pruning of thcfe Trees, you 
ihould always obferve to cut them 
behind a Wood-b ud, which may be 
cafily diftinguiihed from the B!of- 
fom-buds, that are (horter, rounder, 
and more turgid, than the )Vood- 
buds : for if the Shoot have not a 
leading Bud where it is cut, it is ve- 
ry apt to die down to the next lead- 
ing Bud s fo that what Jffruic may 

p E 

be produced above that, will comd 
to nothing, there being always ^ 
Neceility of a leading Bud to attra£^ 
the Nourifhment ; for it is notfuffi- 
cient that they have a Leaf-bud, aa 
fome have imagined, fmce that will 
attrad but a fmall Quantity of 
Nouriftiment ; the great Ufe of the 
Leaves being to per(])ire away fuch 
crude Juices as are unfit to enter 
the Fruit : the Length you fliould. 
leave thefe Branches, (hould be pro- 
portioned to the Strength of tbeTree, 
which, in an healthy flrong Tree, 
may be left ten Inches or more ; 
but, in a weak one, they fhould not 
be more than fix Inches : however, 
in this you mud be guided by the 
Pofition of a leading fiud i for it is 
better to leave a Shoot three or four 
Inches longer, or to cut it two or 
three Inches (horter, than we would 
choofe to do, provided there be one 
of thefe Buds; it being abfolutely 
ncceffary for the future Welfare of 
theTree : you ihould alfo cut oat in- 
tirely all weak Shoots, tho' they may 
have many Bloflbm - buds upon 
them ; for thefe have not Strength 
enough to nourifh the Fruit, fo as 
to give it a kindly Flavour ; but 
they will weaken the other Parts of 
the Tree. 

In nailing the Shoots to the Wall, 
you mud be careful to' place them at 
as equal Diilances as poflible, that 
their Leaves, when come out, may 
have room to grow, without (hading 
the P ranches too much ; and you 
fhould never nail them upright, if it- 
can be prevented ; for when they 
are thus traiped, they nre very fub- 
jedt to (hoot from the uppermoft 
Eyes : and the lower Part of the 
Shoots will thereby become naked. 

There is not any thing in the 
6u(iners of Gardening, which has 
more exercifed the Thoughts of the 
Curious, than how to prtrferve their 


P E P E 

lender Sorts of Frait from bein^ ed a great Blight : wbereai at tht 
blighted in the Spring of the Year ; fame time it may he often obfervM, 
and yet there has been little written that Tome Trees of a different Sort, 
8pon this Subjed, which is worth nay» even fome of the fame Sort, 
Notice. SomePerions have ptepofed which were ftronger, tho* placed in 
Mattrefles of Straw or Re^s to be the fame Soil, expofed to the fame 
placed before the Fruit-trees ag^inft Afpedt, and fubjed to the fame In- 
Walls, to prevent their being blaft- clemency of Air» have efcaped very 
cd : others have direded the fixing well, when the weak Trees have ap- 
horizontal Shelters in their Walls, peared to be almoil dead ; which is a 
to prevent the perpendicular Dew or plain Indication, that it proceeds 
Raio from falling upon the BloiToms from fome Caufe within the Tree, 
of the Fruit-trees, which they fup- and not frOm any external Blight : 
pofed to be the chief Caufe of their all this will therefore be remedied, 
Blighting : but both thefe Contri- by obferving the foregoing Diredi- 
vuces have been hr from anfwer- ons in the Pruning and Management 
ingtheExpedationsofthofePerfons of the Trees, fo as never to over* 
who have put them in Pradice, as I burden them with Branches, nor to 
haveelfewhere ihewn ; therefore it fuifer any Part of the Trees to ex- 
may not be improper to repeat fome hauft the wholeNourifhment from the 
Tluogs in this Place, which I have Root, fo as to caufe the other Farts 
before mentioned, in relation to this to be very weak ; but to diftribate 
Matter. And, the Nourifhment equally to every 
Firft, I have already faid, that Shoot, that there may be none too 
the Blights, which are fo often com- vigorous, at the fame time that 
plained of, do not fo much proceed others are too weak ; and by cooti*- 
hom any external Caufe, or Incle- nually rubbing off ofelefs or fore- 
meacy in the Seafon, as from a Dif- right Shoots, as they are produced, 
temper orWeaknefs in theTrees : for the Strength of the Trees will not 
if we obferve theTrees at thatSeafon, be fpent, to nourifli fuch Branches as 
where they are the mqft fubje£k to muft be afterwards cut out, which is 
what is called a Blight, we fhall find too often feen in the Management of 
the Branches very (mall, weak, and thefe Trees. And, 
not half ripen'd, as alfo trained in Secondly, It fometimes happens, 
very dofe to each other ; thefe that the Roots of thefe Trees are 
Branches are, for the moft part, full buried too deep in the Ground,^ 
of Bloifom-buds (which is chiefly which, in a cold or moift Soil, is one* 
occafion'd by their want of Strength), of the greateft Difadvantages that 
Thefe Buds do indeed open ; and, to can attend thefe tender Fruits 5 for 
Perfons not ikiird in Fruit- trees,(hew the Sap which is contained in the 
a great Profpe£t of a plentiful Crop Branches, being by the Warmth of 
of Fruits ; whereas the whole the Sun put ftrongly into Motion 
Strength of the Branches is fpent in early in the Spring, is exhauiled in 
noorifliing the Flowers ; and, beine nourifhingtheBlofifoms ; and a Part 
unable to do any more, the Bio^ of it is perfpired thro* the Wood- 
foms fall off, and the fmall Efforts of branches, fo Uiat its Strength is loft 
the Leaf- buds are check -d ; fo that, before theWarmth can reach to their 
inaoy times, the greateft Part of the Rootf^ to put them into an equal 
Sranchcf die ikway ; and this is call* Motion 

P E 

Motion in Search of fre(k Nonrifh- 
menc, to fupply the Expence ef the 
Branches; for want oi'which» the 
Blodbms fall off and decay, and the 
Shoots feem to be at a Stand,, until 
the farther Advance of the Warmth 
penetrates to the Roots, and fets 
them in Motion ; when fuddenly af- 
tier, the Trees, which before looked 
weak and decaying, do make prodi- 
gious Progre(s in their Shoots ; and. 
before the Summer is fpent, are fur- 
niQied with much dronger Branches 
than thofe Trees which have the full 
Advantage of Sun and Showers, and 
that are more fruitful and healthy; 
which mull certainly be owing to 
the former Obfervation, as alfo to 
their drawing in a great Quantity of 
crude Moifture; which, tho* pro- 
dudive of Wood, is yet unkindly for 
Fruit : if, therefore, this be theCafe, 
there is no way of helping this, but • 
by raifing up the Trees, if they are 
young ; or, if they are too old to 
remove, it is the better way to root 
them Qiit, and make new Borders of 
frefh Earth, and plant down young 
Trees ; fo** it is a great Veication to 
be at the Trouble and Expence of 
pruning and managing thefe Trees, 
without having the Pleafure of reap- 
ing any Advantage from them: 
which will always be the Cafe where 
the Trees are thus iojudiciouily 
planted. Or, 

Thirdly, This may proceed from 
the Trees wanting Nouri(hment|^ 
which is many times the Cafe, where 
thc^ are planted in an hard gravel- 
ty Soil, in which it is the common 
Fradlice to dig Borders three or four 
Feet wide, and' three Feet deep in- 
to the Rock of Gravd, which is 
filled with good freih Earth, into 
which the Trees are planted, where 
they will thrive pretty well for two 
Years, until their Roou reach the 
Gravelj where they are c«nfin*d» as 

P E 

if planted in a Pot ; and for want of 
proper Nourifhment, the Branches 
continually decay every Year. Thia 
cannot be.helpM, where the Trees 
have been growing fome Years^ 
without taking them iotirely up« 
or by digging away the Gravel ^ 
from their Roots, and adding a larg^ 
Quantity of frelh Earth, that ma/ 
afford them a Supply of Nduriih- 
ment : but where a Perfon intend* 
to plant Fruit-trees upon fuch a Soil« ' 
I would advife him never to dig in- 
to the Gravel ; but, on the contra* 
ry, to raife the Borders atleaft two 
Feet above it, with good frefh Earth; 
which, if made of a confiderable 
Width, fo that their Roots may 
have room to extend themfelves up- 
on the Gravel, they will enjoy the 
kindly Influences of the Sun and 
Showers,*and produce delicate well- 
flavoured Fruit in plenty. 

But if the Unfruitfulnefs of the 
Trees do not proceed from any of 
the before-mentioned Cau{es,and is 
the Effed of unkindly Seafons, then 
the beft Method ' yet known is, in 
frofty dry Weather, when little Dew 
&l]s, to fprinklethe Branches of the 
Trees gently with Water in the 
bloflbming Seafon, and while the 
yoang-fet Fruit is tender; which 
ihottld always be done beforeNoon^ 
that the Moifture may evaporate 
before the Night comes on ; and if 
in the Night you carefully cover 
theTrees withMats, Canvas, or fome 
fuch light Covering, it will be of, 
great Service to them : however, 
where theTrees are ilrong and vigop 
rous, they are not fo liable to fuffer 
by a fmall Inclemency, as are thofe 
which are weak ; fo that there will 
be few Seafons in which there may 
not be Hopes of a moderate Quan* 
tity from them ; tho* there fhould 
be no Covering ufed ; for where 
thefe Coveiin^s are ufed, if it is not 


P E 

pcrfMiBed with great Care and Di« 
ligeace, u is mach better to haYc no 
C^cruig ,lHftt U'uit to the Clefoency 
of the Seaiba : for if the Coverings 
are kept too dofe, or coonnued too 
hmg, the Trees will receive more 
Injury hereby, than from being con- 
ftiDtly ezpol'edt or if after they 
iiave been coveted for fome time, 
theyare then incaatiouflyremovedy ib 
as to ezpofe the Trees too fuddeoly 
to the open Air^ they will fufier 
more thereby than if they had not 
ken covered : however, I muft re- 
peat in this Place what has been be- 
fore mentiooed, under another Arti- 
cle, of aManagement which has been 
generally attended with Succefs i 
which U, The putting ap two Fea- 
ther-edge Deal-hoards, joined toge- 
ther^ over the Top of the Trees, fa 
as to form a Penthoufe, to caA ofF 
perpendicular Wet : theie ihoald be 
fixed ap when the Trees ^ begin to 
VioiTom, and (honid remain till the 
Froit is well fet, when they ihoaJld 
he taken down, to admit the Dew 
aodRain to the Leaves and Branches 
of the Trees, which maft not be 
koger kept off : and where tha 
Wall is loi^, and is expofed to 
Dvaughts or Currents of Wind, if 
attheDiihnce of forty Feet from 
each other are fixed fome croia 
Keed-hedges, to project about ten 
Feet from the Wall.thefe will break 
the Force of the Wind, and prevent 
itsdeib-oying of the BJofibm^; and 
thefemay be removed away, as foon 
as the Danger is over : where th^fc 
Things have been pra£ii(ed, they 
were generally attended with Suc- 
ceis ; and as there will be no Trou- 
Ue of covering and uncovering in 
this Method, after they are fixed up, 
there can be no Danger of NegleS, 
as very often is the Cafe when, the 
Troable is great, or to be often r^ 

p E 

When your Fruit is fet, and 
grown to the Bignefs of a Small- 
nut, you ihoald go over the Trees, 
aAd thin them, leaving them at leaft ^ 
^c or fix Inches aiunder ; for when 
they are permitted to remain ia 
Bunches, as they arc often produced^ 
the Nourifiiment which fhouldj^ 
employed wholly to the Fr^ts de« 
fign*d to ftand, will be equally fpent 
amongft the whole Number ; a great 
Part of which mufl be afterward 
polled off; fo that the fooner thia 
IS done, the better it will be for the 
remaining Fruit : and if it fhould 
fometiroes happen, that a Part of 
thofe left, by any Accident, fhould 
be deftroyed, yet the remaining onea 
will be much the larger and better- 
tailed for its and the Trees will 
gain more Strength ; for a mode- 
rate Quantity of Fruit is alwaya 
preferable to a great Crop ; the 
Fruit, when but few, will be much 
larger, better tafted, and the Treea 
in a Condition to bear well the fu^ 
ceeding Years : wherns when they 
are overcharged with Fruit, it is al- 
ways fmall, ifi-tafled ; and theTreea 
are generally fo much weakened 
thereby, as not to be in a Condition 
to bear well for two Years after : fo 
that, upon the Whole, it is mnch 
better to have a leiTer Number of 
pruit than is commonly efteemed a 
Crop, than to have too many ; fince 
the Fruit, and alfo theTrees, arc be- 
nefited thereby. The Quantity of 
Fruit to be left on largf fuU-growa 
Trees, ihouM never be greater than 
five or fix dozen upon each ; but on 
middling Trees, duec or fioor doaea 
will be cnou^. - * 

If the Scaibn ihoald prove hot 
and dry^ it will be prppcr to draw 
up the Earth round the Stem of each 
Tree, to form an hollow Bafin, of 
about £x Feet Diameter ; and cover 
the Surfiice of the Ground in thia 


P E 

Baflh whh Mulch ; and once or twice 
0. Week, according to the Heat and 
Drought of the Seafon, pour down 
iixteen or eighteen Gallons of Wa- 
ter to the Root of each l^ree ; or 
where there is an Engine, which 
will dilperfe the Water in gentle eafy 
Drops, like Rain, if the fame, or a 
larger Quantity of Water, is fprinkled 
all over the Branches of the Trees, 
ihis, foaking down to the Roots, 
will keep the Fruit conftantly grow- 
ing ; which will prevent their falling 
off the Trees, as they generally do 
where this Method is not pradtifed ; 
and the Fruit, being thus conflantly 
nourifhed, will be much better tail- 
ed ; and hereby the Trees will be 
maintained in Vigour ; fo that it is 
what I can, from long Experience, 
recommend as one of the moft necef- 
hry Things to be pra£Ufed by all 
Lovers of good Fruit. 

When the Peach-trees are carefully 
managed in the Spring of the Year, 
according to the Rules before laid 
down, all the Nourifhment which 
the Roots can fupply will be ufefully 
employed in nourifliing fuch Shoots 
only as are to be continued, as alfo 
the Quantity of Fruit which is pro- 
per for each Tree ; therefore both 
muft of Confequence be rendered 
better ; for where there is not this 
Care, the Trees foon grow ragged, 
and are not fumilhed properly with 
Branches ; and thofe Shoots which 
arp produced, are fome very weak, 
and others very luxuriant, whereby 
the Trees are rendered very anfight- 
)y, as alfo unhealthy; and never 
continue many Years fruitful : and 
by thus training of the Branches to 
the Wall, as they are produced, the 
Fruit will be always equally expofed 
to the Sun and Air ; which in the 
common Method of managing thefe 
Trees, by letting their Branches 
grow rude all the Spring, they are 

P E 

deprived from; and confequently 
do not receive the Benefit from thefe 
equal to thofe which are properly 
managed : and by the timely rubbing 
off ufelefs and luxuriant Shoots, ic 
will fave much Trouble, and prevent 
the Ufe of the Knife in Summer, 
which is very hurtful to thefe Trees; 
for there will be no need to (horten 
any of the Shoots in Summer. 

When thefe Rules are duly exe- 
cuted, there will be no Occafion to 
pull off the Leaves of the Trees, to 
admit the Sun to the Fruit, which 
is often pra^ifed ; for if we conii- 
der, that the Leaves are abfolutely 
neceflary to cherifhthe Bloflbm-buds, 
which are always form'd at the Footr 
ffailks of the Leaves, the pulling them 
off before they have performed the 
Office affign*d them by Nature, is 
doing great Injury to the Trees : 
therefore I caution every one againft 
that Practice. 

It is a common Opinion which has 
for fome Years prevailed, even 
Jimong Perfons of good Underfbod- 
ing. That Peach-trees are not long- 
livM ; therefore ihould be renewed 
every twenty Years : but this is a 
great Miftake ; for I have eaten fome 
of the fineft Peaches of various 
Kinds, which grew on Trees which 
had been planted above fifty Years : 
and I am convinced, by Experience, 
that when the Trees are budded up- 
on proper Stocks, and carefully 
planted and managed, they may be 
continued fruitful and healthy fixty 
Years and upward ; and the Fruit 
produced on thefe old Trees will be 
much better flavoured than any of 
thofe upon young Trees : but I fup- 
pofe the Foundation of the above 
Opinion was taken from the French^ 
who generally bud their Peaches up* 
on Almond - flocks, which are of 
fhort Duration ; thefe feldom lading 
good more than twenty Yeass : but 


tbis bdng feldom pradifcd in Eng* 
iaad, the Cafe is widely dilFerent ; 
nor indeed fhoald we fetch our Ex- 
amples from that Nation, where the 
Profefibrs of the Art of Gardening 
are at leaft a Century behind the Eng- 
iijb; and, from their prefent Difpo- 
fition, feem unlikely to overtake 
them ; for they depart from Nature 
in ^moft every Part of Gardening, 
and are more pleafed with introduce* 
ing their little Inventions of pruning 
and managing their Fruit-trees, ac- 
cording to their ownFancy, than they 
are careful to draw their inllrudions 
from Nature, from whence the true 
Art is to be obtained ; fo that in 
very few Inftances Gardeners (hould 
deviate from Nature, unlefs it be in 
thofe Particulars, where Art may be 
pradifed to the greateit Advantage ; 
which is in the procuring many Sores 
of efculent Plants and i*ruit$ earlier 
and better flavoured than can be ob- 
tained without ; in which they are 
extremely deficient ; and herein they 
troll too much to Nature, and ufe coo 
litde Art. 

In one of the mod celebrated of 
their Authors, who treats very par- 
ticularly of Fruit-trees, there are 
Biredions for planting of Peach- 
trees twelve Feet afunder : and at 
the fame time he advifes the plant- 
ing of Pear-trees but nine or ten 
Feet Diftance ; and yet he fays, 
That a Pear tree in Health will 
flioot three Feet on each Side every 
Year : therefore he does not allow 
room for ihefe Trees to grow more 
than two Years before they meet. 
There is alfo another thing pofitive- 
ly laid down by the fame Author ; 
which is, never to lay any Dung 
npon the Borders where Fruit-trees 
are growing; which he fays will 
render the Fruit ill-tafled : and this 
Opinion has too generally prevailed 
in England; bat this has been expio* 

P E 

ded by one of his own CoantrymetU 
who affirms that, from upward of 
twenty Years £xperience,thofe Trees 
where the Borders had been conilant- 
]y dung*d, always produced the molt 
delicious Fruit ; and the Trees were 
in the greateft Vigour : and the fame 
Gentleman mentions the Pra6lice of 
the Gardeners at Montr^ui/^ near 
Pari J f who have for fome fenera- 
tions been famous for the Culture of 
Peaches ; and are as careful to dung 
the Borders w^ere their Peach trees 

fow every other Yeaj', as the 
itchen gardeners are for their Le- 

And from a long Experience it is, 
that I can fubfcribe to the Truth of 
this • for in fome particular Gardens, 
where the bell Fruit grew tliat I have 
yet tafted, the Ground was conflantly 
dunged every other Year ; therefore 
it is what I mud recommend to the 
Praflice of every -curious Perfon ; 
with this Caution, always to ufe 
fuch Dung for their Borders, as is 
well rotted ; and to dig it into the 
Borders in November ^ that the Rain 
may wafh down the Salts before the 
Spring comes on ; and where the 
Ground is very loofe or fandy, it 
will be the belt way to make ufe of 
Neats-dung, which is cooler than 
that of Horfes ; but for cold ilrong 
Land the latter is to be preferred. 

If the Ground is well trenched 
every Year, about the Roots of the 
Trees, it will be of great Service to 
them ; and where the Soil is fubjedb 
to bind very clofe, if it is forked two 
or three times in a Year, to loofen the 
Surface,it will greatlyhclp theTrees: 
the Borders fhould not be croud- 
ed with any large-growing Plants, 
which will draw away the Nourifh- 
ment from the Trees; ther<rfore when 
any S6rt of Kitchen-herbs are plants 
ed on thefe Borders, they (hould b^ 
only fuch as are of fmall Growth, 


P E 

and wKidi may be taken oiF early in 
the Spring : and if this is carefully 
abfenred, the coltirating fmallThiDgs 
on thefe Borders can do no Harm ; 
becaofe the Ground will be iHrr*d 
the oftener, on account of thefe 
fmall Cropi» dian perhaps it would 
have been, when no Ufe was to be 
made of the Borders. Thefe Rules 
which are here laid down, if pro* 
perly obfenred, will dired any curi- 
ous Peribn how to have plenty of 
good Fruit ; as alfo to preferve the 
Trees in Vigour a great Number of 

PERSICARIA, Arfe-fmart. 
The Cbarafferi are ; 

li is a Plant nvitb an apetalons 
Flonver^ having fe*veral Stamina, or 
Cbi*veSi lubicb arifefrom the multtfid 
Calyx : the Pointal afterward becomes 
an oval-pointed fmooth Seed, inclofed 
in the CapfuUy luhich tvas before the 
Flonver-cuf : to ivbicb may be added. 
It hath jointed Stalks, and the FUfw* 
ers are produced in Spikes, 
The Species are ; 

I . p£ as I c A R I A mitis macukfa, C, 
jB. p. Dead or Spotted Arfe-fmart. 

Z.Persicaria vulgaris acris,feu 
Hydro piper, J, B, Water- pepper. 
Lake- weed, or Arfefmart. 

3. PersicaRIA major, lapatbifo- 
aisp caiyce floris pur pur eo, Toum, 
Greater Arfe-fmarc, with Dock- 
leaves, and a purple Flower-cup. 

4. Persicaria Orientalis, Nico- 
tians folio f caiyce Jlorum purpureo, 
7*. Cor. Eaftern Arfe-fmart, with a 
TobaccQ-leaf, and a purple Flower- 

There are feveral other Species of 
this Plant, which grow wild upon 
moid Soils and Dunghils, in divers 
Parts oi England: but as they are rare- 
ly cultivated in Gardens, and being 
Plants of no Ufe at prefent, I omit 
enumerating them in this Place. 

The two firft Sorts here mention- 

p E 

ed are fomctimes nfed in Medkine ; 
the !attcr of wbich is a very iiarp 
acrid Plant, from whence it had its 
Name of Water-pepper and Arfe- 
fmart : this is a perennial Plant, 
which grows in great Plecty on thd 
Sides of Ditches, and in moift Places, 
almoft in every Part of England', and 
is a very bad Weed, if once it geU 
Pofleffion in a Garden ; for theJloots 
ejttend themfelvcs greatly under- 
ground, and arife from every Joint, 
as doth Couch-grafs; fo that it is 
with great Difficulty extirpated. 

The firft is an annual Plant, that 
propagates itfelf in great Plenty from 
Seeds; which failing upon the 
Ground, the Plants rife the fucceed- 
ing Spring, and fpread over the 
Ground, whcre-ever they are per- 
mitted to grow ; (o that they (hould 
not be fuffered to remain in Gar- 
dens : thefe are both gathered in the 
Fields in Autumn for medicinal Ufe, 
when they are in PerfeAion. 

The thirdSort is cultivated in fome 
cnrioas Gardens for Variety, it make- 
ingaii handfome Appearance during 
the Seafon of its Flowering : this may 
be propagated |)y fowing the Seeds 
upon a Bed of rich moifl Earth in Au- 
tumn, foon after they are ripe ; and 
the Plants will come up the Spring 
following, when they may be tranf- 
planted into the Borders where they 
are to remain : this is alfo an annual 
Plant, which requires to be fown 
evtry Year, or the Seeds permitted 
to (bed, which will grow better chan 
thofe which arc fown by Art. 

The fourth Sort was brought from 
the Eaftcm Country by Monf. 7o»r- 
nefort, to the Royal Garden at 
Paris, from whence it hath been 
fince communicated to feveral Parts 
of Europe, This Plant, tho' but an 
Annual, doth grow to be ten or 
twelve Feet high, and divides into 
feveral Branches, each of which 


P E 

mdoces a baatiful Spike of purple 
Flowers at their Extremities in the 
Aatamn ; which, together with its 
hrge green Leaves, and jointed 
Stalks, make a very grand Fi^c 
m the Borders of large Gardens* late 
in the Seafon, when few other Plants 
arcin Beauty. 

The Seeds therefore fhoold be 
fown in Autumn, as foon as they are 
ripe 5 or, if they are permitted to 
hH on the Ground, the Plants will 
come up the Spring following better 
diao when they arc fown by Art, as 
was before obfervcd ; for if the Seeds 
are fown in the Spring, it is very 
rare, that any of them lucceed ; and 
if fome few Plants come up from 
diofe Seeds fown at th^t Seafon, they 
feldom grow near fo ftrong as tbofc 
which arc produced from the Seeds 
which fell in Autumn ; fo that there 
is no other Culture required to this 
Plant, but to tranfplant them out in 
the Spring, where they arc dcfign'd 
to ftand, which fhould be in large 
Gardens, giving them great Space; 
for if ibcy arc placed near other 
PUnts, they will (hade them intircly 
from the Sun ; and, by continually 
dripping upon them, will greatly m- 
jore them j and if they iland too 
dofe, their Beauty is greatly dimi- 


When the Plants bcgm to afpirc 
upward, which is commonly in 
June, their Side (hoots (hould be 
pruned off, to make them advance 
Jn Height, and preferve them with- 
in Compafs ; othcru ife they are very 
fufajea to branch out widely on every 
Side, fo as to become troublefome m 
a Garden ; but when they are pru- 
ned up regularly fiveor fix Feet high, 
they may afterwards be permitted 
to fhoot out Side - branches ; iince 
thofe which are produced above 
that Height, will never be very 
long or uoublcfome, but will add to 

P E 

the Beauty of the Plant : this de- 
lights in a rich moift Soil, upon 
which it will grow to a prodigious 
Height : it produces its Flowers to 
Augufi and Septemhtr, which continue 
inBeauty until theFroft deftroys them. 

PER VI NC A, Periwinkle. 
The Cbara&trs are ; 

ne Fi9wer'CMp eonfifis #/ em Ltaf, 

nvbich is dinfiitd int9 finjt l<mg nar- 

rcRu Sfgments : the Fiotver alfo con* 

fiftsofone Leaf, which expands in/9 

the Form of a Salver^ and is cut intw 

fi*ue broad Segments : the Pcintai, 

nvhich arifes from the Centre of the 

Fiower-cufi becomes a Fruity compofed 

of tnuo Hufks (or Pods), ivhieb con- 

tain oblong cylindrical furro^d Seeds: 

to which may be added, 7hat thit 

Plant fhoots out many long creeping 

^ranches, tuhich firike out Roots at 

their Joints, 

The Species are ; 

1 . Pe R V I N c A ^vulgaris engnftifi- 
lia, flore caernleo. Toum, Common 
or narrow leav*d Periwinkle, with a 
blue Flo^'cr. 

2. Pervinca ^vulgaris anguftifo' 
Ha, flore alho. Toum. Common Peri- 
winkle, with a white Flower. 

3. Pervinca vulgaris latifoliet^ 
flore coeruleo. Toum, Greater Pcri- 

winkle» with a blue JFlowcr. 

4. Pervinca ^vulgaris angufiifclla^ 
flore ruhente, Tourn. Common Peri- 
winkle, with a redi(h Flower. 

5. Pbrvikca n)ulgaris angujiifo' 
Ha, flore pleno, faturate purpureo» 
Toum. Common Periwinkle, with 
a double Flower, of a deep purple 

6. Pervinca anguflifolia *vnlga-' 
ris variegata ex aureo bf viridi. 
Boerh Ind. Common Periwinklct 
with yellow ftriped Leaves. 

7. Pervinca anguflifolia 'vulgaris 
njariegata ex argenteo {ff *viridi, 
Botrh. Ind. Common Periwinkle, 
with fdver-fbipcd Leaves. 


The firft Sort grows wild ift di- 
vers Parts of England, and is not fo 
much cultivated in Gardens at pre- 
sent as it was formerly, when it was 
planted for Edging of Borders : but 
the Shoots being very ape to root at 
their Joints, rendered it very diffi<;ult 
to preferve in any tolerable Order ; 
and the Plants^ rooting deep in the 
Ground, greatly exhauft the Good- 
nefs of the Soil ; fo that it is now 
almoft wholly caft out of Gardens. 

The fecond and fourth Sorts are 
Varieties from the firft, differing 
only in the Colour of their Flowers i 
as are alfo the fixth and feventh^ 
which differ in their variegated 
Leaves, for which they are preferv*d 
ia the Gardens of thofe who admire 
ftriped Plants. 

The fifth Sort produces fine dou- 
ble Flowers, which makes a very 
bandfome Appearance during its Sea- 
fon of Flowering ; which renders it 
worthy of a Place in every Garden. 

The third Sort grows much larger 
than the former, and produces large 
blue Flowers: this is found m 
Woods, and (hady Places, in di* 
vers Parts oi England. 

All thefe Plants multiply exceed- 
ingly by their Shoots from the old 
Roots, which, trailing upon the 
Ground, flrike out Roots in a fhort 
time, and may be taken olF, and 
tranfplanted where they are to re- 
main : and though they are not fo 
proper for a Flower-garden, yet a 
lew Roots of each Sort may be 
planted in fhady Borders under Trees, 
where few other Plantk will thrive, 
or in fmall WilderneiTes ; in which 
Places, if they are kept within Com- 

?afs, they make a pretty Variety, 
^he large Sort may be planted un- 
der Hedges, in Woods, ^c, where 
it will grow four or h^t Feet high, 
and continue a long time in Flower. 

1* B 

TbefbPlaiits propagate themfdvei 
by Roots fo plentifully, that the/ 
feldom produce Fruit, 

Moni. Toumefort fays, He could 
never obferve any Fruit upon them 
either in the Country adjoining xa 
Partly or in Provence or Languedoc^ 
where they are very common, or iik 
the Neighbourhood of DJlon, 

Of all the Botanical Writers be- 
fore Tourne/erff Ca/alpinus is the 
only Perfon who found and defcribed 
this Fruit : which, he fays^ is oblongs 
being two forkM Hulks, arch*d and 
conjoined at their Extremities, con- 
taining, for the moft p^t, two ob-« 
long Seeds in each. 

To have this Plant produce Fruity 
Monf. Toumefort advifes its being 
planted in a Pot that contains but » 
fmall Quantity of Earth; fo that 
the Sap, being prevented from dif-* 
fipating and fpending itfelf upon 
nouriihing new Shoots^ will mounc 
the Stems, and fwell the Pointai^ 
which becomes the Fruit ; and this, 
he fays, was the Method whereby he 
obtained the Fruit of this Plant, of 
which he has given a Figure in his 
Elements of Botany^ 

But notwith (landing what Monfi 
Tournefort has related concerning 
this Matter, yet I have often ob* 
ferv'd the Fruit upon fuch Plants as 
have grown fingly on a good Soil i 
though where their Shoots are per* 
mitted to entangle with each other^ 
and grow very dofe, there is feldom 
any Fruit produced. 

PETASmS, Butter-bur. 
The CbaraSeri are; 

It is a Plant *wtth a fiofcuUmi 
Flofwer^ confifiing of many Florets^ 
di'vided into many Parts ^ fitting om 
the Embryo, and contained in a cylin^ 
drical Empalementy di<vidtd alfo into 
many Parts : the Embryo aftemuard 
b:comcs a StcdfurniJFd <witb Down s 


P E P E 

^^khmaybe aided^ TheTttFwtn The CharaSin wrt i 

^tftar hefoTi tbi Leaves. It bmtb a FUtver eemfifiing •ffmir 

The Species are ; Leaves^ wbieb are placed almoft in 

1. Pbtasitbs major li vulgaris, tbe Ferm of a Crofs^from vnbofe Cup 
C, B, P. Common Batter-b Ur, or rifes tbe Pointal^ nvbicb after*ward 
?efi]]eDt-wort. becomes tbe Fruity vobicb is bordered 

2. PBTASITES major ^ Jloribuspe* eend cut at tbe Top^ refimbiing an in* 
dicuUs Uugis iufidentibus. Raii Sju. verfed Sbield contaifiing oblong Seeds^ 
Greater Butter- bur, with long Foot- We know bat one Species of tbia 
fiilks to the Flowers. Plant ; vrs. 

3. Pbtasites a/(ftr/, angsdofofo* PETWiKiKfolatii/oliisJocuiisJpi'' 
Mo. J. B. White Batter-bar, with uofis. Plum. Nov. Gen. Petiireria 
angular Leaves. with Nightfhade-leaves, and prick!/ 

4. Pbtasitbs minor alter^ tuffiia- Seed-veffels, commonly callM Guiney 
ginisfoHa. H. R. Par. Lefler But- Hcnwecd. 

tcr bar, with a Col tV foot leaf. This Name was given to thia 

The firft Sort here mentioned is Plant, by Father Plmmer, who diA 

iu*d in Medicine : this grows wild in cover*d it in America ; in Honour to 

peac Plenty by the Sides of Ditches, Mr. James Petiver an Apothecary^ 

aad in moift Soils, in divers Parts of who was a cnrioas Botanift. 
England. The Flowers of this Plant It is a vtry common Plant in Ja^ 

appear in the Beginning of Marcb 1 maica, Barbados^ and moil of the - 

and after they are paft, the green other Iflands in the fTeJi-Indiesp 

Leaves come up, and grow to be where it grows in (hady Woods» 

^try large. and all the Savaknas, in fuch Plenty » 

- TheiecondSortwasfoandbyMr. as to become a very troubleTome 

J^fcob Bobart in Oxford/hire^ and fent Weed } and as this Plant will endure 

to the Ptyjic-garden at Cbelfea : this ft great deal of Drought, fo it re« 

difos gr«u]y from the former in its mains green^ when other Phutt are 

Manner of Flowering ; for the Flow- burnt up, which occafions the Cattle 

er-ficms of this Sort rife near two to brouze on it; and having a moft 

Feet high, and the Flowers grow unfavoury ftrong Scent, fomewhat 

upon long Footftalks ; whereas the like wild Garlick, it gives the Cowe 

Stems of the common Sort feldom Milk the fame Flavour; and the' 

Yife above eight or ten Inches high, Cattle which are kiird foon after 

and the Flowers dofely furround feeding on this Plant, have a moft 

the Stalkf . intolerable Scent, fo that thdr Flelk 

The other two Sorts are prefervM is good for little. • 

in Bounic Gardens for Variety ; but Jn Europe this Plant is prefervM ua 

as they have little Beau^, fo they the Gardens of thofe Perfons wh0 

ere feldom propagated in other Gar- are curious in Botany : but there ia 

dens: they all of them increafe little Beauty in it; and having fo 

greatly by their creeping Roots, and, ftrong rank a Scent upon l^ing 

if placed in a moift Soil, will in a handled, renders it lefs valnable. It 

ftiort time over-ran a large Coropafs is propagated by Seeds, which muft 

of Ground. be fown on an Hot^bed early in tbe 

FETIVERIA, Guinoy Henweed, Spring ; and when the Plants are 

nmlgo. come up, they fhould be each tranf- 

Vol. III. X X X plantiif 

P E 

planted into a Ceptrate Pot, and 
phinged into a moderate Hot-bed to 
bring them fo^ard. When the 
Pknu have obtained a good Share of 
Strength, they (hould be inur^ to 
bear the open Air by degrees s into 
which they may be remov*d toward 
the Latter* end of June^ placing 
them in a 'warm Sitnation, where 
they may remain till Autumn, when 
they fhoald be femov*d into the 
Stove, and in Winter rouft have a 
moderate Degree of Warmth, other- 
wife they will not live in thisCoantry. 
Thcfe Plants will grow woody» 
and (hoot oat many Side- branches, 
but feldom rife above two Feet high. 
They will produce Flowers and 
Qeeds evevy Summer, and will con* 
timie fevenl Years, .remaining con- 
ibmtly green throughout the Year. 
. F£UC£DANUM, Hogs-fenel. 
The Cbmra&^i are \ 
It is « Flawt 'wiih a R^ft mnd um* 
hiUated FUwer, coftjtfiipg ifmawf ?#- 
imU fUcid orhitnlarljf and refting 9m 
tht. im^Ument^ vobicb bicomn a 
fruit €mprfed rf two Suds^ niJ^icb 
gurealsmfiplmn^ vomly gtntly firMk" 
id^ mmd b^rdtr^di to tbt/o Murkt muft 
be addidf Tbat tbe Lea^s are wing- 
«/, nsrrow^ V^Jflt ftmd dimidid into 
ibrti Segments. 

The Species are,; 
1. Peucidanum mMJns ItaUeum. 
C. B. P. Greater Hogs-fenel. 

a. fesuCftOAMUM minus Germttni' 
€am.'J,B. Lefler German Hogs- 
lenel,. orSulphurwort. 

There are feveral other Sfeciet of 
thia Plant, which are preferv*d in 
femecttriotts Botanic G^dens; bat 
as they are Plants of Iktle Beauty or 
Ufe, it would be needlefs to enu- 
merate their feveral Varieties in this 

The firA Sort here mentioned is 
n&t v«ry common in Ef^iand, being 

p H 

only to be fenad in fome cnriooa 
Gardens: but the fecond Sort (whick 
is direded to be uied in Medicine) is 
found wild in watry Places, in it- 
veral Parts of England^ 

Thefe Plants may becnltivaced hf 
Cowing their Seeds on a moiil Soil in 
the Autumn, foon after they are ripe^ 
in which Place tbe Pkau will couio 
up ilrong the fucoeeding Spring 
when they (hould be carefully weed- 
ed, and drawn out, where they are 
too clofe, otberwife they will draw 
each other up very weak ; and the 
Autumn following they may be 
taken op, and tranfplanted where 
they are to remain, in which Phce 
they (houfd be pkmted at leaft 
two Feet afunder ; for their Rooca 
will grow ytry laige, and braadi 
out greatly when they have ac* 
qnired Strength., The fecond Year 
after (owing, they will product 
Flowers and Seeds ; bnt the Roots 
will abide many Years. 

PH ACA, Baftard MUk-vetch, or 

The CbaraSers are; 

Tbe Empalement of tbe Flower is 
tnbnUns, and cstt into fioe Parte at 
tbe Brim : tbe Flower is of tbe fafi* 
lionaeeoiss JGnd, <on/ifiing of em oiaJ 
Standard^ two fi}ort Wings^ and an 
obtnfejhort Keel: tbe Pointal after* 
Kvardbeeomes a /welling Pod^ nuitk 
tbe sspper Stustre defre/s*d^ bawng one 
Cell containing many Jiidney -Jbafed 

The Sfedis are ; 

I . Ph A c A legnnnnibus r$&is. F/«r. 
Lejd. BaiUrd Milk-vetch with (hail 

S. Phaca Ifgnminibns arena tis, 
Fkr, Leyd. Baftard Milk-vetch, with 
arched Pods. ' 

This Plant being near-of-kin to 
the AAragalus, or Milk-vetch, Dr, 
Tonmefort gave it theTitle oiAftra- 
galoides \ but Dr. Lihn4tw hat alterM 


h to thU cl Phdum i rejeAing the 
otiicr on account of its being a com- 
ponod Name. 

Thefe Plaou are Natives ofPer^ 
tt^al and SpMn^ from whence the 
Seeds have been pfocured by fome 
PeHbos yrho are carious in coUedt- 
ing rare Plants : the £rft Sort has 
been long preferv'd in ibme carious 
Gardens in EmgUnd i but the other 
is more rare at prefent. 

Tiie Roots of thefe Plants will 
abide many Years, and run very 
deep ioiD the Ground i but the 
Branches decay every Aatomn, and 
the Roots produce frefli every Spring, 
which will rife near four Feet high, 
and grow ligneous. The Flowers 
are produced in fhort Spikes from 
the Wings of the Leaves : but, un* 
]iXs the Seafon proves very warm, 
they rarely flower in England i for 
which Reafon the Plants are not 
mnch efteemM : f^r it is not once 
in fe«en Years, that the Flowers ar- 
rive to Perfedk>n, nor do the Plants 
ever produce Seeds in England: fo 
that the Seeds moft be procured from 
abroad, by thofe who are defirous to 
have thePlants. 

The Seeds ihould be fown in the 
Place where the Plants are ~to re- 
main ; for as they (hoot their Roots 
very deep into the Earth, fo it is 
wcry dimcalt to tranfplant them 
widi any Safety, efpedally after 
they have remain*d any coniidera- 
ble time in the Seed - bed. The 
Plantt fhould be left about £x Feet 
afunder, that there may be room to 
dig the Ground between them evtry 
Sp"ng, which is all the Culture 
they require. 

PHALANGIUM, Spiderwort. 
The Cbtaraatrs are j 

li is m Plant ivUi m Ulyflontiir ^ 
tomfnfed §f fix PttaU» from , whofe 
Cmtn rifh the P$it0al, nubicb of-' 
itnjmrd hc9mt$ a r99nd\/b Fndt^ di» 

p H 

ntidsdinto threi Cills^ WidfullofmiZ 
gular Seeds: to thefe Marh mufi hi 
added f Afihrofe Root^ in order to di" 
fiinguijb it from the On^thogalum. 
The Species are ; 

1. PuAi^KHGivu fartvo flori, ra» 
mofum- C. B. P. Branched Spi« 
derwort, with a fmall Flower: 

2. Phalanoiom far^ofiori^ nom 
romofum, C. B, P, Unbranch*d 
Spiderwort, with a fmall Flower. 

3. Phalangium Jffricannm^ Jh* 
rihm Inteii parqnj. Raii Hift.Afri^ 
can Spiderwort, with fmall yellow 

4. Phalangium acauton^foliis 
fnhnlatis^ fiorihnf in thyrfo futeis. 

Low Africa^ Spiderwort, with flat 
Onion-leaves, and yellow Flowers 
difpQs^d in a loofe Spike. 

5. Fu At AHCiv u j^cammf fi' 
tih eeUuiiSfJlorthns J^icatis attreii* 
Boerh. Ltd. African Spiderwoitt 
with Onion-leaves, and goldenFlow* 
ers growing in Spikes, faJfly called 
tn Aloe. ' 

6. Phalangium JBtlnoficnm ra* 
mofum^florihus alhis^ fetalis refiexis* 
Hort. Amft. Branchy Sthio^am 
Spiderwort, with white Flowera^ 
whofe Petals are tam*d backward. 

The firfl and fecond Sorts Suti 
abiding Plants, which are propagated 
in curious-Gardens, for the fake of 
their Flowers i a|id though they are 
not very beautiful, yet, for their long 
Continuance in Flower, they de* 
ttvf^ a Place in the open Borders 
of every curious Flower-garden. 

Thefe may be propagated either 
from Seeds, or by partins their 
Roots. The beft time to low the 
Seeds is In .Autumn, foon after they 
are ripe, in the manner diredted for 
bulbous- rooted Flowers, with which 
thefe Plants agree in their Culture, 
and the fecond Year after fowinf, 
will produce Flowers. The Sea- * 
fon for parting their Roots is in 
Xxx a ' Sep- 



Ztptimber ; !n doing which, yoa 
mufl obferve to preferve a good 
Head to each OfF-fet, and not to 
diiride them too fmal), which will 
caufe them to flower weak the fol- 
lowing; Summer : they delight in a 
frefh light Earth, and an open Situa- 

The third Sort is an annual Plant, 
which {hould be fown on a Bed of 
light Earth, in March i and when 
the Plants ar.e come up, they muft 
be tranfplanted where they are to 
remain ; in which Place they muft 
be kept clear from Weeds, which 
is all the Culture they require: they 
produce their Flowers in July, and 
Iheir Seeds are perfected in Augufl. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts are 
preferv*d in Green - houfes^ with 
other fucculent Plants, amongfl 
which they make a pretty Variety, 
there being fcarcely a Month in the 
Year when there are not fome of the 
Spikes of Flowers of the fifth Sort 
in Beauty. This was formerly call'd 
an Aloe, which Name is ftill retained 
by unikilful Perfons, though it is 
iraftly different therefrom in its 
whole Appearance. This Plant mul- 
tiplies very faft by OfF-fets, which, 
tho' product at fome Diftance from 
the Earth, yet emit Roots of a con- 
fiderableLength; and,when planted, 
immediately faften in the Earth : 
they fhould be planted in Pots of 
light fandy Earth, and hoafed in 
Winter, with Ficoides*s, and other 
bardy fucculent Plant?, where they 
xa^y have free open Air ; for they 
are hardy, and require only to be 
protected from Froft. The fourth 
Sort grows very low, theLeaves refl- 
ing upon the Surface of the Ground: 
this flowers in April and May^ and 
perfe^s its Seeds every Year ; where- 
by it may be propagated in plenty. 

The fixth Sort is alfo preferv*d in 
fome curious Gardens^ with other 

P H 

■ I 

Exotic Plants, in the Green-honie : 
this is multiplied by parting the! 
Roots : the beft Seafon for doing 
this is in Augufi^ when moft of the 
Leaves are decayed : they (hould be 
planted in Pots £ird with light 
fandy Earth, and houfed inp Winter 
with the' laft: this produces large- 
branching Stems, which are. thinly 
befet with Flowers, that have their 
Petals reflex*d, and are of a whitifh 
Colour ; but continue a long time in 


PH ASEOLUS, Kidney-bean. 
The CbaraBer$zxt\ 

It is a Plant <with a fafilimaeeout 
Flo^ver, out of nnhofe Empaloment 
rifes tbi Pointal, nubicb efter^iuard 
becomes a lojrg Pod, pregnant *witb 
Seeds,, for tbe mofi part Jbaped Uke a 
Kidney, or oval : to tbeft Notes are 
to be added. Leaves grotving if^ Threes 
on lacb Pedicle, and tbe Plant for tBe 
moft part cltTnbing. 

It would be to little Purpofe to 
enumerate all the Varieties of this 
Plant which have come to Know- 
lege, in this Place ; fince America 
annually furnifhes us with new 
Sorts, to that there is no knowing 
what Varieties there may be pro- 
ducM in England : befides, as they 
are not likely to be much cultivated 
here, fince the old Sorts are prefera- 
ble to any of the new ones, for the 
Kitchen ; therefore I fhall only iiri^ 
fet down a few Sorts which are cul- 
tivated for their Flowers, or as 
Curiofities, and then mention thofe 
which are moft eileem^d for theTable. 

1. Phaseolus Ltdicus.flore coc^ 
cineo, feu puuiceo, Mor. Hift. The 
Scarlet Bean. 

2. Phaseoivs Amerscanus peren'* 
nis,ftere cocbleato odorato, feminibus 

fufcis orbiculatii, CaracalU diBut. 
H. L. Perennial American Kidney- 
bean, with fwect-fmelling oochleated 



Flowers, commonljr calPd Caracal- 

3. Phaseolus AmiricanMjg ftru" 
m»fa radUi^ fion fwrfurt9f filiqua 
wtpgfijpma, Pimm, Jbuericam Kid' 
ney-beaoywitli a ftromofeRoot^a pur- 
ple Flower, and a very narrow Pod. 

4. Phaseolus Cmnadenfit furfU' 
ms minor^ radice wvaci, ScboLBot, 
Small purple Kidney -bean, with a 
perennial Root. 

The firft of thefe Plants is very 
common in the Englijb Gardens, be- 
ing planted for the Beauty of its 
icarlet Flowers: this Plant fpreads 
itfelf very ^r, fo that it (hould be 
a]lowMroom,otherwife it will over- 
run whatever Plants grow near it. 
The Seafon for plandne the Sctdt of 
this Plant is in the Beginning of 
^Mi^ obferving always to do it in 
dry Weather, otherwife the Seeds 
will burft and rot : they wilt pro- 
doce their Flowers by the Beginning 
of Jmlj, and will continue flower- 
ing until the Froft prevents them ; 
and their Seeds will ripen in Siftem' 
htTy when they (hould be gathered, 
and jpreferved in a dry Place until 
the uicceediDg Spring, in order to 
be fewn. This Plant, being annual, 
perifhes with the firft Approach of 
Winter : it will thrive "^txy well in 
the City, the Smoke of the Sea-coal 
being Ids injurious to thii Plant than 
moft others , fo that it is often culti- 
Tated in Balconies, &r. and, being 
ibpported either with Sticks or 
Strings, grows up to a good Height, 
and produces Flowers as it advances: 
ft is alfo planted in fome Gardens, 
to coverArbours ,and other Scats, in 
the Smnmer-ieafon, to afford Shades 
fof which Porpofe it will do very 
well : but the Seeds mud be planted 
where they are to remain s for the 
Plants don't bear to be tranfplanted; 
lefpecially after they have been any 
time out of the Ground. 

\ > 

The fecond Sort is an abidli 
Plant, which may alfo be propaga- 
ted by Seeds, which (hould be fown 
in a moderate Hot- bed in theSpringt 
and when the Plants come up, the/, 
mull be carefully tran(jplanted into 
Pots filled with fre(h light Earth, and 
muftbe plunged into anHot-bed^ 
to facilitate their taking Root ; af- 
ter which, they (hould be inured to 
bear the open Air ' by degrees, into 
which they (houU be remov'd when 
the Seafon is warm, placing them 
in a (helter^d Situation ; and as they 
advance, they(hould be removed in* 
to lai^T Pots, which muft be fiU*d 
up With fre(h light Earth. 

During the Summerfeafon the 
Plants muft be frequently refrelh^d 
with Water ; but m Winter they 
muft be removed into the Green- 
houfe, and (hould have but little 
Water during that Seafon. Theft 
require only to be fcreen*d from 
Froft'; but muft have open free Air 
whenever the Weather will permit, 
otherwire the Leaves will grow 
mouldy,^ and decay the tender 
Shoots : thefe Plants produce theit 
fcarlet Flowers in July and Atfguft, 
but feidom perfe^theirSecds in this 
Country. This PlaQt is vtxy com* 
mon in Portugal^ wb^e it is planted 
to cover Arbours and Seats in Gar* 
dens, for which it is greatly efteem*d 
by the Inhabitants of that Country, 
as alfo for its beautiful fweet-fmell* 
ing Flowers ; and in that Country 
it thrives very well in the open Air. 

The third Sort is prefervM in 
fome curious Gardens for Variety ; 
but is a Pla^t of no great Beauty ; 
this may be propagated by fowbg 
the Seeds in the Spring upon an Hot- 
bed ; and when they come up, they 
muft be planted in Pots, and treated 
as the former Sort : it produces its 
Flowers in Juiy^ and the Seeds ripen 
in Septimhir. 

Xxxj The 

P H P H 

The Ibortih Sort was brought from The fecond and fourth Sorts are 

America^ and is prtfenr'd in curious mod commonlycultivated in theGar« 

Gardens, for the fake of its long dens near hmdon^ and the beft Sorts 

Flowering : this is an abiding Plant, we yet know to fupply the Markets : 

and fliould be managed as was di- for the Plants never ramble too 

rented for the third Sort; and if far, but are always of moderate 

guarded from Froft, will continue Growth, fo that the Air can eaGly 

to produce Flowers all the Winter- pafs between the Rows, and keep 

ieafon : it ripens Seeds ytry well, them from rotting : they are alio 

from which the Plants may beeafily plentifulBearers, and the beft Beans, 

propagated. except the firft, for Eating. 

There are at prefent but few The third Sort is alfo a plentifnl 

Sorts of Kidney -beans, which are Bearer, and never rambles, growing 

cultivated for the Table in Eng» opright in form of a Shrub : but 

Ami: thefeare, the Beans are much larger than the 

I. The Common White or Dtt/f A laft, and are notfo well coloured. 

Kidney- bean. nor do they eat near (b firm and 

a. The Lefler Garden Kidney- crifp ; for which Reafons ^eyare 

bean, commonly caird, The Batur- not fo generally efteem'd. 

fea Bean. The fifth Sort hath been efteemM 

3. The Upright or Tree Kidney- by (bmePerfons, for its continuing 
bean. long in Bearing; but the ^r^ it 

4. The Dwarf White Kidney- much preferable to it on thatAc« 
bean. This Sort is generally usM count. 

for Hot-beds. The fixth Sort is a plentiful Bear- 

5. The Camttrbury Kidney - er, and ftands upright, for which it 
bean. is much efteemM by fome Garden- 

6. The Spotted Tree Kidney- ers ; but is a very bad.tafted Bean^ 
bean. being extremely rank^ and rarely 

The firft of thefe was formerly boils green, 

more cultivated in England than at Thefe Sorts are propagated from 

prefent ; but is the chief Sort now Seeds, which mu/l be fown in the 

cbltivated in Holland^ from whence. Place where they are to remain ; for 

probably, it had the Name iA Dutch they will not bear tranfplanting, ex- 

kidney-bean : this Sort rlfes to a cept it be done while they are very 

very great Height, and requires to young ; and this, being pretty trou- 

be Supported by tall Stakes, other- blefome,is very feldom ]^6Hied, on- 

wife they wHl fpread upon the lefs for a few early Plants under 

Ground, and rot \ io that where warm Hedges or Walls ; but it is 

this Care is wanting, the Fruit fel- not worth while for the general 
dom comes to good : which Trouble Crops. 

renders it difficult to ^tultivate this TheSeafon for putting thefeSeeds 

Sort in Plenty ; and the* Beans being in the Ground istheMiddle ofif/n7, 

much broader than the fmall $ort, for an early Crop : but thefe ihoold 

render them lefs valuable in the ton- have a warm Situation, and a dry 

dtn Markets ; which, I fuppofe, oc- Soil, otherwife they will not fucceed: 

cafion*d their being negle^ed in Eng- ypn fhould alfo obferve to pot them 
land: but this is by far the beft Sort into the Ground at a drySeafon ; for 

for Eating yet known. Wet fo early in the Se^on will roC 


P H 

the Seeds in tbe Ground. 71« 
Maimer of planting them is, to'draw 
ihallow Farrows ^th an Hoe, at 
aboQt two Feet and an half Diftaoce 
firom each other, into which you 
ihould drop the Seeds abaut two 
Inches afdnder ; then with the 
Head of a Rake draw the Earth 
over them, fo ai to cover them 
about an Inch ^eep. 

If the Seafon be bvouraUe, the 
Plants will begin to appear in abont 
a Week's time after fowing, and 
foon after will raife their Heads up* 
right; therefore, when the Stems 
ate advanced pretty tall above- 
groand, you (hould gently draw a 
little Earth op to them, obferving to 
do it when the Ground is dry, 
which will preferve them from being 
inj ur*d byiharpWinds: buty ou fiiould 
be careful not to draw any of the' 
Earth over their Leaves, which 
would rot them, or at leaft greatly 
retard their Growth. After this,they 
will require no farther Care but to 
keep them dear from Weeds, nntil 
they produce Fruit, when they 
fliottld be carefully gather'd two or 
threa times a Weele i for if they are 
permitted to remain upon the Plants 
a little too long, the Beans will be 
too large for eating, and the Plants 
would be greatly weaken*d there- 

TAe Diitch Kidney-bean mnft be 
planted at a greater Diftance, Row 
from Row s for as thefe grow very 
tall, fo if the Rows are not at a far- 
ther DiAance, the Sun and Air will 
he excluded from the middle Rowii 
therefore thefe fliould not be lefs 
than four Feet Diftance Row from 
Row : and when the Plants are 
about four Inches high, the Poles 
ihonld be thmft into the Ground by 
the Side of the Plants, to which 
they will faften themfelves, and 
dimb to the Height of eight or tea 

P H 

Feet, ted bear Plenty of Fruit from' 
the Ground upward. This Sort 
will continue good much longer 
than either of the other ; for die 
Pods of this Sort are never ftringy, 
nor are the Beans mealy when old. 
The Dutch and Tnnch preferve 
great Quantities of the dry Beans 
for Winter-ufc, which they flew, and 
make good with Gravy, and other 

If two Crops of this Sort of Bean 
are fown at a proper Diftance, it 
will be fulHcient to continue a Suc- 
cei&on during the Seafon of Kidney- 
beans, efpecially if a few of an 
early Kind are fown, to come before 
them : foe this large Sort fiiould not 
be fown earlier than the Latcer-eod 
of^n7,orthe Beginning oflfify, ac- 
cording as the Seafon may prove. 

The firft Crop offf^ //^akidney- 
beans will continue aMonth in good 
Order, during which time they will 
produce great Plenty of Beans i 
therefore, in order to have a Sue- * 
ceflion of them throughout the Sea* 
fon, you (hould fow at three differ- 
ent times ; v/'k. in AfriU in May^ 
and toward the Latter-end oijumx 
which laft Crop will continue until 
the Froft comes on, and deftroys ' 

There are fome Perfons who 
raife thefe in Hot-beds, in order 
to have them early. The only 
i^xxt to be taken in the Manage- 
ment of thefe Plants, when thus 
rais'd, is to allow them room, and 
give them as much Air as can be 
conveniently, when the Weather is 
mild i as alio to -let them have but 
a moderate Heat ; for if the Bed 
be over-hot, they will either burn, 
or be drawn up u) weak as never^ to 
come to good. 

The Manner of makfng the Hot- 
bed being, the fame as fof Cucum- 
bers, &tf. need not be repeated in 

2sx4 ' this 

P H 

this Places but only obferve, wheft 
the Dung is equally levelled, to lay 
the Earth aboat four or £ve Jnche9 
tliick 4 and let the great Steam of 
the Bed pafs off before you fow 
the Seeds. 

The time for doing this muft 
be proportioned to the Scafon 
when you would have the Beans for 
the Table ; but the fureft time for a 
Crop is about a Week in February, 

It is alfo a good Method which 
fome ufe, to have French Beans ear- 
lier than they can be obtained in the 
common Ground, to make a gentle 
Hot - bed about the middle of 
Marchf which may be arched over 
ivith Hoops, and coverM with Mats; 
in this they fow their Kidney-beans 
in Rows pretty clofe tcjgether, fo 
that a fmall led will contain a great 
Number of Plants : th^fe they bring 
up hardily, inuring them to the open 
Air by degrees ;' and in the Middle 
of jfyri/f when the Weather is fet- 
tled,they prepare fome warmBordera 
under Walls or Hedges ; then 
they take them up from the Hot- 
bed, preferving as much Earth as 
pofllble to their Roots, and plant 
them in the Borders at the Diilance 
they are to remain : thefe, if they 
take Root kindly, will produce 
Beans at leaft a Fortnight or three 
Weeks before thoCe fown in the 
common Ground. 

The Manner of faving th^ Seeds 
of thefe Plants is to let a few Rows 
of them remain ungather'd in the 
Height of the Seafon i for if you 
gather from the Plants for fome 
time, and afterwards leave the re- 
maining for Seed, their Pods will not 
be near fo long and handfome, nor 
will the Seed be fo good. In the 
Autumn, when you find they are 
lipe, you (hould in a dry Seafon pull 
up the Plants, and fpread them 
s^broad to dry ; after which, you 

p H 

may t'lrefli out the Seed, and pitf 
fervcit in a dry Place for Ufc. 

PHILLYREA, Mock-privct, 
The CharaSers are ; 

The Leaves gronv by Pairs 9fpoJtt€ 

to each other^ and are ever-green : 

the Flonver confijls of one Leaf is hell" 

Jhapei^ and divided into four Farts at 

the Top : the Pointal^ tvhich ri/ii 

from the Centre of the FUnaer-cuf « 

after*ward becosnes a fpherieal Fruit 

containing one round Seed,. 

The Species are ; 

1. Phillyrea latifoKa lapis, 
C B. P. The broad-leav*d true 

2. Phillyrea iatifoUa fpinofa. 
C. B. P, Ilcx-leav'd Phillyrea, 

3. VniLLYKEAfoHo alatemi, 7. 
B* Phillyrea with an Alatemus* 

4^ Phillyrea folio lignfri, C. 
B. P. Privet-leav'd Phillyrea. 

5 . Ph ILL Y R E A angufiifo/ia prima ^ 
C.B.P. Narrow-leavVl Phillyrea. 

6. Phillyrea angufiifolia fe^ 
cunda. C. B. P. Rofmary-leair4 
Phillyrea, vulgo. 

7. Phillykea olea Ephefiacdg 
folio, Hort, Qhelf Pluk. Phyt. 

Oliveleav'd Phillyrea. ^ 

8. Phillyrea IatifoUa lenfis^ 
foliis ex luteo variegatis. Cat. Plant, 

Hort, The true Phillyrea, with 
firipM Leaves. 

9. PhillVrea longiore folio prO' 
funde crenato, H, R, Par, Philly- 

r^ with a longer Leaf, which is 
deeply crenated. 

I O. ' Ph I LL Y R E A foUo buxi, H. 

R. Par. Box-leav'd Phillyrea. 

XI. V HILLY tiE A Hi/panica^ lauri 
foUoferrato (sf aculeato. Infi, R, H, 
Spanifi Phillyrea, with a prickly 
and fawM Bay -leaf. 

I a. Phillykea Hi/^anica, nerii 
folio, Inft, R. H, Spamflj Philly- 
rca, With an 01eander;leaf. 

13. PHIL- 


P H 

13. ?muLY%EA Cafenfis, folio 
tiUfiri. Hart, Eltb. Phillyrea of 
the Cmpi tf Good Hope, with a StaiF- 
trce-leaf, commonly call*d by the 
Dmfch, Lifflibout. 

14. Phillyrea Americana hw 
mi/ij, raMce crajfa lutea^ foliis acu- 
wumatij. Plttm, Cat. Dwarf Jmi- 
rican PhiJlyrea, with a thick yellow 
Rooty and pointed Leaves. 

15. Phillyrba Americanm humi' 
Us, radice crajfa ro/ia, foliit rotuM-. 
Scribui, Plum, Cat. Dv/zxi Ame- 
rrViur Phillyrea, with a thick, rofe- 
cokmr*d Root, and rounder Leaves. 

The twelve firft-mentipn^d Sorts 
are all of them Natives of the South- 
cm Parts of Franci^ Spain and Italji 
bat are hatdy enoagh to endure the 
Cold of oar Climate in the open 
Air : they have been formerly in 
great Requeft forHedges, and to co- 
ver Walls : for both which Parpofes 
they are very improper ; becaofe 
they (hoot fo fail in the Spring and 
Snmmer Months, that is very troa- 
hlefome to keep fuch Hedges in 
Order : befides, all thefe Sorts with 
broad Leaves naturallv produce 
their Branches fo far afunder, that 
they can never be redncM to a thick 
handfome Hedge ; for although by 
frequently clipping the extreme 
Parts of the Shoots you force out 
fome Side-branches, which render 
it tluck on the Outfide, yet the in- 
ner Branches are very far afonder, 
and, being of a pliable Nature, are 
often difplac'd by drone Winds ; 
or if there happen to fall much 
Snow in Winter, fo as to lie upon 
thefe Hedges, it often d^places them 
£0 much as not to be recovered again 
in fome Years ; for which Reafons 
tbeyare notfomuch inlJfe forHedges 
as they were fome Years pall ; nor 
are tkey fo often planted to cover 
Walls; for it is a very difficult 
T^ to keep them clofe to the 

Wall; for their Branches^ being vi« 
gorous, commonly grow to fome 
I>iflance fVom the Wall, and bar- 
bour all Sorts of Infeds and Filth : 
befidcs, their Leaves being large; 
and growing pretty far afunder up- 
on the Branches, they appear na- 
ked,efpedally when they are clofeljr 

But all thefe Sorts of Trees are 
vtry proper to intermix with other 
Ever-greens, to form Clumps, Am- 
phitheatres, or to plant round the 
Sides of WildemeiTes of ever-green 
Trees, where, being placed among 
other Trees of the fame Growth, 
they will afford a pleafing Variety. 

The three firfl Sorts will grow to 
the Height of twenty Feet, or more, 
and may be trainM up to regular 
Heads : but the nanow-leav'd Sorts 
feldom rife above fourteen or fixteea 
Feet high with us ; fo that they will 
be of a proper Size to place in a 
Line before the broad-leav'd Sorts, 
where being intermixed with Hollies, 
Alatemus\ Arbutuses, and fome 
other Sorts, they will make a beauti- 
ful Profpetfl. 

The olive-leav'd Sort will alfo 
grow to the Height of twelve or 
h>urteen Feet, and the Branches are 
well furnifh'd with Leaves ; fo that 
it makes an exceeding good Figure, 
when intermixed with other ever- 
green Trees : for the Leaves of this 
Sort are of a beautiful fhiningGreen, 
and the Shoots grow ered; and, be- 
ing flrong, are not fo liable to be 
difplac'd as thofe of fome of the 
other Kinds. The Sort with prickly 
Leaves grows much in the fame 
manner ; fo that thefe are to be pre- 
ferred to all the other Kinds on this 

The box-lea v'd Sort is very fcarce 
in England. This is of humbler 
Growth than either of the former, 
feldom rifing above feven or eight 




Feet high : t)ie Bnuidiet of this 
Sort grow pretty clofe» and the 
Leaves are very fmall. 

As all thefe Sorts are very hardy, 
fo they are the more valuable^ being 
rarely injured by the Froft : whereas 
the Alaternosis freqaently damaged 
hy fevere Cold, and many times the 
Branches are killM to the Stem, 
when thePhillyrea's remain in Ver- 
dure : and by confounding the two 
'Sorts together, as is commonly done 
by the Gardenen, they have both 
been brought into Difrepute unjuft* 
ly : for I think all the Sorts of Phil- 
lyrea may be fo placed in Planta- 
tions of ever-green Trees, as to be 
rendered very ornamental : there- 
fore all the Sorts deferve propagatc- 
ing much better than many other 
which are more cultivated. 

Thefe Plants are propagated ei- 
ther from Seeds or Layers ; but the 
latter, being the moft expeditious 
Method in England, is chiefly pre- 
ferred. The bcft time to lay them 
down is in Autumn, when you 
(hould dig the Ground round the 
Plants intended to lay, making it 
very loofe ; then making choice of a 
fmooth Part of the Shoot, you fhould 
make a Slit upward (in the manner 
which is praftisM in laying of Car- 
nations} ; and then bend the Branch 
gently down to the Ground, making 
an hollow Place with your Hand to 
receive it ; and having placed the 
Part which was flit in the Ground, 
fo as that the Slit may be open, you 
(hould faflen it down with a forked 
Stick, that it may remain fteady, 
covering that Part of the Branch 
with Earth about three Inches thick, 
obferving to keep the upper Part 
ered. In dry Weather thefe Lay- 
ers fliould be watered, which will 
greatly facilitate their Rooting i you 
inuft alfo keep them dear from 
Weeds, which, if fufFer*d to grow up 

p H 

amongft them, will prevent their ' 
uking Root. 

The Autumn following, many 
of thefe Plants will be rooted ; at 
which time they may be taken off, 
and carefully planted in a Nurfery, 
where they may be trainM up three 
or four Years in the manner you in- 
tend them to grow ; during which 
time you fiiould dig the Ground be- 
tween the Rows, and cut about the 
Roots of the Plants every Year; 
which will caufe them to ftrike out 
ftrong Fibres, ib as to fupport a 
good Ball of Earth when they are 
remov*d : you fliould alfo fupport 
their Stems with Stakes, in order to 
make them ftrait,otherwife they are 
very apt to grow crooked and un- 

When the Plants have (leen thua 
managM three or four Years, yon 
may tranfplant them into the Places 
where they are deiignM to remain. 
The beft time for this Work is the 
Latter-end of September, or the Be- 
ginning oiOffeber : but in removing 
them, you fiiould dig round their 
Roots, and cut off all downright or 
ftrong Roots, which have fliot out 
to a great Diflance, that you may 
the better preferve a Ball of Earth 
to each Plant, otherwife they are 
fubjedt to mifcarry : and when yoo 
have placed them in their new Quar- 
ters, you fliould lay fome Mulch 
upon the Surface of the Ground, 
to prevent its drying ; and give theni 
fome Water twice a Week in very 
dry Weather, but not too often ; 
and this only when the Seafon is ' 
favourable ; nor in too great Quan- 
tities, which will rot the new Fibres, 
and prevent their Growth. Yoji 
fliould alfo fupport tbe Plants with 
Stakes until they have taken fall 
Hold of tbe Eanh, to prevent their 
being turn'd out of the Ground, or 
difplac*d by the Winds, which will 


P H 

dttnj tbe Fibres due were tieirix 
pot oiit» and greatly injure the 
FkntM, Thefii Trees delight in 
a jniddltng Soil, which is neither too 
wet and ftiff, nor too dry i tho* the 
httcr ia to be preferred to the fbrmer, 
provided jt be frefh. 

The Sort with ftrip' d Leaves is at 
pre&nt pretty rare, ahd ibmewhat 
seaderer than d^otbers, as are moA 
Sovta of variegated Flams leTs capa- 
ble to cndiue theCbld, than thofe' 
of the fiune Kinds wbkh are plain I 
theScriping of Plants always pro* 
ceedittg tern their Weaknefs. This 
h picKrvVI in fome Gardens as « 
Coriofity I bat may be propagated 
in the fame manner with the for- 

TboTe Sorts with fmall Leaves 
aitcommonly twoYiears before they 
take Root, when laid : therefore 
they fhonld not be diftarbM ; for 
the laifing them oot of the Ground 
greatly retards their Rooting. 

The thirteenth Sort is rtry com- 
mon in feveral Gardens in H0ltand ; 
bat at prefent pret^rare iaS/ff/Mril 
This Sort will not live abroad thro* 
the Winter in this Climate ; there- 
fore it is always preferv*d in Pots 
or Tnbsy and removed into the 
Green-bonfe in Winter, where if it 
is treated after the manner direded 
for the dmfia, it will thrive verj 
welL This Sort is alfo propagatcxl 
by laying down the tender Branches 
in the Spring of the Year, which 
mnft be ^ly water'*d in dry Wea* 
dier ; and by the following Spring 
theywill have takenRoot; when they 
ihould be feparated from the old 
Plant, and planted in Pots fiird with 
freih Earth, and placM in the Shadi 
nntil they have taken new Root ; 
after which time they may be ex- 
posM, daring tbe Sommer-feafon, 
with other pretty hi^rdy Exotic 
Plants, in a ibeber^d Sitoation, 

P H 

where they may remain md AtS4 
tomn, when they muft be reaiov*4 
into the Green hoafe. Thefe Plants 
are ever-green, fo that they make « 
pretty Variety in the Green-hottfe^ 
doring the Winter leafon. 

The foorteenth Sort grows plen* 
tifully in ifeveral Parts of the Sfanijh 
Wtft-htiia. The Seeds of thia 
Slind were fent to Englsmd by Mr. 
lUhrt JUrV/sr, who gathered them- 
UiMX Cartbagenm in Aiuricft. Tba 
lifteeath Sort was difcover'd by Fa« 
ther Flmutr in Jmerita^ and fines 
by Mr. MilUr in the Ifland of 7#. 
imgo^ from whence he fent foma* 
Seeds ; but they did not focosed in 

Thefe two Sorts are tenderPlants» 
which maft be kept ia i| warm Stovo 
in Winter, otherwife they will not 
live in this Coantry. 
They may be propagated bySeeds, 
which ihould be obtainM as freih a* 
poffible from the Countries of their 
Growth, and muft be fown in Pots 
of £refli light Eardi, and plunged 
into an Hot-bed of Tanners Bark j 
where they (hoald remain nndl the 
Plants come «p, which is manj 
dmes a Year from the time of fow- 
ing : therefore whenever the Seeds 
remam fo long in the Ground, the 
Potsmuft be frequently watered in 
Summer, and in Winter the Glafies 
of the Hot- bed fliould be covered 
with Mats, when the Weather is 
cold, to prevent the Froft from en- 
tering the Bed, which would deftroy 
the Seeds. 

When the Plants are come op, 
they ihould be each tranfplanted in- 
to a fmall Pot fillM widi frefk 
Earth, and then plunged into the 
Hot- bed again, obferving to (hade 
them from the Sun in the Heat of 
the Day, until they have taken new 
Rooti afcer which time they muft 
have freeAir admitted to them eveiy 

P H 

Day,in.propordoii to the Warmth 
of th« Seafon. In this 3ed the 
Plants may remain till Aatiimn^ when 
they ihould be removed into the 
Stove^and plungM into theBark-bed, 
where, during the Winter - feafon, 
they fhould be kept pretty warm. 
Thefe Plants may remain in the 
Bark-ftove fbr two Years or lefs, ac- 
cording as they acquire Strengj^th $ 
for when they are pretty Arong^ 
they may be treated lefs tenderly, 
cxpoiing them ^in the Middle of 
the Summer to the open Air, in a 
ihelter'd Situation : and in Winter 
they may be plac'd in a dry Stove, 
where they ihould have a moderate 
Degree of Warmth, in which they 
will thrive very well. Thefe Plants 
retain their Verdure throughout 
the Year, for which they are <±iefly 
eileemM. # 

PHLOMIS, The Sage-tree^ or 
Jerufahm Sage. 

The Cbara^ers are ; 

// bath a labiated Flonver confijl- 
ing of one Liaf^ nubo/e upper Lip^ or 
Hilmet^ njiibicb is crtfted^ doti ^vbollj 
refi upon ibi under Lip, or Beard, 
nvbicb ij di*vided into tbr$£ Parts, 
and e:f tends a little beyond tbe upper 
Up : the Pointal rifes out of tbe 
FUtwer-eup accompany* d *witb four 
Emhryoes^ ivbicb afterguard become 
fo marty oblong Seeds, Jhut up in an 
Hujk, or pentagonal Tube, which <ivaj 
before the Flower-cup. 
The Species are ; 

1 . P H LO M I s fruticofa, fabvi/efo* 
lio latiore (!f rotundiore. Toune, 
Broad-leaved Sage-tree, vulgo, 

2 . P H t o M 1 5 fruticofa, fal'Visa fo' 
lio longiore l^ anguftiore. Tourn. Nar- 
row-icavM Sage-tree, *vulgo. 

3 . Ph LO M 1 8 fruticofa humilis la* 
tifoUa candidijtma, foribus luteis, 
AB, Phil. Low Ihrubby Sage-tree, 
with Sroad hqary Leaves, and yel- 
low Flowers. 

P H 

4. Phlomis Narbonenfis, bormi^e 
folio, fore purpurafcente, Toum, Nmr-^ 
bonne Jerufalem Sage, with a Clary« 
leaf, and purpliih Flower. 

5. Phlomis Hifpanica candiM/^ 
fimaherbacea, Tourn, Spanijh Je- 
rufalem Sage, with very hoory 

6. Phlomis lycbnitis. Cluf Hifi. 
Narrow-leav'd Jerufalem Sage. 

7. Phlomis Samia herbacea, lu» 
maria folio, T. Cor. Herbaceoua 
SamianJerufaUm Sage, with a Moon-; 

8. VuhOUiiOrientalis, foliis U^ 
ciniatis. T. Cor. Eaftem Jerufaletm, 
Sage, with jagged Leaves.^ 

9. ?HLOUls Orientalis luteaher* 
bacea latifolia <verticillata.Aa,PhiL 
Broad-leaved herbaceous Jerufalem 
Sage from tbe Levant, with yellow 
Flowers growing in Whorles. 

10. ?Hi.oui& fruticofa, fore pur* 
puree, foUis rotundiorihus, Inft, R^ 
H. Shrubby Jerufalem Sage, with 
a purple Flower, and rounder 

11. P H LO M 1 s fruticofa Lufitanica^ 
flore pufpurafcente, foliis acutioribui^ 

Jnft. R. H, Shrubby Jerstfalem 
Sage of Portugal, with a purpliih 
Flower, and iharp-pointed Leaves. 

12^ Phlomis Hijpanica fruticofa 
candidijjima, flore ferrugineo, Infi, R, 
H, The whitclt Spanijh Shrub Je-. 
rufalem Sage, with an iron-colour'd 

1 3. Phlomis Orientalis lutea an* 
gufifolia, cymis ful*vefcentibus, D, 
Sherard. Aa. PbiL N. 376. Yel-^ 
low Eaftem Jerufalem Sage, with a * 
narrow Leaf, and yellow lops. 

The three firfl - mentioned Sorts 
grow to be Shrubs of a middling 
Size, and are proper to intermix 
with other Sorts of Plants, which 
are of the fame Growth, in fmall 
Wildernefs-quarters, where, by the 
Pivexiity of their hoary Leaves, thejr 


P H 

* i 

large Spikes of ydlort^ Flowers, and 
ijieir long Condnaance in Flower, 
they make an agreeable Variety. 

Thefe Plants have been prefervM 
in Pots, and placed in the Green- 
hoafe in Winter among oth6r tender 
Exotics : bat ^ey are hardy enough 
to endare the Cold of our ordinary 
Winters in the open Air, providwl 
they are planted in a dry Soil, and 
have a warm Situation ; and are 
rarely injured by Cold, unlefs in a 
very fcverc Froft. 

They arc propagated by Cattings 
in diis Coantry ; for their Seeds fd- 
dom ripen well in England, except 
in very warm dry Seafons« The beft 
Hme CO plant thefe Cuttings is in 
A%, that they may have good Roots 
before Winter. They fhould be 
planted inaBed.of fre(h light Earth, 
and (haded from the Sun until they 
have taken Root ; after which, they 
will require no farther Care, but 
only to keep them clear from Weeds 
until the following Spring, when 
they may be remov'd to the Places 
where they are deiignM to be con- 

The bed Seafon for tranfplanting 
ftem is in Jfril, before they begin 
to ihoot, obferving to preferve a 
Ball of Earth to the Root of each 
Plant, as alfo to water them until 
they have taken Root : and in order 
to form them into a regular Shape, 
they (honld be flak'd, and their 
Stems kept confiantly faftenM there- 
to, until they arrive at the Height 
yon defign them: then you may 
fnfifer their Branches to fhoot out on 
every Side, to make an handfome 
Head ; in order to which, you fhould 
prune offfuch Branches as grow ir- 
regular on either Side, which mnft 
always be pelform*d in Summer; 
for if they are wounded in Winter, 
the Cold often injures the Plants, 
i^ entering die Wonndi. 

The Soil in which they areplacM 
fhould not be dung*d ; forthat caufes 
them to grow too fall, whereby their 
Shoots are too replete with Moifture^ 
and lefs capable to endure the Cold ; 
whereas if they are planted upon ji 
dry, barren, rocky Soil, they are 
feldom injurMby Cold, which is the 
Cafe of moft of the fame Clafs of 
Plants with Lip-flowers. ^ 

The tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth Sorts are fhrubby Plants, 
which grow three or four Feet high ; 
and are very proper to intermix with 
other Shrubs of the fame Growth* 
Thefe are fometimes injured by hard 
Frolb s but will endure the Cold of 
our ordinary Winters in the open 
Air, if they are planted in a warm 
Situation. Thefe may be propagated 
by Cuttings in the fame manner as 
ha]th been diredied for the former 

The other Sorts, being low her-* 
baceous Plants, are all of them pro* 
pagated by parting of their Roots, 
which fhould be done in the Spring 
of the Year, obferving to preferve a 
leading Bud to each OfF-fet. Thefe 
fhould alfo be placed Sh a dry, rocky, 
or gravelly Soil, in which they will 
thrive much better than if planted in 
a richer Ground, and wUl endure 
the Cold of our ordinary Winters 
extremely well in th^ open Air. 

Thefe Plants lafl- mentioned art 
of no great Beauty ; but are pre* 
ferv'd in the Gardens of thofe who 
are fond of Variety. A Tea made 
with the Leaves of thefe Plants is ac> 
counted very good for fore Threats. 

PHLOX, ^Lychnidea or Baftard 

The Cbaraffers are ; 

fhe Empmltmeni amfiftt tf m* 
Liof, is ttthmJctiSt and cut at the Brim 
intojkje meuti Segmtnts : the Flower 
is of one Leaf^ Jbafd like a Seilwr^ 
having a long fnhit and is f^ead 



tfht at the T0p^ when it is eSviJed 
into five epuii h/imt Segments : iss the 
Met torn ef the Flewer is fauated the 
PmntiU^ attended if five Stamina^ 
which are Jhert : the Feintal after* 
nsfard becemes a ceaicalFeffeli having 
three Ceils, each iontaimni emeveU 

The Sfecies are t 
- I . Ph tox/eliis iineari-laneeoisstis, 
tanle ere&e^ cerynshe terminatrici* Lin» 
Bort, Oiff. Bafiard Lychnis, with 
narrow fpear ihap*d Loives, and an 
qprighc Sulk terminated with a 
Corymbas of Flowers. 

2. ?HhOX /eliis'crajls Inddis aen* 
tiSf cnnle ereSe^ fierihus quafi usishtl* 
latins difyefitis. Badard Lychnis, with 
thick ihii|iog pointed Lotves^ an up* 
right Stalk, and Flowers difposM in 
an Umbel. 

. 3. Phlox fisUis lanceelatis ehtufis^ 
fieribns majorihus nmbellatim Mfpefi" 
tis, Baftard Lychnis, with blunt 
fpear • fliap*d . Leaves, and large 
Flowers growing in a|i UmbeL 

4* Phlox /eiiis limari - lanceela" 
^iis, taale elatier^ fifihms in hmgam 
^ Jf^casa denfe fiiuttis. Ballard Lych- 
nis, with narrow fpear-ihap*d Leaves, 
a tall Stalk, and Flowers growing in 
a long dofe Spike. 

Thefe are all of them American 
Plants : fome of them were brought 
from Firginiat and others from Gs- 
f0tina ; bat they thrive very well in 
the open Air in England: and as 
they are beantifol flowering Plants^ 
they merit a Place in every good 

The third Sort is the lirft which 
flowen in the Spring. This begins 
flowering in May: the Stalks are 
feldom more than a Foot high : the 
icaves are much broader than thole 
of the othfiT Sorts : the Flowers art 
large, and of a ^y-blne Colour. 

The next which follows in flow* 
cring, is the firft Sort. This grows 

P H 

a little taller than the former : the 
Leaves are narrow, and fliarp-point- 
ed : the Flowers are of a pale-por- 
ple Colour, and grow in form of an 

The fecond Sort fncceeds this in 
the time of Flowering. The Stalks 
of this are Wronger and taller than 
either ofthe former : the Leaves ar« 
flif, and of a (hining-green Colour : 
the Flowers are of a bright-purpla 
Colour, and are difpos^d almoft in 
form of an Umbel, and continue in 
Flower much longer than either of 
the former. This flowen the Lat- 
ter-end oijnntf and continnes noft 
Part of July in Beauty. 

The fourth Sort grows upward of 
three Feet high, with ftrong (potted 
Stalks : the Leaves are mff and 
pointed, growing by Pain, whic^ 
crofs each other at the Joiau alter- 
nately : the Flowers are difposM in 
a long thick Spike» forming a kind 
of Pyramid, apd are of a bright- 
purple Colour : this begins to flow- 
er toward the End otjafy, and con- 
tinues thro* ^sfi^, and a great Part 
of Seftemher i efpedally if it is plant- 
ed in a moiftSoil, and not too muck 
exposed to the Sun ; and is one of the 
mofltrnamental Plants of the Soi- 

Thefe Plants are nfualfy propaga- 
ted by parting of their Roots: tho- 
beft Seafon for this is in OSeher. 
The firfl and third Sorto iacreafe 
pretty faft this way ; but Ae fecond 
and fourth Sorts <u> not propagate fo 
much by Off.&ts; therefore theib 
may be prorag^ted in plenty by Cot* 
tings, which flip«ld be taken olF, 
when the Shoou are about four or 
five Inches high, and planted in a 
fliady .Joider^ where, if they are 
duly Watered, th^ will make Roots 
in three Weeks or a Month^s time^ 
and moft of them will flower the 
^amcYear^ 9 little after the old Roou; 


PH . 

mri firhtgti ; and tbi B§ifam of tbi 
Tubi ij/ca/y : tbe P^inial it fitmatti 
at tbe Bottm rf tbe T^e^ attentki 
tyfrvejkert Stamina, nvbicb are im» 
ferted in 'tbe Scales of tbe Tmbe : tbe 
Pointalafter*wardcbanges to around^ 

P H 

h tliey may be continued longer ia 
Flower by this Metliod : and thefe 
will be ftrong Planu fit to plant in 
the Borden of the Pleafiure - garden 

All the Sorts may be propagated 
by Cottings in the fame manDer aa ijb VeffeU baling three Cells^ emci 
tMe; bat as the two other Sorts ba^ng ome Seed. 

The Spedet are ; 

1. Phtlica f$Ui$ evafo-liaeari- 
bms. Lia. Hort. CHff. Baftaid Ala- 
temnsy with Heath-leaves. 

2. Phtlica feUis lineari'fiibula^ 
til, fummtt hir/utis, Tkr. Lyd. Ba- 
ftard Aktemas, with Yew -leaves, 
which are crowned with Hain on 
their Top. 

The firft Sor^ is now pretty com* 
moa in the Jfv^ii^ Gardens, where 
it is ofoally pla6*d in the Green- 
hoofe in Winter ; bat this will live 

pmty fafl by Off-fets, fo 
this Method 6f propagating thoTe is 
ardy praAis'dy unlefs where the 
Fhats are not in plenty. 

It is very rare that either of thefe 
prodace Seeds in Rmglandi hot in 
their native G>antry they feed pretty 
wdl every Year ; and from the Seeds 
Boft of chem were obtained in Eu* 

Hiey delight in rich Groand^ and 
(hoald be duly watered in very dry 
Weather, otherwife their Stallcs will 

be fliort, the Flowers fmall, and of in the open Air in moderate Win- 

(hort Daratioo : if fome of each Sort ters, if it is planted on a dry Soil, 

ef thefe Planu are planted in Pots, and in a warm Sitaatioii : bat as fe- 

and confhmtly water*d, they will vere Froft will deftroy them, fome 

flower very ftrong» and make a fine Plants ihoold be prefervM in Pots, 

Appearance ; fo will be very proper 
to adorn Coart*yards or Halls^ du- 
ring their Continuance in Flower, 
where they will be very ornamental. 
This Genus of Planes was tided 
hfcbmdia, (took the Refemblance 
which the Flowers have to ibme 
Species oilycbnit ; but as this Name 
is compounded. Dr. Liasueus has al- 
tered the Title to thisof PbUxy which 
is a Name of Tbeopbra/iiu^ applied by 
him to fome Plant which had gseat 
Affinity to the Lycbnis, 

PHYUCA, Alatemoides, or Ba- 
ftard Alatemas. 

The CbaraHers are ; 
fbe Flawers are tdUQtd together 

and ihelter'd in the Winter to preferve 
the Kind : and as thefe Planu con* 
tinne in Flower from the Beginning 
of Oaober, to the End of Marcb^ 
they merit a Place in the Green-, 
houfe among other hardy Exotic 
Planu, where being intermix*d, they 
make an agreeable Variety i for rho 
Extremity of each Branch is gene- 
rally terminated by Bunches of fmall 
fnowy Flowers ; and the Shoou be- 
ing clofely gsmifhM with ever-green 
Lnives, fliajpM fomewhat like thofe 
of Heath, have a rery agreeable 
Appearance during the whde Win- 

This Sort is apt to produce iu 

» an Hoad, and fit upon a fort of Branches irregular, and to fpread 
eaib homing an EmfaUmeai near the Ground, unlefs they ai^e 

trained to Stakes while young t but 
they may, with Care, be tram'd op 
with Stems : bnt their Shoou (honld 
not be fliortenM to reduce them to 


ionfifing of three narrwo L$etvet : 
ibe Flmuers are tubnlous^ and extend 
ifgyondtbe Bmpaleauntf and are cat at 
the Brint iiUoJht Fturtt, vfbore they 


regular Heads ;.fbr that will prevent t» plant the Cuttings in Pots filled 

their Flowerine, which is the Cafe with rich Earth, and to plange the 

of mod of thele Plants in the Dutch Pots into an old Hot-bed of Tannera 

Gardens, where they are reduced to Bark^ where the Heat is almoft over* 

regular Heads : but the beil Way is and to (hade the Giafles In the Heat 

to fpread the Branches, and form of the Day, to fcreen off the Sun, 

them into a fort of Fan, whereby and iceep the Cuttings duly moiilen-' 

their branches may be extended to cd. With thb Management 1 hare 

their full Length ; and they may be feldom loft any of the Cuttings, 

trained fo cloie as to form a thick whereas fcarce any of thofe which 

well-fpread Fan, which will be co- ha?e been planted much earlier ii» 

verM with white Flowen from the the Seafon have fucoeeded. The 

Ground upward to the Height of Cuttings may remain in the fame 

three Feet. Pots till the following Summer, 

The fecond Sort is now very rare when they fliould be carefully taken 

an the fw^/^Gardens ; but was feme out, ^d eiach planted into feparate 

Years paft more common : it growt Pots, that they may be hoos'd in 

about the fame Height with the Winter until fome of them have ob^ 

former Sort, and produces its Flow- tain'd Strength, when they may be 

ers in Winter : but thefe are not fo planted in warm Borden, where they 

beautiful as thofe of the other, nor will live thro* the-Winter^ without 

are they of fo long Duration i but Covering, if the Froft is not fevere $ 

as the Leaves continue green through- but they fhodd be two Years old from 

out the Year» it may merit a Place the Cutting, before they are planted 

in every good Green-houfe. out in the full Ground. 

Thefe Plants were brought from PHYLLANTHUS^Sea-fideLaa* 

theCa/# o/GoodHope^ where they rel. 

naturally grow, into the curious Gar- The ChttraSeti are ; 

dens in Holland^ where they are pre- It bath Mmlt tmd Fmale floweri 

fervM with great Care ; but we find in tbt fynu Piant : the Emfalemtrnt 

them fo hardy as to live abroad in of both Sexes is efvtu Leafybell-Jbaped^ 

moderate Winters, and only require and cut at the Brim into foe Paris: 

to be fcreen'd from fevere Froft ; fo there are n$ Petals te the Fkwer % 

.they may be plac'd, in the Winter, but the Male have each three fifori 

in a cqn^mon Green- houfe^ together Stamina, 7'«im>r^ at the Bafe^ bmtesr§ 

with Myrtles, Oleanders, and fuch fyread open at their Tep : the Femeelg 

other hardy £xotic Plants, as require F/ewers have m rwndifr Peintai^ 

no artifical Warmth* but only Pro- which becomes a ronndijh Seed-veffel^ 

tedion from fevere Jrroft. having three Cells, which have ee 

They may both b^. propagated by Jingle Seed in each. 
Cuttings, which ftiould be planted The5]^r/rj are; 
about the Middle or Latter-end of i. Phyllamthus filiis laneeoU^ 
'^H^ft* which is the time thefe tis ferratis, crems foriferis,. Urn. 
Plants are preparing to (hoot i for Hort, Cliff. Phyllanthus with faw*d 
they keep their natural Seafon of fpear-ftiapM Leaves, bearing Flow- 
Flowering and Growth, alt&o* they ers on their Edges, cali'd Sea-fide 
are removed to a Country diiFering Laurel. 

in Seafons from that of their origi- 2. Phtllantrus fiUis altemie 

sal Growth. The beft Method is, ^Itematim pimtatit, Jlmhu depem^ 


tntihs ix aittfiHaknm. tiorf. Clif. 

Annaal Pbyllanthas^ with fmall 

Leares growing altemaee, and the 

Flowers coming out from the 

Wings of th^ Leaves hanging down. 

3. Phyllanthus caiiie arhrea^ 

/oUgj lamciolatu acutis^ frwSu famto 

feffiii. Shrubby Phyllanthus, with 

pointed fpear-(hapM Leaves* and 

fmall Fruit growing dofe to the 

4. Phtllanthub catdi arhono^ 
fiUis iatis /ubrotuudis'f fruBu majore 
fendmU^ fHioh long: 'Tree Phyl- 
lanthos, with broad roandifh Leaves^ 
tttd larger Fruit grdwing on long 

c. Phyllanthus cmdi arhorto^ 
fouis oi/attj obtMfis^fuhtusimcanUf ai" 
ttnmtim fitis^ fruBn maximo^ Tree 
Phyllanthus, with oval blunt Leaves, 
which are white on their Under^fidci 
and a very large Fruit. 

The firft Sort is very common in 
the WitJi'Imdifs, where it grows out 
of the Rocks on the Sea-fliore, in 
moft of the Iflands s but is feldom 
found growing on the Laad« nor is 
it eafily tranfplanted 1 for the Fibres 
4 of the Roots iniinuate themfdves (o 
deeply into theCrevices of the Rocks, 
that aniefs.the Rock is broken, there 
U no Poifibility of getting the Roots 
cot : and it is at difficult to propa- 
gate by Seeds } for unlefs they are 
fown foott after they are ripe, they 
will not grow, and the greated Part 
of the SStd proves abortive i fo that 
this Sort is very rare in 'Europe. 
There was formerly a Plant of this 
Sort in the Gardens at Hampion" 
Comrti but this, with many other 
fine Plants^ has been deftroyM by 
the Ignorance of the Gardeners. 

This Tree grows about fifteen or 
iixteen Feet high : the Leaves come 
out without any Order, which are 
£ye or fix inches long, (mooth and 
chick : upon the Edges of the Leaves 

Vol. IIL 

V H 

th6 Fiowen are prodocM, hut etpt^ 
cially toward the Upper-part, where 
they are placed very dofely, fo as 
almoft to form a fort of Border to 
'the Leaves; which, together with 
the ihining- green Colour of the 
Leaves, makes a very beautiful Ap*> 
pearance: the Leaves contmne green 
all the Year, which renders the Plant 
more valuable. 

There is no other Method of ob« 
taiaing this Plant but to procure it 
from fome of the Iflands in Jmtri*' 
ca^ where they grow in plenty. It 
is known in Bar^adot by the Name 
of Sea^fide Laurel, which Name it 
is probable may have been given to 
it, from fome Refemblance which 
the Inhabitants of thofe Iflands fup* 
pos'd the Leaves to have of thofe of 
the common Laurel i but they are 
much narrower and longer, and have 
no other Refemblance bat the Thick- 
nefs, and (hining- green Colour. 

It requires to be p)ac*d in a mo- 
derate Stove in the Winter^ other- 
wife it will not live in England: but 
in Summer it may be placed in the 
opfcn Air, in a warm - (belter'd Si« 
tuation. With this Management I 
have feen this Plant in great Vigour 
in the Phyfic-garden at Amfierdam^ 

The fecond Sort is an annual 
Plant, which grows with ;m ere£k 
Suik near tyro Feet high, and 
branches out on every Side: the 
Leaves are pennated, having feveral 
fmall ovai Leaves placed alternately 
along the Mid-rib : the Flowers are 
producM from the Wings of thefe 
little Leaves, the whole Length e^ 
the Mid rib, on the Under- fide, on 
very (hort Footflalks, which are of 
an herbaceous Colour, and hang 
downward : the whole Plant periihea 
in Winter, being an Annual ; lot 
altho' it has been plac'd in the 
warmeft Stoves, yet it neVer has 
fu,rviv'd a Winter. The Seeds of 

Yyy this 


Aunadt ripen fg^dxaBj^ accordf- 
ing as the Floweu wece producM ; 
tiiofe neareft die Stem ripening firfts 
and if they are not watckM, ta ga- 
ther them as they idpcn, they wiU 
jbon drop, and be loft : but tbofe 
Seeds which happen to fcacter upon 
other Pots of Eiutfa will come up the 
Ibllowiag Spring ^ fo that from foma 
Plants, which were plaeM ia a Stove^ 
the Seeds were call over noft of the 
Fott of Plants then in the Store, and 
the Phints came up like Weeds : it 
was by this Accident the Plant was 
fM brought to Englaftdi for the 
Seeds had been (battered in foma 
Tubs of Earth which came from 
imrbsutot^ in which the Plants came 
«p in great Plenty ; and haTing tho 
Advantage of a Stove, the Seeds ri- 
pened per^dly, and were maiatain'd 
by the fcatterM Seed : it is too ten- 
der to live in the OMn Air of Bug' 
landi fo fliould be raised on an Hot- 
bed in the Spring, and afterward 
plac'd in the Bark-ftove, where the 
Plants will perfe^ thdr Seeds annu- 
ally, and in Autumn decay. 

The third Sort was difcovcrM by 
the late Dr. Wilium HwfiouH at Lm 
Vtra Crific, who fent tbe Seeds to 
Eunpi, This hath a woody Stem, 
which rifes to tl^e Height of eight or 
ten Feet, and divides into fcveral 
Branches, whiobare f^rniih'd wkh 
pennated Leaves, C0lllp6s*d of feve- 
lal fmall pointed Leaves, placed al- 
tanately along the Mid-rib: the 
Flowers are prodacM as thofe of the 
former, on the Uader-fide of the 
Leaves; haogmg downward, and 
gtow clofe to the Mid-rib: the 
Leaves of this Sort decay in Au- 
tumn, and frefli ernes come out in 
Spring. This is fiitl as tender as the 
foTflfter Sort t fe will not live in Sng' 
Jdftdy onlefs it is preferv^d In Stoves. 
• The ^rth ^nd fifth Sorts wer.e 
difcover^d by the fame Gentleman, 
who fent the Seeds and dried.Sfjii. 

pies of h6tk (o Et^/sMd, TWe 
graw twelve f^ ftortatn Feet hSgby 
having drong woody Stems, which 
branch out wide oa every Side : the 
Branches of the fbnrth Sort ainsgai^ 
ni(h*d with broad lOonfUfh Leaves, 
which grow alternately aloi^ ilie. 
• Mid- rib : the Frtdt grows on long, 
Footfialks pbc*d. on the Under-iid« 
of the Leaves hanging doiwa : the 
Fruit of this Sort is about theSiae of 
an Hazel'nnt, /wellii^ out in three 
Di vifions, like the Sced»vefici of the . 
I$purge : the Coyecing is ligacow, 
and of a brown Colour when rape. 

The Efth Sort has rery brcMid 
Leaves, whofe Surface is roughs 
and the Under-iide of a whitiA^ 
grey Colour. Thcfe aie placed al- 
tematety upon the Branches* The- 
Fruit of this Sort is as large as a^ 
Wahrat, of a dtf k-brown Colonr 
when ripe : the Cover is woody, and* 
fwells out in three Divifions, in each 
of whidi fhould be lodged a fingfr 
Seed; bnt it rarely happens that- 
more than one of them comes to Ma- 
turity : nor in many of thctfi is there, 
one good Seed, tho' they appeaf 
large and fair ;. yet, upon Examina* 
tion; fcarce one in forty, of either 
the fourth or fifth Sorts, had any 
Germ, but were hollow. 

Thefe are alfo very tender Plantar 
fe muft be placed in a warm Stove, 
othervt^lfs they cannot be pceferv*d 
in EmgUnJ. All thefe fbor laft-aiett- 
tlonM Sorts ave eafily propamued 
fr4>m good Seeds, which moft be 
fbwa on an Hot- bed in the Spnog f 
aind afterward planted tn I^ots, and 
placed in the Bark-Hover treatiii|r 
them ia the fame manner as hsth 
been direded for olher Bootic Phuue 
frbm the fame Conntiy. 

Thefe Plants many of them grow 
in the Emlt^lndWf where there are 
feveral other Species of this Geooa^ 
fome t^£ which are well figor'd and - 
defcrib'd in the Hortus AMitmcm^^ 


fthdk theTitl^ ofNirtmHi which iiiany Vears hy tUUkmt of Sim^ 

ffzmc has beeh applied by fome Bo- //« Pfo&ta t and baring had no Eng^ 

tanrifls to- die Genus, under which Hfi Name a[5plied to it^ I have coii- 

the foor laft Species have been ran- tina*d that Tide fbr Want of an imr. 

Rd; but that, being a barbarous Z^ one: nor couM the Bbtaniut 

ame;isT^ed^b7l>.£iii»4M/,who ugree under what Genus to range 

teis removM^hde to the firft Sort, and this. Plant : D^ Boerhaavt was the 

takcn'thatTitte to the Genus; and ai firft who eftabtifU'd' a Genus for it 

drey pretty well agree in their Cha- under the Title of Bup/ntroidu, as 

naert' witJh* the firft Species, fo I this Plaut hath fome Aftnity to the 

dunk it tetter to join them« than to BupUurum : but others have plac'd it 

drride dieiB into tvfo Oenera, efpe-, under that of rtf^r/tf«r//!ff, as fuppof^ 

dalTy- aa there bate ' been Doubts ing its CbaraAers agreed better with* 

where to fir them? for, by fome, thofe of that Genus : but Dr. Lin* 

tfacfe Spodes of Nir^Mti were joined ^^"s has rieje^ed both thofe Titles^ 

tD7»anir;^/*sGenusof7V/i^i&iViV>i; and applied this of Phyllis to thts* 

Imt I dnnk their Charaders corre- Plant, on the Account of the Beauty 

f^pnd noch better with thofe of the of its Leaves ; for the Flowers havd 

Pfyllaitthu. no more Beauty than thofe of Hem* 

PHYLLIS, Sim^a Ndfla iiffM. loek^ or other umbelliferous Plants. 
T^ CimraSers are ; This rarely grows above two Feet 

n^Empalimitn of tht Fhwtr it high, having a foft woody Stem^ 

^ifj family and comfofed •/ tnvo which branches out very low on 

Lemifti t tbi Flower bath' five ohtufi every Side : thefe Branches will ex- 

Frtalsf 'wbiib feem joined at their tend pretty wide, fo as to forma' 

Bafe-. in the Rottem of the Flower is fpreading Shrub: the Leaves are 

fitwated the Pointai^ attended hyfive large, and deeply vein*d| and Yemasa ' 

fitrt fiendet Sumina : the Pointal greeil tbf o^ the Year, in which the 

efhmxrard' betomes an oblong tnrbi- greateft Beauty of the Plant confiftii i 

wUed Frmiti compofed of tAj^ Seeds the Flowers are produced in Umbels . 

mshich join together; inhere they are at the Extremity of the Branches^ 

fUan^ and are convex 'on the other which are of a yelIowi(h-gre&i Co- 

Side: to nvhfch may he added^ The lour, and are fucceeded by Seeds 

Fhwers growing in nnVnsbeK growing in a loofe Umbd. 

I hav^ not obfervM- more than It is propagated bv Seeds which 

Mie Bfotiee nfHtas Genus in the £ng* muft be lown on a Bed of frefli light 

iSg^ Gardens I whidi-is^ Earth in March i and when the 

Pbtllis ftifuUs dentaHs, Ftor, Plants are fit to trs(nfplant, they 

Leyd. Simpla Nobla. ihould be put into feparate Pots^ and ^ 

Utere is another5';^rrr>i mendon*d . placed in a (hady Situation until they ' 

yf Dr. Fan Reyen:^ in the Fhra Ley- have taken Root ; after which time * 

d^Jist whidi betides PhyKs fiipulis they ihould be placed in a Situation \ 
integerrimis t but this Difference I ' where they may have the morning 

Idhre ^ not obfervM in any of the Sun i and in Summer will require to ^ 

tlhuits, which luv growiirg' in our have plenty of Water. In Wltiler 

Gardens. they muft be fln^tered ffom the ' 

This Plkiit wias brought fn)m the Froft 9 but require to have as nnich 

Cmnmy libmds, and has been long frtt Air as poflible, in mild Wea-* * 
nk Inhriritant of ma)iy curious Gar- ther i and if in the Spring fome of 
^Itils in EngUmdi and wasiciiowii for ' die Plants are (b^k/tn oat bf die Pots, 

Y y y a and 

P H 

Und put into the full Groand, they 
will perfect their Seeds much better 
than thofe which remain in the Pots. 

As thefe Plants feldom continue 
in Health above four or five Yearf, 
it will be proper, to raife a Supply of 
young ones to fucceed them. 


The CharaBirs are ; 

^he Flower confiftt cf fe*ueral 
Leaves, «which are placed in a circu- 
lar Order , and expand in form of a 
Rofe ; out of nubofe Centre rifes the 
Pointal, twhich afterguard becomes a 
foft Fruity or almoji globular Berry 
full of Seeds, placed orbicularly : to 
njobicbjhottld be added. That the Fiovj- 
ers and Fruit are produced on a Bunch 
like Currans, 

The Species are f 

i.Phytolacca Americana, ma- 

jbrifruSu, Tourn. American Night- 

fhade, with large Fruit, commonly 

cairdrir^/aw»Poke, orPoirke Phyfic. 

2. Phytolacca Mexicana^ hue- 
lis fej/ilibus, Hort, Elth* Mexican 
Phytolacca, whofe Berries grow dofe 
to the Stalk. 

The firft of thefe Plants is very 
common in Virginia, Ne^v-England, 
and Maryland, where the Inhabit- 
ants take a Spoonful or two of the 
Juice of the Root, as a familiar 
Purge. The Berries thereof are full 
cf a purple Juice, which gives a ^uc 
Tindure to Paper, from whence it 
hath the Name : this will not abide 
long, bat fades in a fliort time : ' 
therefore, if there could be a Me- 
thod found to &x this Colour, it 
might be of confiderable Ufe i for 
it is one of the moil beautiful pur- , 
pie Dyes yet known. 

It may be propagated by fowing 
S^eds in the Spring upon a Bed of 
]ight rich Earth; and when the 
Pfants come up, they ihould be 
tcanfplanted into the Borders of 
large Gardens, allowing them Space 

to grow-; for they maft not 1^ 
planted too near other Plants^ left 
they overbear and deftroy them » 
for they grow to be very large, cf- * 
pecially if the Soil be good. Whca 
they have taken Root, they will re- 
quire no farther Care but only ta 
clear them from Weeds, and in Att» 
tumn they will produce their. Flow-* 
< ers and Fruit : but when the Froft 
comes on, it willxat down the Stans. 
of thefe Plants, which conftantly de- 
cay in Winter; but their Roots will 
abide in the Ground, and .come up 
again the fucceeding Spring. There- 
is no great Beauty in this Plant ; butr 
for Variety, a few of them may be 
placed in the Borders of large Gar- 
dens, fince they require, bat little 
Culture ; and as they grow very tall, 
they will make a Figure in the Bor- 
ders of large Gardens^ efpecially in 
the Autumn, when the Spikes o£ 
purple Fruit are ripe. I have^eea 
Plants of this Kind upward of iix 
Feet high, when they have been in 
good Ground. As thefe Plants fel- 
dom continue longer than three or 
four Years, young ones fhould be 
raifed to fucceed them. 

The iecond Sort is a Native of 
the warmer Parts of America \ ior 
will not live in the open Air in 
England. This has been lately in* 
troducM into fome of the Britifb 
Iflands in Amirka^ from the Spanijb 
Weft-In£es, where it grows fpon- 
taneoufly ; and the Inhabitants cut* 
the green Herb, ^d boil it for; 
Spinach, which th^ eat without any 
ill EfFed, tho* it has been by fome 
Perfons thought to have the Quality 
of Nightfhade. 

The Seeds of this Sort ihould be 
fown upon an Hot-bed early in the 
Spring i and when the Phmts are fijt 
to tranfplant, they ihould be pot 
into Pots ; and after they have ac-» 
quired Strength, may be enured to 
bear the open Air, where they may 


V I 

veoniii tfll^the Aatnimi, wlien they 
flioold be reraovM into Shelter ; and 
if they are placed where they may 
luiTe a moderate Share of Warmth, 
they will flower all the Winter, and 
lipen their Fruit in the Spring. Dr. 
Unngfta iiippofes thefe two Species 
are the fame, in which he is gready 

PILOSELLA. /^/V/ Hicraciom. 

PIMPINELLA. Vidi Sangai- 
fbrba wtd Po^erium. 
PINASTER. Fidi PinusSylveftris. 

PINGUICULA, Butterwort. 

This Plant is found growihg up- 
on Bogs in many Parts of England ; 
bat is never coltirated in Gardens ; 
^ I (hall pafs it orer with barely 
mentioning it. 

PINUS, The Pine-tree. 
The CharaBers are ; 

h buih mmintaceoMS Fltnvert^ §r 
Katkims^ nshkb an froduad at r/- 
wnte Diftances Jrom tht Fruit on the 
fame Tret : thi Sieds an produced in 
Jfuamous Cams: to nubicb Jhonldbo 
addtdf Tbat tbe Leagues are longer tban 
ibtfo 9ftbi Fir- trees f and are proceed 
hj ^tm^t or more out ofeacb Sbeatb, 
The Species are ; 

T. PiKvsySi/rvtf. C. B, P. The 
nianiired Pine. 

2. FiHvs j^heJiHs. C. S. P. The 
Pinafter, or Wild Pine. 

3 . Pi vvs£fbve/iris^/oliis hrovibns 
glameis^ conis parvis albentihus. Raii 
JSft. The ^r9/r^ Pine, commonly 
called tbe Scotcb Fir. 

4. Pi Nvs Americana f fiUis pra» 
htsps, fubinde temitf conis pluHiHis 
comftrtim uafceniibns. Rand. Ameri^ 
rtfuPine, with longer Leaves coming 
out by Threes, and many Cones 
growing in a Clnfter; commonly 
called the Qafter Pine. 

5. PiHtJS Americana^ ex unofolli' 
€uloyfttis longis tenmbus triquetris^ ad 
ot/tum angulum^ per totam longitudi- 
99mp tmiutiffimii (nms erfperaiis. 

p I 

Pluk. Amaltb. Lord JFepHOuth*% 
Pine ; or, by fome, the New-Eng- 
land Pine. 

6. Y\'^vijyl<vefirism9ntanatertia. 
C, B. P, The third wild mountain 
Pine, of Cajpar Baubin. 

7. Pi N u s Jyl<oeftris montana altera. 
C,B,P, Another wild mountain Pine. 

8. F\MkV% fylvefiris maritima^ conis 
Jirmiter ramis adb^erentibus, y. B, 

Wild maritime Pine, whofe Cones 
adhere firmly to the Branches. 

9. P1NU8 maritima altera Mat» 
tbioli, C, B. P. Another maritime 
Pine of Mattbiolus. 

10. Pin us maritima minor. C.B.P. 
LelTer maritime Pine. 

1 1. PiNUS bumilh, iulis 'oirefcen^ 
tihus aut pallefcentibus. Inft, R. Hm 
Dwarf Pine, with a green or pale 

12. Pin us bumilisy iulo purpura* 
fcenti, Inft.R.H. Dwarf Pine, with 
a purpllfti Katkin. 

13. Pin us conis ereffit. Infi. R» 
H. Pine whofe Cones grow erefl.' 

14. PiNUS Orientalis, foliis dun* 
oribus amaris, fruSu pam)o peracuto. 
Toum. Cor. Eaftem Pine, with har- 
der bitter Leaves, and a fmall fharp- 
pointed Cone. 

15. Pin us f^erofilymitana^ prm* 
longis &f tenuiffimss 'oiriJibus fetis. 
Pluk. Jlmag, Eallern Pine, with 
long narrow green Leaves ; com- 
monly called the Aleppo Pine. 

16. PiNus Virginiana, pralongis 
foliis tenuioribus^ cono ecbinato. Pluk. 

Almag. Virginian Pine, with long 
narrower Leaves, and a rough Cone; 
commonlycalled Baftard three- leav*d 

17. Pin us Virginiana^ temis fern 
tripilis plerumque ex unofolliculofetis^ 

^ftrobilis majoribus. Pluk. Almag. 
Virginian Pine, having, for the moit 
part, three Leaves, coming out of 
one Sheath ; commonly called the 

Yyy3 18. Pi- 


.l|. 9fvvt Virginians, hhis hfe- bd^ot ea(y to determtoe ; foi: it ii 

^ri^tns if crajjimhw fetis^ minort . not a Native of Ennf0, there bei^g 

<0«99 fingulis fquamarum cmfitibus none of tbem found novir ^rowiqgt 

tff»^# (knati^* Pluk. Jim. Virgi' bat in foch Places where the^ Jbaxe 

^ian f'mt, with (horter tjiicker been planted ; ib that ;here are 

Leaves, ^nd fm^lkr Cones, with 3 any of them found in Woodtf Qt 

Prickle on the Top of each Scales uncultivated Places ; this Sort cer- 

conunoply called the ^^rjey Pine. tainly. is in plenty in China^ frogi 

1.9. Pin ys Jmnicana falufris^ whence I have feveral times receivc4 

longiffimii i^ 'viridihuffttis, Marfii the Seeds i and in a CoUedion of 

4mirican Pine, with the longeft the Mating MkMca, whicb was 

green Leaves. brought me from thence, were a 

'Tl^e £rft Sort is much cultivated Parcel of thefe Nuts : in many of 

xu'liafy, and the South oi Frana^ the Oi>ra Paintiuffs there are fom<| 

where the Trees grow to ft large of thefe Trees exhibited ; but whe- 

•SlBBe } and are the great Ornament ther it grows naturally in (bat Comi- 

of the Italian Villa's : this Sort is try, I cannot learn. 
idfo in Spain^ Portugal^ and moil of This Sort thrives very wdl iq 

(^ewarin Parts of £«r0^f$ where t|ie ^England, when it is planted in f^ 

Kut? which contain the Seeds are warm Situation ; but it is too cen« 

2' uently ferved up to the Table, der to thrive in cold expofedPlaces, 

fre ,ea^ in ^9 fmne manner as where in fevere VxqSl the Lipavet aro 

j(fa^ tifia^hia Nat : and thefe were generally killed ; and many times 

formerly ufed in Medicine in Er^- all the tender Shoots are deftroyed^ 

land\ but of late Years they have whereby the Trees are rendered ve- 

pmjp^eAed, imd Pi^acbi'a Nuts ty unfightly 1 but in warm Situ»- 

(nbflituted in their Pl|ice. tions, where thefeTrees thrive weU^^ 

TJhe d^^OD^ of this Sort ^re very they make a very h^ndComeAppcar* 

Jarge, i|nd the Scales are b road a^d ance ; but in order to get them op 

^t: the'Nuts orSeeds fure as larseas with Stems, they Ihould be planted 

thofe of the Hazel, but are of an pretty clo(e, ^t they maybedmwn 
pval Figure: t)ie Shell is very hard,, upnght, otherwife cbc(r wiU £pi4 

^imdwhen frefli taken out of the forth many lateral firancuAS near the 

Cone, is covered with a purple Fa- Ground to a great Difianc^, whi^l 

1^, which will colour t)ie liands : will prevent th^ir mwiog t^U : and 

eacli of the Cones, if well grown, as thefe refinous Trees are apt ici 

wiH contain iipward of fourrcore bleed ^eatlv wi^en they are proiie4» 

I^uts^ the Leaves of this Tree are their Uteral Branches (honld npvfr 

long, and of a glapcous Colour : l)e encouraged \ becaufe tt^ey cannot 

thefe are, for the moft part, produ- bte pruned off withSafety» when 

p^d by Pairs out of each Sheath ; they are gfown large, 
thb' fometimes,ln young Plants, I This Tree is propagated h^Secdi, 

Sve abferycd tluee. If thefe Trees which ibooid he Town in Vardf, on 

veroom to fpread, they will e^- a Border of luj^t Earth enioled ta 

tei)d their Branches tp a ^reat Dt* the momipgSun : the beft Way will 

fiance on every Side, near the be to drawl>riUs ab^at twp Indiea 

Ground \ ^nd feldom make much d^p, into ^hi^ the Se^ may 

progrefs upward ; but rather form be fcattered about an Inch iiSwi* 

^cir Heads into a conical Figure. ^cr; (1^ 9viU' IW bc draiyii 
^jiefp t)us Tree nfttux^ly grpws, imH 

- • I 

p I 


dboDt iliree Inches Diftance from 
ctth other. If the Spring flioald 
|woT€ very dry, it will be proper to 
ifipply tt^ Border with Water twice 
1 Week : for as the Covers of the 
Seed are very hard utilefs they have 
a pretty good Share ofMoifture^tfaey 
will not vegetate ; but when tbe 
Coveiings bur(l,atid the yoangPlants 
begin to come out, the Watering 
maft be bgt fparingly performed < 
for too much Wet will rot the ten* 
der Stems of the Plants : diey muft 
iUb be carefully defended from 
Birds, othennfe they may be 
all ddlroyed ia a few Honrs, by 
chefe rapacious Creatures, which are 
fond of pecking the Heads off thefe 
Hants before they are well oat of 
Che Groaad : and if the Bed is (ha- 
ded in the Heat of the Day from the 
Son, it wiU prevent the Earth from 
Aying too faft ; and preferve the 
Plants from being injored by the 
Violence of the Sun's Heat, which 
ihey cannot well bear the firft Sea- 
fon. Sometimes in dry Seafons I 
have known the Seeds remain a 
Year in the Ground, and often three 
or fonr Months : therefore the Bor- 
der or Bed in which they are fown 
Ihoold not be difturbed, if the Plants 
ftoold not come up to foon as they 
are expe^ed. 

If the Seeds fucceed well* the 
Plants will appear in about five or 
fix Weeks after they are fown ; and 
then theDiref^ions before given mufi 
^ obferved, as alfo to keep the Bed 
clean from Weeds; and if in dry 
Weather they are gcatly watered 
two or three times a Week, it will 

Eromote tbe Growth of the Plants : 
ut this maft be performed with 
great Care ; for if it is poured too 
nafttly,<ir given in too great Plenty, 
it wiU caufe the Stems to rot juft at 
the Surface of the Groond ; and for 
want of this Care great Numbers of 
ibfiCe Planta have been dedroyed 


(bon afifer i&ey made thetr Appear- 

As many of the Sorts of Pines ara 
with fome DilHcalty preferved thro^ 
the iiril Winter^bnt particultrty the 
manured Pint, the beft Method (k 
treatine Ihem is to tranfplant them 
about miJ/kimMr,'out of the Seed- 
bed, choofing, if poifible, a cloudy 
Day fdr this Woric : but whenever 
this U doife, die Phutts (hould be 
kept is little time out of the Ground 
as ^ble, idft their tender Fibres 
fhotitd be drild by the Air: to pit- 
vent which, it will be proper to have 
Ihattew Pans nf Water, into which 
the t'lants may be laid, as they am 
taken up, and lb carried to thePlace 
where they are to be planted. All 
the other Sorts df Pines^may then be 
planted in Beds, at ab^ut four Inch- 
es Diftance every Way 5 and tiie 
Beds dioald be arched over with 
Hoops, that they may be covered 
every Day with Mats, to icreen the 
Plants from the San, until they have 
taken good Root t but as this Sort 
of Pine is with Difficulty tranfplant^ 
ed, it will be the fureft Method to 
plant them into fmafl Pots, at their 
€rft removing out of the Seed-bed ; 
if the Pots are plunged clofe toge* 
ther, either ia a commonBorder, or 
an old Bed of Tan, which has nd 
Heat, it wiH prevent the Earth in 
the Pots from drying too fad : and 
then thefe may alfo be arched over^ 
and covered with Mats in the fame 
manner as the other : and if thefe 
are continued in the fame Bed all 
the following Winter, they may be 
covered in fevere Froft, whkb ofbeft 
deftroys the Plants while they aris 
young, when they are expofed to it. 

The Plants (hould be (hifted out 
of the Pots when their Roots haye 
filled them, and planted into larger 
Pots ; being careful In the doing Of 
th]s,not to ihaketheEarth from their 
Roots ; and if the Pots are plunged 

y y y 4 into 


^ into the Earth, it will prevent the 
Barth in the Pots from drying. foo 
fiift in Snmmeri and alfo keep 
Qttt the Froft in Winter : which, if 
the Pots ftood on the Surface of the 
Ground, would penetrate thro"^ the 
Sides to the Roots of thePJi^'nts, and 
injure them greatly j the&f Plants 
nay ren^ain three or four X^ars in 
Pots { by which time they w^i have 
acquired fumcient §frength |o be 
planted where^they are defignpd to 
remain, which mayb^ performed at 
almoU any time of the Year rbe<- 
caufe they mull be fhaken out oftiie 
Pots with the whole Ball of Eafth ; 
fo will not feel their Removal r^ but 
if it can be done in Jpril^ juft be* 
fore the Plants begin to (hoot, they 
will th^n have th^ whole Summer to 
get rooting in their new Quarters i 
to will be in lefs Danger of fuffer- 
ing the following Winter by the 
Cold : alcho' (here is Trouble in the 
Management of the Plants in this 
Method, yet I am certain there is no 
pther way of propagating or tranf: 
planting them witli Safety ; there- 
fore it is that I would recommen4 
this to every Perfon, who is deftrous 
to have thefe Trees ip their Gardens 
or Plantations. 

ThePinafter hath been long cultiva- 
ted iriEng/fnJ: bu|of late Years h^th 
been in )e(s EHeem than formerly ; 
becaufe as ^hey grow large, their 
Branches are ragged, and bare of 
Leaves ; fo that they have but an 
indifferent i\ppearance ; tho' while 
they are young, the Plants xpakp 
great Progrefs, and have an hand- 
fome Appearance $ which has 
tempted many Perfons to propagate 
thefe Trees ; but as they have ad- 
vanced in Stature, they have decli- 
fled in^psMtyi apd their Wood bemg 
pf lictje YsiluCf has in a great mea- 
sure brought them into Difrepute. 
The Sfo(<i Pine, which is general- 

p I 

ly called the Scotch Fir, is the moft 
profitable of all the Sorts, to culti- . 
yate in large Plantations ; and will 
grow in aimoft any Soil or Situa- 
tion ; for in the moll barren Sand, 
where little elfe but Fern and Heath 
would grow, I have feen Planta-f 
tions of thefcTrees thrive much be-t 
yond Expe^ation ; and upon chalky 
Hills, where there have been fcarco 
three Inches of fiarthn there ar^ 
many noble Plantations of this Sort. 
X have alfo obferved> where they 
have been planted in a ftrong Clay, 
and alfo in a moid peaty Soil, that 
they have grown to Admiration i 
fo that there is no Part of England^ 
in which thefe Trees might not bo 
propagated to confiderable Advan* 

. But where thefe Trees are de^ 
fignM to be planted in large Quan« 
titles, it will be much tne better 
way to make a Nurfery on the Spot 
where the Seeds (hould be fownj^ 
and the Plants raifed until they 
are three Years old, which ia 
a proper Age to plant them out 
for good ; for the younger they are 
planted, the better they will thrive, 
provided they are kept clear froni 
Weeds : and if the Situation where 
they are intended to Hand is much 
expofed to Winds, the Plants ihoul4 
he planted dofer together, that they 
may be a Shelter to each other, and 
draw themfelves upward : and aa 
the Trees advance, they may bo 
thinned by decrees ; and the Thiii» 
nings of thefe. Plantations have, iq 
many Places, paid the Expence of 
planting for ; thefe are ytiy fervlce- 
able for Scaffolding, and many 
other ufeful Bufinefles. 

Jt is the Wood of thisTree which 
is the red or yellow Deals, and ig 
more valuable than that of any 
other Sort of Pine or Fir : this is 9 
^^tive of Dinmarkf^ SwediMt an^ 


many othor Northern Coantries : 
Mnd in the Highlands oi Scotland 
there are feveral large Woods of 
^s Tree now gro^ng; and the 
Seeds being brought from thence in- 
tuEwglandt has occafioned the Name 
of Scotch Fir being generally applied 
to it here ; bat in Nomjomy it is 
called Grama. 

The Clu^er Pine is by moft Per- 
fons little known ; for thePinafter, 
9S alio the two other Sorts of moun- 
tain Pines, are in many Places culci- 
nted by this Name ; and, in (hort» 
every Sort, whofe Cones are pro- 
duced in large Bunches : but the 
Sort here mentioned was brought 
from America^ and is very different 
finm either of theTe: there were two 
or three of tbefeTrees growing fome 
Yean fince in the Gardens of the 
Jiihop ofZ^i^ff^atFtt/^^m, which pro- 
doced plentyof Cones feveral Years. 

The fifth Sort, which is common- 
ly called Lord 1Veymoutb*s Pine, 
or the NrW' England Pine, is by 
^uch the talleft-growing Tree of all 
the Kinds ; and the Leaves being 
Tery long, and dofely placed on the 
Sranches, renders it more beautiful 
tban any other ; and the Bark of 
|he Stems and Branches is alfo ex- 
feeding fmootb, which is an Addi- 
tion to the Beauty of the Tree: the 
Leaves of this Sort are produced 
(re out of etch Sheath; and are of 
a glaucous Colour : the Trees |;e- 
nerally form themfelves into conical 
Heads, and hate flrait Stems, which 
life to more than one hundred Feet 
high, in the Counti^ies where it na- 
turally grows '• there are fome very 
tallTi^ of this Kind, at Sir ff^y»id^ 
bamKnatcbhuirs Seat ncu Jfifordm 
Kent i which have been many Years 
there annoticed,tilI,abont twenty-fix 
Years ago, the Seeds were brought 
p> London for Sale: there are alfo fome 
jl^rpe Trees of Uiis Kind growing at 

p I 

Longhitf the Seat of the Right 
Hon. the Lord Vifcount f^tymouth^ 
which have produced Cones many 
Years pafi; and from thence theTrees 
were called Lord Woymoutb^s Fine. 
The Cones of this Sort are long, the 
Scales loofe and fiat : the Seeds are 
pretty large, and frequently drop 
from the Cones, if they are not ga- 
thered early in Autumn: this Tree 
delights in a moiH loofe Soil ; for ia 
the natural Places of its Growth the 
Ground is wet, and of a loofe Tex- 
ture. In Air<zv - England^ Vir- 
ginia^ Carolina^ and feveral other 
Parts of Horth-America^ thefe Trees 
abouiid, where they are called the 
white Pine ; but the Wood is little 
elleemed there, being foft, and ver/ 
white : however,for fuchPlantations 
as are defign'd for Pleafure, there 
is not any of the Species equal to 
this for Beauty, where the Trees 
thrive well. 

The fixth, fevcnth, eighth, ninth, 
tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and thir-* 
teenth Sorts grow in Sfain^ Portu- 
gal^ Italy ^ Aujiriay and other Parts 
of EurofCy where there are fome 
other Varieties than are here enu- 
merated : but as ytry few of thefe 
have been introduced into England, 
they cannot be well difUnguiihed 
from the others, by the imperfed 
Defcriptions which wejiave of them 
in Books : moft of thefe Sorts areln- 
habitants of the mountainous Parts 
of Europe j fo they are very hardy 
in refped to Cold i therefore they 
may be eafily propagated mEngland, 
were their Seeds brought hither ia 
the Cones : fome of thefe are of ve- 
ry humble Grovvth, particularly the 
eleventh and twelfth,which in many 
Places do not exceed four Feet high, 
and produce plenty of Cones : the 
other Sort grows after the fame man- 
ner as thefecond Sort,- fo are not 
very beautiful Trees i but a few qf 



'•■elt Sort may be interfperted widi Xlwyland, Virginia^ and CaroUmi > 

'tke-odier more valoable Kinds, in thefixteenthSortgrowstobealarg^ 

large Plantations of erer- green Tree, and maka an handfome Ajf- 

Trees, by way of Variety. peanmce;and ^en planted in n, 

Tbefonrteenth and fifteenth Sorts moift light Soil, is very quick of 

Sraw in the LevMUt^ from whence Growth : bat the feventeenth is by 

^ their Seeds have been brought to far the finer Sort, tho* at prefest 

Mfiglamff where there are ieveral very rare in England: the Leaves oC 

Rsmts of the fifteenth Sort now this Sort are of a great Length, and 

Igrowing in fome curious Gardens ; are three or four produced f rooa 

but the fiourteenth is mere rare at eadi Sheath : th^ Cones are larger 

fideot : thefe are not quite fo hardy and alm'oft in Shape of thofe of Sie 

as the othen ; for in the fevere manured Pine : there was a g;reat 

Hunter of 1739. I ^^ feveral 'Number of thefe Trees erowing ifi 

Hants of bodi Kinds which were the Gardens of Mr. Bal7, near Bxt- 

hitirely deilrttyedj fome of which /#r, which were all deftroyed by 

ivtre upward of ten Feet high; tranfplanting them at an improper 

%fit they wUl endure the Cold of Seafon. 

t)ur common Winters very well. The eighteenth Sort is fcarc% 

TThere are twoPknts of the fifteenth worthy ota Place, on account of itt 

6ort in the Gardens of his Grace irregular Growth. This Sort never 

the Duke ofRJchm^ at GoodwpoJ grows to iny great Size in its native 

"In Sujffhe, which have produced Country, and loon becomes ragged 

Cones for fome Years paft ; but they and unfightly : there have been great 

have not parfeded theirSeeds as yet. Numbers of Trees of this Sort raifed 

The Branches of thefe Trees are in EnglanJ^ fince the Tafle for in- 
(lendcr, and extend to a great l>i- troducing of Foreign Trees and 
ftance from the Trunk ; they are Shrubs has prevailed here s but in 
{ifodoced m Circles at Diftances many Places diey are ab*eady be- 
above each other $ but grow very con[ie fo unfightly, that they are at 
irregular and loofe : the Leaves are prdent dellroy ing by their Ownen. 
-long, (lender, and of a deeb-green There |re very few Plants ofthd 
Cobur : the Cones are Ihaped iome- nineteenth' Sort at prefent in Eng^ 
what like thofe of the manured /«»/, which are grown to any 
Pine ; but are much fmaller : the Height ; but fome Years ago there 
Seeds of this Kind will keep good were many of them growing at 
fome Years, when taken out of the Mr. BalTs^ near Exitn^ which were 
Cones. I have fown of thefe Seeds upward of ten Feet high ; but thefo 
when three Years old, which grew weredeftroyed by their Owner, who 
te well as any new Seedsof the lame did not like them : this Sort grows 
Years and uie Plants came ud in a on Swamps in America^ and is with 
Bed of common Earth without Difficulty prefervcd upon dry Land; 
Trouble. nor do the Plants make much Pro- 

The fifteenth, feventeenth, eigh* grefs when placed in fuch Situa* 

4oenth,atM] nineteenth Sorts are Na- tions; the Leaves of this Sort are 

tivescf.ib/riVa; from whence their very long, and of a dark*greea 

Cones have been fent to England i Colour : the Stems of the Plants 

and many of the Plants have been areof a loofe Texture, covered with 

raifed : thefe grow in Ntw-Epglattd, a rugged Bark i (b are not veiy 

beautiful s 

T I 

imai6bi : Ais.Sort M«ot fo hni^ 

^ve .a nyyrm SitoaiioD^ fM»d.fti>aU 
be dfffrnrWJiOB^ fevtrc Aoife wbUe 
jte Piantf ^ff yamig. 

Tber« &ihb f<vn« other SpsQWAf 
ihefe Trees, which are Natives 'Of 
jMuricai bQC*tlKtfeh«fe Sbfntioned 
^tfe what X Jiave mJBt .wkh in ihr ^ii;- 
/^ Gardens ; npr om JleanijM»wdthe 
Dtber Sortt diiFer fr«ia ijli«k» akho* 
iame of the Xaiiahuai^ ^ftk^ttti 
ihflBi by Names of tbflir oivn adopt- 
ing : there are ^iSo ii>ne Sorts whkh 
^loir in £||^ and SibirUf which 
are<LilferQQt AonKhafe hcie'eQUQe- 
lated: but the few Piaots vrhioh 
Jiave been naiifed ia Engkad* fnum 
ike Seeds whkih have h^ pcoottied 
from cbencei aaakefi) lifitlcfaogreft 
Jiflce, ;as to ^i«e ao iiopca of chck 
m WMg to swy Sn^ in chi9 Conntrya 
2o I havcomttcd dicir Nfnaes in,this 

All ^ Sorts fif Pioas are prapa" 
^atcfl by Seeds, 4vhxeh are prodacod 
jp Imd liibody Cones ; ihe way to 
^et oat their Soeds m, to by tha 
Cones beft>re a Fiie» which will 
famk this CdJs to opea ; ami than 
^e Seeda may be eafily taken out : 
if the Cones ane kept i|iti«e, the Seed* 
' fnll ranaia cood foma Years i fe 
(hjit ^ foiattway to preCerve them 
ja» to let tbam r^maio ia the Coiua 
fpotil the time for ibwipg tht Saods : 
bat if the Ctmss aie kept in a warm 
yjace in Sommer, they will open, 
im4 emit the ^mi» ; bat if they ace 
fiot eicpofed to mvA Keat» they will 
yamaM^ iutire fone Yeari } and the 
^eedf wbifib have bm obo out of 
paoea of £irvenYaarsold,h^7e grown 
areiy mOj fo tbtt tbe£s may be 
franfiported from any Diftance, pro- 
added ihe Cooes die Wfll ripeeed^ 
iwd i»t>perty put up. 

The beft time for fowiag the Seeds 


Msnhi aod when the :Seeds ate 

iipwi^ thePtaoe Ihoabl Ik ooenBed 
w»thl4eai, tokeep efffiieds i 
wife,' wbmi ^Pknts bi^ffn to 
|iear with tbe Hulk of <he Seed eit 
^thfir Tqps, tbe Biids wiU fkk adF 
the Heads of the Plants, ^aad 4tt!kxaf 
them. What is before aaesnioiied 
of tfonfpbMitMig die yoneg Pbutta 
aboat Mi4fimmm't 1 bctt losveaoso^ 
peat again her^ becai^ I hawe/emi 
Uiis pra£Ufed with gaeat Saeoeft^ 
and it faequeatlpr happens, abat >ifcB 
Pianu whkh reaiam in the Phme 
wheae they wwie fbwB, ^ siwa^riR 
Aitches : nor do tbe Pbakts wbkh 
fStaMiB grow Bear fo if oag as tbaie 
•Wihadi ase pmckad out yaeng: tet 
jwheo this IS doac;, the Plants moft 
bewmer'daAd Aadcd oDttl therhme 
^an fioeft Root; after which tiom 
the (Only Cnitaae they roqniie is» tw 
ikcep idiem dean from Weeds. Ii| 
liheCe Beds tbe Phmts umy mnm 
pH the next Spring twelve MoaAa 
offier: by which tsaK the Ptaaia 
will be fit to tmnfplant wheK ibeir 
one to reaaain bt gaod i <ar lim 
yoongerdkePkmuare, when plana* 
ed oat, the betterthey wiU fimoae^ 
£ar ahho' tene Sovts will bcartnus^ 
pUating at a much greater Age, yet 
yoaog Piaals planted at tbe Aime 
time will in a few Years overtake 
the large Plants, and ibon ootftrip 
them in their Growth: and there ia 
an Advantage in planttng yoong, by 
&vingdbe£cpeaceof Smkiag, and 
mueh Watering, which large Plania 
mpiife. I have feveial times icen 
Plantations of feveval Sorts of Pinca, 
which were made of Plants fix or 
fisven Feet high ; and at the fiime 
time others of one Foot high planted 
between tbem i whkh in ten Years 
were better Trees than the old ones, 
«ad madi OMie vigorons in their 
Growth : bat if the Ground where 
4my mc lUkn'id remain, c^onot, 
' be 

p I 

be prepardi by the time the Plants 
dould be planted out, they may be 
removed out of the Beds into a Nor- 
fery, where they may remain two 
YcarSy but not longer ; for it will be 
very hazarxlous removing thefe Trees 
at a greater Age. 

The beft Seaibn to tranfplant all 
the Sorts of Pines is about the Lat- 
ter-end of March, or the Beginning 
^ April, juft before they begin to 
ihoot: for altho* the Scotch Pine, 
and iome of the moft hardy Sorts, 
may be tranfplanted in Winter, efpe- 
cially when they are growing in 
ftrong Land, where th^ may be 
taken up with Balls of Earth to their 
Roots ; yet this is what I would not 
advife for common Prance, having 
frequently ieen it attended with bad 
Confequences \ but thofe which are 
removed in the Sprinj; rarely fail. 

Where thefe Trees are planted in 
cxpofed Situations, they fliould be 
put pretty dofe together, that they 
may (helcer each other \ and when 
th^ are too dofe. Part of the Plants 
may be cut down, to give room for 
the others to grow : but this muft be 
gradually performed, left by too 
flinch opening the Plantation, the 
Air (hould be let in among the re- 
maining 1 rees with too great Vio- 
lence, which will Hop the Growth 
of the Trees. 

Altho* thefe ever-green Trees are 
by many Perfons defpifed on account 
of their Dark -green in Summer ; yet 
a proper Mixture of thefe in laife 
Clumps makes a fine Appearance 
about a Seat in Winter ; and in Sum- 
mer, by their Contraft with other 
Trees, has no bad EiFed in diver- 
fifying the Scene. 

PISONIA, Fingrigo, vir//*. 
The CbaraStrs are ; 

// is Mali 4md Femali in Mffireni 
PlmHts : the Mali Fhwirs coufift of 
a gnat Jfumbir ^Staquna, andbann 

p I 

no Vitals : the female Flower ccnfijh 
ofossi Leaf, which is bell-fiapeJ, and 
skwded at thi 7 op int§ fm Parts i 
from ivhefi Cnp arifis the Pointa/, 
which afterward hecomos an ohk^ 
4mgnlitr cbamilled Fruk^ cosstasning 
ohlong Seeds, 

The Species are ; 
I. PisoNf A acmleata mas. Hoitjl. 
The Male Fingrigo. 

a. PisoNiA acuUata, fmSugluti- 
nofo^ ratemofo. Plnm. Nov, Gen. 
Prickly Ptfonia, with a glutmooa 
and bnnching Fruit. 

Thefe Plants are feminal Varia- 
tions, which arife from the Seeds of 
the iane Plant i bat as they were 
not diftinguifli'd by any of the Bo- 
taaifts, till the laie Dr. Houjlenn ob- 
served their Difference, therefore I 
thought proper to mention the dif- 
ferent Sexes as feparate Plants. 

The Name of this Plant was given 
by Father Flnmer in Honour to Dt. 
WilUam Fife, who publifh*d a Na- 
tural Hiftory of Bra/U. The Name 
o£ Fingrigo is what the Inhabitania 
oi Jamaica know it by. 

Thefe Plaats are very common in 
the Sawtnna\ and other low Places, 
in the Ifland ofyamaiea, as alfo m • 
fevtral other Places in the Wtft^In- 
eHes ; where it is very trouUefome 
to whoever pafles through thePlaces 
of their Growth, by firiwuing them- 
felves, by their ftrong crooked 
Thorns, to the Cloaths of the Per- 
fons I and their Seeds, being gluti- 
nous, alfo faften themfelves to what- 
ever touches fhem : fo that the 
Wings of the Ground-doves, and 
other Birds, are often fo loaded with 
the Seeds, as to prevent thdr flying i 
by which means they becomean eafy 

. It rifi» about ten or twelve Feet 
high, with a pretty ftrong Trunk < 
but the Branches are long and flen« 
dcr, which, -being unable to fnppoit 


p I 

Aemfdfes/ generally twift abooC 
whattter Plants are near them. 

In Emnfe this Plant is prefenred 
m the Gardens of fome corions Pep- 
ions for Variety : it is propagated by 
Seeds, which ihoald be Town in Pots 
filled with light rich Earth, and 
plunged into an Hot-bed of Tanners 
Bark ;, and when the Plants cone 
«p^ they (hoold be tfanfpknted into 
ieporatie Pots, and plunged into the 
Hot-bed again ; where they may 
remain till Ahehoiimai, when they 
ihodd be removed into the Stove, 
and plunged into the Bark-bed, and 
treated in the fame manner as hath 
been direded for fevend tender' 
Pkats of the fame Country $ obferv- 
iog in hot Weather to give them 
identy of Water; but in Winter they 
flionld have it more fpairingly. 
They are too tender to thrive in the 
open Ak of this Country at any Sea* 
fon of the Year; wherefore they 
(hoold be conftantly kept in the 

PISTACHIA. Fiik Terebin- 

PISUM, Pea. 

The CbaraSers are ; 

Uu M Pldni wnth a pi^iScMretmn 
FUwir, out rf nvbofe EmpalenUnt 
rifii th€ FmntaU nuhich aftirmford 
Uiamu a lepg Pod, full of roundifi 
Smds : /« mfln€b nmft be addid, Fiftu- 
Ima Stmlks, for the mofi part nueek^ 
nMth the Leaws imbraci in fucb a 
mmaur, that they feem to be perfe^ 
reaed by them\ but the ether Lt wet 
grew ly Pairs altmg the Mid^rib, end- 
tag in a TtndriL 

The Species are; 
I. Pi SUM borten/e majntf flore 
fru^uque albe. C.S.Pi The gfcater 
Garden Pea, with white Flowers and 

: Z,?i%T3U precox Jnglicnm, Baerb. 
Led. Hotfpur Pea, nrulge. 

V I 

3. PisuM hmmk, eauk frmo. 
Tenm. The Dwarf Pea. 

A. PisuM humileGalUcum. Beerb. 
hJ. French Dwvf Pol. 

5. PrsuM cortice edkli. Team. Pea 
with an efculent Hufk. 

6. Pi SUM fiRfoa eamefa incumfa, 
femfalcata ednli. .Kaii Htji. The 

Sickle Pea.. 

7. PisuM arvenfe^ frnffu albe. 
C B. P. Common White Pea. 

8. Pi SUM arvenfe, fruQu 'viriM. 
C. B. P. Green Roundval Pea. 

9. Pi SUM amfenfe, fruQu cineree^ 
CB.P. The Grey Pea. 

10. PrsuM ar^enfe, flere refee, 
fruBu variegate. Rati Hift. Marble 

Roundval Pea. 

11. P18UM umbellatum. CB.P. 
The Rofe Pea, or Crown Pea. 

12. Pi SUM maximum^ fruSu ni- 
gra linea maculate, H. R. Par. The 
Spanijb Morotto Pea. 

13. PisuM berten/ep Jiliqua maxi' 
ma. H, R. Par. The Marrow-fat 
or Dutch Admiral Pea. 

14. PisuM fruBu maxtmo ex vi- 
ridi ehfilete. Beerb, Jnd. The Union 

1 5. Pi SUM J^taneum maritimnm 
Anglicum. Park. Tbeat. Englijh Sea 

16. Pi SUM arvenfct fru3u e lute9 
nnrefcente, C, B.P. Pig Peas. 

There are feveral other Varieties 
of the Garden Peas, which differ in 
the Colour of their Flowers and 
Fruit, and are by fome Perfons di- 
flingai(h*d by Names as diHinft 
Sorts ; but as they are very fubjef^ 
to vary when fown two or three 
Years in the fame Place, there caa 
be no Doubt of their being feminal 
Variations, which are not worth 
enumerating in this Place. 

The Englijb Sea Pea is found wild 
upon the Shore in Suffix, • and feve- 
ral other Counties in England, This 


p I 

1^ firft taken nodce of ui tke Vear 
J 55 5. between Orfoni. and .<^Z(^v 
ratrg^ wheve it grew, ap^n the 
Heath, wherejiethiiify no DotGraffi. 
wa* ever feea to grow ; and ther poor 
People, being in Difbefe, hf r^aiovt 
of the Dearth of that Year, gather- 
ed Jarge Quantities of thefe Peas, and 
io preierv'd themfelves and Fami* 
Ilea. This 'is mcntion*d by St9w in 
Kis Ciirmac/i, and Camden m hir 
Sriiamua : bat they were both nif- 
taken* in imaginiog that they were. 
Peas caft on Shore by a Shipvureck, 
feeing they grow in divers other- 
Pacts of EmglanJ, and are luidoubt- 
cdly a diftrent Species from tho- 
common Pea. 

The^fixteentb Sort is. greatly cal« 
tjvated in the Fields in Dorfetjbirt^ 
where they are known by the Name 
of Pig Peas, thelnhabitants making 
great Ufe of them to feed their Hogs. 
Thtfe are often brought up. to Lw- 
iffB^ and fold for the fame Purpofe. 

I ihall now proceed to fet down 
the Method of cdcivating. the feve- 
ral Sorts of Garden Peas, fo as to 
continue them throughout the Sea* 

ft is a common PrafUce with the 
Gardeners near LoHdon^ to raife Peas 
upon Hot-bods, to have them ytry 
early in the Spring; in order to 
which, they fow their Peas upon 
warm' Boiders under Walb or 
H^ges, about the Middle of Oa§' 
her i and when the Plants come up, 
they draw the Earth up gently to 
their Stems with an Hoe, the better 
to prote&them from Froft : in thefe 
Places they let them remain until 
the Latter-end of January^ or the 
Beginning of FebruAry ; obferving to 
earth them up from time to time, 
aa the Plants advance in Height (for 
the Reafons before laid down) i as 
alfo to cover them in very hard Froft 
with Peas -haulm. Straw, or fome 


otlM^ V^' Oyveffiagi to phifeitt 
them from being deflroyMt t^ny 
at the time before*riient i on*d^ they 
makoan Hol4>ed (inpeoportion eo 
the QuaMty^ of Pena intended)* 
which mui^ be well workM in la^^^ 
ing^the Dung, that the Heat nay. not 
be too great; The Daagr fhoaU be 
laiid«boiit two Feet thick^. or fooiO' 
what' more, accordin|g^ at theBeda 
are madeearlicr or later in tks- Sea^ 
foB! when the Dnagf is eqnaHyt 
le veM'd, then the Earth (which flioaU 
be li^t and freih, but not ovei^riok). 
moft be laid on about fir oreigbr 
Inches thick, eqnally. all 
over- the B«d. This bciBg'doae« diel 
Frames (whieh-ih9ahi be twoite e t 
on the fiack-fide, aad' aboot towp^ 
teen Inches in Front) rnniB be* pot 
on, and coverU with Gkfles rafter 
which it fliottld remain tfaeee^or^foaf 
Days, to let the Steam of the Bed 
p^off, beiore yon. pot the nanta 
thereiar; obferving every: Day to. 
raife the Glafles either with Bncka 
or- Stones; to' gi Ve Vent for the nfibg 
Steam to pafs ofiP} then, when yon 
find tlie Bed of a fine mode&te Tem- 
perature for Heae, yoafkoald, with 
aTrowel; or fomeoihcffl^iibumoat^ 
take up the Planc»> aa caicfuHyaa 
ppifiblc, to preierre fonoEaith'tO 
the Roots, and plant them into tba^ 
Hot- bed In Rows, about, a Fooe 
afunderf and the Pianti flibnklbo- 
fet about an Iwh andan half/ or' two • 
Indies, diOant from eaeh other 10 
the Rows I obferving to water and 
fhad^ them until they have taken 
Root : after which yod moft be care* 
ful to give them Air, at all times 
when the Scalbn is &toarabIei 
otherwife they will draw np v&f* 
weak, and be fiibjeft. to grow 
mouldy, and decay. You fhoald- 
alib draw the Earth up lotbe Shanka 
of the Plants, as they advance in> 
Height) and keep them always deaf 



{mn Wttdi : tlw Water tiitf flumldt 
kwr^ muft b^^vm them fpannglyi 
fi>rift]M|3Raf«itooxEiich watcrM, it 
usiil OHifc tlMO to grow too ranky 
4iid fomctiiDn roc off the Planta at. 
thdr Shaoks» joft abore- ground* 
When the Weadicr it very hoe, yoa 
ikoald cover the Glaffes widi Mats 
ia the He»t of the Day, to facea 
than from the. Violence. of the Suo, 
which ii then too great for them,, 
oofiog. their Leaves to flag, and. 
their Kofioou to Ml off without 
ttodncing Pods ; as will alfo the 
mpng of the Glailes too dofe at 
thit Smoo. Bat when the Phmta 
b^gpa to fimitt they (hoald be wa- 
tfr'dofteser, and in greater Plenty, 
tkaa before.; for by that time the 
Phats will have nearly done grow- 
10^ and.thcL often refreflung them 
«U oocakfion their producing a greats 
cr Plenty of Pmt« 

The: Sort of Pea. which is always. 
vjU for dus Parpofe, is the Dwarf ; 
far all the. other Sort» ramble too 
i^flch to be kept in Frames^ : the Rea- 
^ for (owing thpm in the common 
Qnwiul^ and afterward tranfplancing 
them on an Hot-bed, iaallb to check 
their Growth,, and. canie them to kfs^Compafs ; for if the Seeda 
i|m fowii open, aa Hot-bed, and 
the flama coMwied. thereon, they 
Wneld peodoee fuoh Inxoriaot Plants 
at not to he GOtttakiedin the Frames, 
and wonld hear but lictlo Froit. 

The nest Son- of Pea, which is 
firm to fnGceed.thofe.on.thtf Hot* 
bed, is tfao Hotfpur^ of which (here 
aae-reckon^dthreesorfoar Sorts; a« 
^ C&irXrMr,Hotrpttr, the Matter's 
Hocfppr» ih»A0kii$^ Hotfpiir, and 
ftme others » whkh are ytry little 
diSnr3ng.from each other« except in 
their early Rearing* for which the 
PSv^^!rt».Hotfp«r is chiefly prefer* 
red 1 thoogh, if either of theie Sorts 
attjcnkiTated in xh^ fame Place for. 

theeoor fon^Years^ they areapt todo^ 
mnerate^ and be later in Fraiting.:. 
for which Realbo, moft curious ?»> 
fons procure their Seeds annually^ 
from tene difiant Place ; and in tho« 
Choice of the£a Seeds, if they coold, 
be obtained from a colder Si^oation^ , 

and a poorer Soil, than that in whkk« 
chey are to be fown, it will be mach 
better than on the contrary, and they\ 
will come earlier in the SpoQg^ 

Theie muff alfo be fown on warm. 
Borders, toward the Lattcr^end of ^ 
O£iobir i and when the Plants are» 
come up, you ihogld draw the Earth . 
up to their Shanks in the manner he-* 
fore direded i which ihould be re« 
peated as the Planu advapce ia. 
Height (always obfenring. to do it* 
when the Ground is dry)» whicb^ 
will greatly proteft the Stems of tha 
Planu ag^ft Froft ; and if the Wikw 
tcr ihould prove very fevere, it will' 
be of great Service to the Plants to 
cover them with Peas-haulm, or fome 
other light Covering ; which ihould * 
be.coniiantly taken off in mild Wen* 
ther, and only fuffer'd to remain oa . 
during the Continuance of the Froft ; 
for if they are kept too cloie, they 
will be drawn very weak and ten** 
der, and thereby be liable to be dor . 
ib'oy^d with the4eail Indemency of 

In the Spring jrou muft canefully 
clear them from. Weed% and draw- 
fome freih ^tb up to their Stems ; . 
but do not raife it too high tothe 
Plants, left, by burying their Leaves, 
yon flioeld rot their Stems; aa ia 
fometimea the Cafe, efpecially in wet . 
Seafona. Yo» Avould alfe obierve to. . 
keep them clear from Vermin s 
which, if permitted to remain 
amongd the Plants, will increa^ 
fo pIcotifttUy, as to devour the gvea^* 
ea Part of them. The chief o^ the 
Vermin whi^ infeft Peas, are the 
SlugSj which lieall theDayin the fmall , 


PI ' 

Hollows of the Earth, near the Stems 
of the Plants, and in the Nighttime 
come oat, and make terrible De- 
fbudlion of the Peas ; and thefe 
chiefly abound in wet Soils, or 
where a Garden is neglcQed, and 
over-run with Weeds : therefore you 
Ihottld make the Ground clear every 
Way round the Peas to deflroy their 
Harbours ; and afterwards, in a fine 
mild Morning, very early, when 
thefe Vermin are got abroad from 
their Holes, you (hould flake a 
Quantity of Lime, which fliould be 
fown hot over the Ground, pretty 
thick j which will deflroy the Ver- 
min, where-ever it happens to fall 
upon them ; but will do very liftie 
Injury to the Peas, provided it be 
ix)t fcatterM too thick upon them : 
this is the bed Method I could ever 
find to deflroy thefe troublefome 

If this Crop of Peas improves, it 
will immediately fucceed thofe on 
the Hot-bed ; but for fear this fliould 
mifcarry, it will be proper to fow 
two more Crops, at about a Fort- 
night's time from each other; fo 
that there may be the more Chances 
to fucceed: this will be fufficient 
tmtil the Spring of the Year, when 
you may fow three more Crops of 
thefe Peas ; one toward the Begin- 
ning of January ^ the other a Fort- 
night after, and the third at the End 
of January, Thcfe two late Sow- 
ings will be fuflicient to continue the 
early Sort of Peas through the firft 
Seafon, and after this it will be pro- 
per to have fome of the large Sort 
of Peas to fucceed them : in order to 
which, you fliould fow fome of the 
Spanifl? Morotto, which is a great 
Bearer, and an hardy Sort of Pea, 
about the middle of February^ upon 
a clear open Spot of Ground : thefe 
muft be fown in Rows, about three 
Feet afunder^ and the Peas fliould 


be dropped in the Drills about Iff 
Inch and an half Diftance, covering 
them about two Inches deep with 
Earth ; being Very careful that nond 
of them lie uncovered, which will 
draw the Mice, Pigeons, or Rooks^ 
to attack the whole Spot ; and it of- 
ten happens by this Neglect, that a 
whole Plantation is devour^ by thefe 
Creatures ; whereas, when there are 
none of the Peas left in Sight, they 
do not fo eafily find them out. 

4bout a Fortnight after this, you 
fliould fow another Spot, either ot 
this Sort, or any other large Sort of 
Pea, to fucceed thofe i and then con- 
tinue to repeat fowing once a Port* 
night, till the middle or Latter-end 
ofMay^ fome of thefe Kinds ; only 
obferving to allow the Marrow-fius, 
and other very large Sorts of Peas^ 
at leafl 3 Feet and an half or 4 Peec 
between Row and Row; and the 
Rofe-pea fliould be allowed at leaft 
8 or 10 Inches Diflance Plant from 
Plant, in the Rows ; for thefe grow 
very large, and if they have not 
room allowed them, they will fpoil 
each other by drawing up vtry tall^ 
and will produce no Fruit. 

When thefe Plants come up, the 
Earth fliould be drawn up to their 
Shanks (as was before direded), and 
the Ground kept intiiely dear fxooi 
Weeds; and when the Plants are 
grown eight or ten Inches high, yon 
fliould flick fome rough Boughs, or 
firufli-wood, into the Ground dofe to 
the Peas, for them to ramp aponi 
which will fupport them from trail- 
ing upoh the Ground, which is very 
apt to rot the large-growing Sorts oiP 
Peas, efpecially in wet Seaions ; be- 
fides, by thus fupporting .them, the 
Air can freely pafsr between them» 
which will preferve the filofioms 
from falling off before their tune, 
and occafion chem to bear mach bet- 
ter, than if permitted to lie upon the 



Groand ; and tbere will be room to have a ftroDg moift Soil; for in hoc 

p9& between the Rows to gather the light Land they will burn up» and 

Peas when they are ripe. come to nothing. 

The Dwarf Sorts of Peas may be The Urge-growing Sorts may be 

fown much dofer together, than cultivated for the common Ufe of the 

thofe before • mentioned ; for thefe Family ; becaafe thefe will produce 

feldom rife above a Foot high, and in greater Quantities than the other, 

rarely fpread above half a Foot in and will endure the Drought better : 

Width ; fo that thefe need not have but the early Kinds are by far the 

more room than two Fett Row from fweeter tafted Peas. 

Row, and not above an Inch afunder The beft of all the large Kinds is 

in the Rows. Thefe will produce a the Marrow- fat ; which, if gathered 

good Quantity of Peas, provided the young, is a well-tafted Pea; and 

Seafon be not over-dry ; bat they this will continue good through the 

feldom continae long in bearing I fo Month of Jitgufi, if planted on a 

that they are not fo proper to fow ftrongSoil. 

for the main Crop, when a Quantity The Grey, and other large Win-? 

of Peas is ezpe&ed for the Table; ter-peas, are feldom cultivated in 

their chief Excellency being for Hot- Gardens, becaufe they require a great 

beds, where they will produce a deal of room ; but are ufually ibum 

greater Quantity of Peas (provided in Fields, in mofl Pa/ts of Engimut. 

they are well managed) than . if exr The beft time for fowing of thefe ia 

po6*d to the open Air, where the about the Beginning of Abrci^, when 

Heat of the Sun foon dries them up« the Weather is pretty dry; for if 

The Sickle - pea is much more they are put into the Ground in a 

common in Holland than in England^ very wet Seafon, they are apt to roc, 

it being the Sort moftly cultivated in efpecially if the Ground be cold : 

that Country ; but in Englaml they thefe ihould be allowed at leaft three 

are only propagated by curious Feet Diftdnce Row from Row, and 

Gentlemen for their own Table, and mufl be fown very thin in the Rows; 

are rarely brought into the Markets, for if they are fown too thick, the 

This Sort the Birds are very fond of; Haulm will fpread fo as to fill the 

and if they are not prevented, many Ground, and ramble over each other; 

times deftroy the whole Crop. This which will caufe the Plants to rot, 

ihontd be pJanced in Rows, about and prevent their Bearing, 

two Feet and an half afunder ; and The common White Pea will do 

be managed as hath been directed befl on light fandy Land, or on a 

for the other Sorts. rich loofe Soil, The ufual Method 

Although I have direAed the fow- of fowing thefe Peas is with a broad 

ing of the large Sorts of Peas for the Call, and fo harrow them in : but 

great Crop, yet thefe are not fo it is a much better way to f6w them 

fweet as the early Hotfpur Peas ; in Drills, about two Feet and an 

therefore it will alfo be proper to half afunder ; for half the Quantity 

continue a Succeflion of thofe Sorts of Seed will do for an Acre ; arid 

through the Seafon, in fmall Quan- being fet regularly, the Ground may 

titics, to fupply the beH Table; be ft irr'd with an Hoe- plough to de- 

which may be done, by fowing ibme ftroy the Weeds, and earth up the 

every Week : but all thofe which Peas, which will greatly improve 

are fown late in the Seafon, ihould them ; and thefe Peas may be much 

Vol. III. ^zz eaiicr 


eafier cut in Aacomn, wb€n they 
are ri|>e. The ofual time for Towing 
of thefe Peas is about the Latter- 
end of M^rcby or the Beginning of ' 
J^iy on warm LAnd ; but on cold 
Ground they Ihould be fown a Fort- 
night or three Weeks later* Jn the 
coannon way of fowing, they allow 
three Bu(heis or more to an Acre ; 
but if they are drilled, one Bu(hel 
and an half will be full enough. 

The Green and Maple Rouncivals 
require a ftronger Soil than the 
Whiter and fhould be fbwn a little 
later in the Spring ; alfo the Drills 
fliould be made at a greater Diftance 
horn eaiidi other ; ror as thefe are 
apt to grow rank, efpectatly m a wet 
Seafon» they fliould be iet in Rows 
three Feet afimder; and the Ground 
between the ^^8 fliould beftirr*d 
two or three cimts with an Hoe- 
pbDgh ; which will not only deflroy 
the weeds, bu^ by earthing up the 
Peasy will greatly improve them ; 
and alfo render the Ground -better, 
to receive whatever Crop is put on 
i^the following Seafon. 

The Grey Peas thrive befl on a 
ftpong clayey Land : thefe are com- 
nonly fown under Furrows ; but by 
this Method tiiey are always coo 
thick, and do not come up regular : 
therefore all thefe rank -growing 
Plants fliould be fown' in Drills, 
where the Seeds will be more equally 
featter^d, and lodged at the fame 
Depth in the Ground ; whereas, in 
the common way, fome of the Seeds 
lie twice as deep as others, and are 
not fcatter*d at equal DrfUnces. 
Thefe may be fown toward the End 
cf Fehruary^ as they are much har- 
dier than either of the former Sorts; 
but the Culture fliould be the fame. 
The befl Method tofow thefe Peas 
is, to draw a Drill with an Hoe by 
a Line, about two Inches deep, and 
then fcatter the Seeds therein » after 

p I 

wht'ch, with a Rake you may draw 
the Earth over them, whereby they 
will be equally covered ; and this is 
a very quick Method for Gardens ; 
but where they are fown in Fields, 
they make a fliallow Fur- 
row with the Plough, and foatter die 
Seeds therein, and then with an Har- 
row they cover them over again. 
After this, the great Trouble is, to 
keep them clear from Weedsy and 
draw the F>arth up to the Plants : thU, 
in fuch Countries where Labour is 
dear, is a great Expence to do it by 
the Hand with an Hoe ; bnt this may 
be eafily tfeiSled with an Hoeing* 
plough, whkh may be dtawn thib^ 
between the Rows ; which will in* 
tirely eradicate the Weeds, and, by 
ftirring the Soil, render it meilow» 
and greatly promote the Gr (ywdi of 
the Plants. 

When any of thefe Sorts are in- 
tended for Seed, there fliould be aa 
many Rows of them left ungather*d, 
as may be thought neceflary to fur- 
nifli a fuficient Quantity of Seed ; 
and when the Peas arc in Flower, 
they fliould be carefully looked over, 
to draw out all thofe Plants which art 
not of the right Sort 5 for there wiH 
always be fome roguifli Plants (aa 
the ioardeners term them) in every 
Sort, which, if left to mix, will de^ 
generate the Kind. Thefe muft re^ 
main until their POds are changed 
•brown, and begin tofplit, when yoo 
fliould immediately gather them up^ 
together with the Haulm ; and, if 
you have not room to flack them op 
till Winter, you may threfli them 
out as foon as they arc dry, and put 
them up in Sacks for Ufe : bot 3rQa 
raufl be very careful not to let them 
remain too long abroad after they 
are ripe; for if Wet fliould happen, 
* it would rot them ; and Heat, after 
a Shower of Rain, would caufe their 
Poda to burfl, and caft forth their 


Seds, to that tlie gfeateH PkfC df 
ttem would be loft ; bac» as I idd 
M)re, ic is not axlvifeable to coo- 
^Boe ^wing of the fame Seed longer 
diae two Yean, fer the Reafont chttre 
kid down i bat ratber to exchange 
liidrSesds every Year, ortwoVeara 
It leaft» whcieby joa nuiy always €31^ 
fed CO have them prove right. 

Corindiun. ' 


The CJkMraSirstae; 
it Utk M gUhdm' biU'Jha^d 
ttmer, amfijlhg rfmuUMf^ mfhith 
k €Mt mt9 fiwrm/ Sfgrnrnts mi $ki 
him'sfrm 'mbtfi Cmf mrifii th$ Pmn-' 
iMlf nifkUk mftn^itjmrd bittmfs m frfi 
f^mtml Bfrryfmiltfjmiety imhfrtg 
kB$ Suds, wiki an fir iki m^ 
t»t 9Umtg. 

The Sffcies mre i 
l.PirroNiA mrhreJtfHi chamt^' 
inft^a wuj9r, Flmt. N^v. Gen. 
Cfftater tree -like Pkt0Ria» with a 

t, PiTTOWiA arhoirtfimn thom^t'^ 
irifiiiamm9r.Pkm.N0v.Qem. Small. 
«r tiee-like Pittonia, with a Ger* 

3.P1TTONIA bumi&s^ antbmfiefi^ 
im'i. fimmt. N0V. Gem. Dwarf PittO- 
ait, wfdi Albmet-leaves. 

4. Pi TTO N I A feanitns^ beucis mi* 
fmii, nigris muumlii n9faH't. Piam. 
tfMf. Gem. Climbing Pittonia, with 
White Berries- fpotted with Black. 

5. Pittonia frutefcens^fdio ear' 
n§fi^ Urfmte Cff obiufo. Pimm. Nov. 
Gem. Shrobby Pittonia, with an 
hairy fleihy obiaie Leaf. 

6. Pittonia birfiuiffimui fsf ra» 
mufiffima^ hmceis aibis. Piitmt. New. 
Gen. The moft hairy and branching 
Pittofiit, with white Berries. 

7. Pittonia racemofmy Nicefiem^a 
feiiit faetidiffimis. Plum. Nw. Gen. 
The moft ftiaking branching Picco- ^ 
lua, with Tobacco-leaves. 


AH ihefc Plants are Natives of the 
warmeft Parts fdAmgriea^ where the 
irft Sort grows to the Height of 
twelve or fourteen Feet» and dividea 
into many Branches, foas to form s 
fmall Tree. The iecond, fifth, and 
feventh Sorts grow to the Height of 
eight or nine Feet, aad produce 
many Branches near their Roots, fo 
as to form thick Bnfhes. 

They may all be propagated by 
Seeds, which flioald be fown early in 
the Spring, in Pots fiUed with.frefli 
Earth, and plnnged into an Hoc^ « 
bed of Tanners Bark 1 ind when the 
Flaats are cbme ap, they may be 
treated after the fiune manner as hath 
been direded for the Perica : with 
which Manag^flBent thefo Plants iviD 
thrive very well, and ina few Ysasa 
will produce their Fbwers. Thcfii 
are preierved by thoie Perfont who 
are corions in coUeQieg raie Plants^ 
though there is no great Beauty in 
their Flowers; howtever, as they ana 
ever-green, they make a Diversity 
aoK)!^ other Bxotic Plants in the 
Stove in the Winter-foafon. 

PLANT AGO, ThePkntattt. 

There are feveral Species of this, 
which are diftinguifh'd by Botanifts^ 
iomt of which are very trotiblefome 
Weeds, is ^ery Pare of Emgiemd^ 
and the others are fe in the Coun- 
tries where they grow ; fo they are 
not cultivated in Gardens : therefore 
1 fliall not trouble the Reader with 
an Enumeration of them ; but fliall 
only obferve, that the broad-leav*d 
Plantain, and the Ribwort Plaatiin» 
which are both ufed inMedicine,grow 
wild in almoft every Part of England i 
fo may be eafiiy procurM £ox UCe. 

PLANTAIN-TREfi. ^/^Mufit. 

PLAT ANUS. ThePJane-trce. 
The Chara&ers aret 

// bath am amuntaceeut Flower^ 
eenfiftiug of fevtrai Jlender Stamina, 
vibicb are coiitSid into ffberieal lit* 

Z z a 2 tla 

P L 

tit Balls t and art barren ; but the 
Embrytes tf tht Fruity nvhieh art 
prodtued on feparatt Parts of tht 
famt Trte^ art turgid^ and afttr* 
nuard becomt large fpberical Balls^ 
contaimng many oblong Seeds, inter- 
mixed «witb Down. 
The Species arc ; 

I- Platanus Orientalis *oerus. 
Park, neat. The true Oriental 

2. Platanus Occidentalis aut Fir^ 
ginitnfis. Park. Tbeat. The Wcftcrn 
or Firginian Plane-tree. 

3. Platanus Orientalis, aceris 
folio. T. Car. The Maple -leav*d 

Thefirft of theTe Trees (though 
the firft-known Sort in Europe) is lefs 
common than the (econd ; which has 
been Jntrodnc^d fince the Englijh fet^ 
tied in Firginia ; which may be, in 
a great meafure, owing to the latter 
Sort being mach eailer to propagate 
than the former : fbr every Cutting 
of this, if planted in a moift Soil» 
in the Autumn, or early in the 
Spring, will take Root, and in a few 
Years make very large Trees ; 
whereas the firft is only propagated 
from Seeds, or by Layers. 

The third Sort, although by fome 
fuppofed to be a di^n£l Species 
from * either of the former, yet is 
no more but a feminal Variety of 
the firft : for I have had many Plants, 
which came up from the Se^s of the 
firft Sort, which ripened in the Phy^ 
fic'garden, which do mpft of them 
degenerate to this third Sort, which, 
in the manner of its Leaves, feems to 
be very diflierent from either, and 
might reafonably be fuppos'd a di* 
Aindl Sort, by thofe who have not 
traced its Original. 

Thefe Trees delight to grow on a 

moift rich Soil, on which they will 

arrive to a prodigious Size in a few 

YearSy and daring the Summer-fca* 


P L 

fon afford a glorious Shade ; their 
Leaves being of a prodigious Size, 
efpecially on a good So3, fo that 
there is fcarcely any Tree at prefent 
in England, which does afford fo good 
a Shade. But the Backwardnefs of 
their coming out in Spring, together 
with their Leaves fading early in 
Autumn, has occaiionM their not 
being fo generally efteem'd, as other- 
wife they would be. 

The firft Sort was brought out of 
the Levant to Rome, where it was 
cultivated with much Coft and In- 
duftry :' the gfeateft Orators and 
Statesmen among the Romasu took 
great Pleafure in their Fillds^ wbich 
were furrounded with Platanms : and 
their Fondnefs for this Tree became 
fo great, that we frequency read of 
their irrigating them with Wine in- 
ftead of Water. jP/fny affirms, that 
there is no Tree whatfoever which 
fo well defends us from the Heat of 
the Sun in Summer, nor that admits 
it more kindly inWinter, the Branches 
being produced at a proportionable 
Diftance to the Largenefs of their 
Leaves (which is what holds through 
all the different Sorts of Trees yet 
known) ; fo that when the Leaves 
are fallen in Winter, the Branches, 
growing at a great Diftance, ea&ly 
admit the Rays of the Sun. 

This Tr^ was afterwards brought 
to France, where it was cultivated' 
only by Perfons of the firft Rank ; 
and fo much was the Shade of it 
priz'd, as that if any of the Natives 
did but put his Head under it, they 
exadted a Tribute from him. 

It is generally fuppos*d, that the 
Introduction of this Tree into Bug* 
land is owing to the great Lord 
Chancellor Bacon, who planted a 
noble Parcel of them at Feruhxm^ 
which were there, very flourifliing, 
a few Years fInce. But notwith- 
/ (landing i(s having been fo long in 


P L 

ingloMd, ytt there are but very few 
large Trees to be feen of it at pre- 
feoc; wliich may, perhaps, be ow- 
ing to the great Efheem the Perfont 
of the h& Age had for the Lime, 
which being much eafier to propa- 
gate, and of quicker Growth during 
the three or four firft Years, than the 
Plane-tree, thereby it became the 
moft common Tree for Planting of 
Avenues, and ihady Walks near Ha- 
bitations, in Ettgland, But fince the 
DcfefU of that Tree have been more 
generally difcover*d, the Elm has had 
the Pre&ience, and is the moft com- 
flionly planted for fach Purpofes. 

However^ notwithftanding what 
has been faid of the Plane-tree, of 
its Backwardneia in coming but in 
the Spring, and the fudden Decay of 
its Leaves in Autumn ; yet, for the 
goodly Appearance, and great Mag- 
aitude to which it will grow, it de- 
fenres a Place in large Plantations, 
or ihady Recefies near Habitations, 
cfpecially if the Plantation be defien- 
ca on a moift Soil, or near Rivukts 
of Water ; in which Places this Tree 
will arrive to a prodigious Size* 

We read of one of thefe Trees, 
which was growing at a Villa of the 
Emperor Caligula, whofe Trunk waa 
ib krge, as, when hollow*d, to make 
a Room therein, capacious enough to 
catcrtain ten or twelve Perfons at a 
Repaft, and for their Servitors to 
vait upon them. And there is men- 
tion made of one of thefe Trees, 
which was growing in the Eaftem 
Countrjr, which was of fo great a 
Magnitude, that Xtrxtt made his 
Army (which confided of feventeen 
handred thoufand Men) halt, for 
(bme Days, to admire the Beauty 
and Procerity of this Tree ; and be- 
came fo fond of it, as to uke his 
own, his Concubines, and all the 
great Peribns Jewels to cover it; and 
was fo much enamoured with ic^ that 

for fome Days, neither the Concern 
of his grand Expedition, nor Interefl, 
nor Honour, nor' the ner.eiTary Mo- 
tion of his prodigious Ar^*iy, could 
diflhade him from it: he ftiled it, 
HisMiftrefiy Hit Minion ^ His G9JcU/s: 
and when he was obliged to part 
with it, he causM a Figure of it t^ 
be ftampM on a Gold Medal, which 
he continually wore about him. 

And fttch was the Efteeixv which 
the People oi Jfia had for this / rce, 
that where- ever they ere6le<l ^n/ 
fumptuous Buildings, the Port - . . 
which openM to the Air, teru.ii.. . 
in Groves of thefe Trees. 

The Eaftern Plane-tree is pu .- 
gated either from Seeds, or \r,y L / 
ers, the latter of which is gei'cui/./ 
pradifed in Englaad; thuug-* ihe 
Plants thus rais'd feldom make fo 
large ftrait Trees, as thofe which are 
produc*d from Seeds: but it has been 
generally thought, that the Seeds of 
this Tree were not produdive, be- 
caufe they have not been fown at a 
proper Seafon, nor managed in a 
right Manner; for I have had thou* 
' faods of the young Plants* fpring up 
from the Seeds of a large Tree> 
which fcatter'd upon the Ground 
in a moift Place ; and I fince iind» 
that if thefe Seeds are fown^ fooa 
after they are ripe, in a moift 
(hady Situation, they will -rife ex* 
tremely well ; and the Plants, thua 
obtained, will make a confiderable 
Progrefs after the fecond Year, being 
much hardier, and lefs liable to lofe 
their Tops in Winter, than thofe 
which are propagated by Layers. 
And iince the Seeds of this Tree ri- 
pen well in England^ they may be 
propagated in as great Plenty as any* 
other Fore ft- tree. 

The Virginian Plane-tree will 
grow extemely well from Cuttings* 
if they are planted the Beginning of 
O£iober^ upon a moift Soil 9 and,«f 

Z % £ 3 thejr 


tkey 9rt waterM ki dry Weather, Root, there ii little Reafoi to doaht 
v;ill make a prodigious Prosrefs : . of it. The bcil time to tnmfplant 
fo that ia a few* Years from the riant- thefe Trees is in MarcJ^ ; for if they 
sng» the/ will aiFord noble Trees for are removed in Winter, and die Sea- 
planting of AYenoes, and other fhady fon fhould prove very fevere, chq 
Walks ; and their Trunks are per- tender Shoots are often kiU*d by thm 
fedUy ftralt, growing nearly of the Froft. 
famq Size to a coniidtrable height, PLINIA. 
there Ijeing the leaH Difference in The CharaArs are ; 
the Girt of thisTree, for feveral It batk a belljbaped FhfWir cen^* 
Yards npwardsy of any other ScHt of img tfoug Leaf, ^uibicb is dtvuUd iiU9 
Tree whatfoever. The Honoarable frue Sigmtnts at the Brim i /rwm 
famJ Dudley^ Efqt in a Letter to the 'whofi Cwf rifn tbt Pmnial^ *wbicb 
Royal Society^ mentions one of thefe afterward becnus a ghUar ffft 
Trees, which he obfcrvM in New ckaneltd Fndt^ inwifhiekts iacimJed 
England^ whofe Girt Was nine Yards, one Seed of the fame Ferm, 
and held its fiignefsa great Way op ; We know but oiys Spedet of tbis 
which Tree, when cut down, made Plajit; which is, 
twenty-two Cords of Wood. He a1- ^liyii kfruSucroeeoodoraH, Flmm* 
fo fays, in the fame Letter, That Nev,Geu. Plinia with a fweet-fceoc-^ 
he had propagated many of thefe ed fafFron-colour*d Fruit. 
Trees by cutting off Sticks of five or This Plant was difcoverM by Fa- 
(x Feet long, and fetting them a ther P/mmer in the fTefl-hdies^ who 
Foot deep into the Ground in the gave it thb Name, in Honoor to 
Spring of the Year, when the Sea- rUmf the. £unons Natural Hifiwi* 
fbn was wet ; and that they always an. 

thrive beft in a moift Soil. It grows in feveral Places in the 

The Leaves of this Sort are lar- warmer Parts of America, from 

Sir, and lefs divided, than thofe of whence the Seeds have been fent to 

e Qrieatid Plane-tree; and the Tree Europe. Thefe Seeds mnft be fewn 

grows mucb fafter, and is hardier i in Pots filled widi light rich Earth, 

^nd being thus eafily propagated, is and planged into an Hot-bed of Tan- 

now the moft common in England. ners Bark ; obferviag to moifteo the 

The Maide-leav*d Plane-tree hath Earth with Water whenever it sp- 
its Leaves lefs divided than Ae firft, pears dry, asalfo to preferve a mo- 
but more than the fecood Sorti fO derate Temperature of Heat in the 
thatit is fimiddle Kind between bothi Bed; fo diat if the Nights fliould 
though, as I before faid, it comet prove cold, the Glafles of the Hot- 
originally from the Eaftern Sort. bed (hoold be ti^txy Night coverM 

This k propagated very eafily by with Matt ; and in the niMidle of th^ 

Layers, vitxy Twig of which will Day the Gia^ may be rai&d to 

take Root, if they are but covered admst ftefli Air, when the Weather 

with ^th I and w)iea tranfplanted is warm. Thefe Seeds will ibme? 

out in g moift Soil, will ^row equally times remain long in the Ground be- 

faft with the Virginian Kind. Bat fore the Phmts appear i and when- 

whether this will take from Cattings ever it fo happens, the Pots nuft be 

or not, I cannot fay, having never conftantly kept clear from Weeds, 

ma^e Trial of it ; though from the and duly watered : and when th^ 

l^^jKiine^ of tlie Brashes taking Plants come ap, they ihould be 


PL . 

tfanfpltntecl into Pots, and may te 
flunaged as is diredted for the Pitto- 

PLUMBAGO, Lead wort. 
The Chara^gn are ; 

The FimsjiT confifls cf me Leaf^ 
mfbich isjhafi iikg a Funnel, andcwt 
into fru'erai Segmints at the Top ; out 
sf *whofi fiftulous Flonver-eup rifis the 
Pointa/f tvhich mfter*ward iecomes one 
ehlong Seed, for the mofi fart fiarf^ 
pointed^ 'wbiib ripetu in the Flotver* 

Tht Species 9xti 

1. Plvmbaoo quomndam. Cluf. 
Hifi. Leadwort, orToothwort. 

2. Plumb AGO ^«r# alho, Infi. R, 
H. Leadwort with a white Flow- 
3. Plumbago Orienta/is, lapathi 

folio, JUre minori aihido. Toum. Cor. 
Eafiem Leadwort, with a Dock- 
leaf, and a I'maUer whitiAi Flower. 

4. Plumbago Americana fcandens 
eKnleatm, hetre folio mineri. Plum, 
Cat. Prickly climbing American 
Leadwort, wick a lelTer Beet-leaf. 

5. Plumbago Americana, bet^e 
fdip amplieri. Plnm. American Lead^ 
wort, with a broad Beet-leaf. 

The fifft of tfaefe Sorts rrows 
about Naples, in Sicify, and the 
fioathem . Parts of France ; but is 
hardy enoagh to endure die Cold, of 
oar Ciimate in the epen Ground, 
prorided it he planted in a warm dry 
Soil. This is pnfaigsded by parting 
of the Roots in the Spring before 
they fhoot{ in doing of which^ you 
Aould be very carefol to preferve 
an Head to each Slip, otherwife they 
will not grow. They ihould he 
planted in a warm Situation, . and a 
dry Soil, about two Feet afunder, 
and watered unt 1 they take Root ; 
after which they will require no far- 
ther Care, but to clear them from 
Weeds, and fuf^port their Branches 
^om being broken by the Wind. 

p L 

They oommonly rife aboat three 
Feet high ; but, nnlefs the Autumn 
be very favourable, they feldom 
flower in this Country. The Flow- 
ers of this Sort are blue, and the 
Root of it is fometimes as*d in Me- 

1 he fecond SortdilFers little from 
the firft, except in the Colour of the 
Flowed, tfa(>le of this being white ; 
and the Plants grow caller, and flow- 
er later in the Year. This is as hardy 
as the firfl, and may be treated in the 
iame way. 

The third Sort was difcover*d by 
Dr. Tournefort in the Levant, from 
whence he fent the Seeds into Eu- 
rope, This Sort hath much broader 
Leaves than either of the former, and 
the Plant is of humbler Growth. It 
may be treated in the fame manner 
as die two former Sorts, and will live 
in the full Ground, provided it is 
planted in a dry Soil, and a ihelter*d 

The fourth and fifth Sorts are tcn« 
der ; therefore will not live in Eng^ 
land in the open Air. Thefe grovr 
'*in plenty in the Britijh Iflands of 
America, from whence the Seeds 
were fent me by the late Dr. WiU 
Horn Houfioun. The fifth Sort was 
brought from Ceylon to fome coriont 
Gardens in Holland', fo that it is 
probably an Inhabitant of moft of 
the hot Countries. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by Seeds, Which ihOald be fown on 
an Hot'bed in the Spring ; and whei| 
the Plants are fit to remove, they 
fhould be each planted into n fe» 
parate Pot, and plunged into a frefk 
Hot-bed, to bring them forward 1 
and afterward fhould be treated in 
the fame manner as oriier tender 
Exotic Plants. For although thefe 
Plants will live in the open Air in 
the Summer-fe^fon ; yet they will 
not thrive well, nor produce their 

Z z z f Flowers ; 


Flowers j whereas, if they are kept 
in the Stove in a moderate Warmih, 
they will flower, and produce good 
Seeds every Year. I'liefe two Sorts 
may alfo be propagated by parting 
of their Roots in April ; but as they 
produce good Seeds, the v are com- 
monly propagated by thofe ; for the 
fecdling Plants flower better than the 
OfF-fets. They flower moft Part of 
Winter in the Stove, and the Seeds 
are ripe in the Spring. 
. PLUM-TREE. Vide Prunus. 
PLUMERIA, The Jafminc-trec, 

The CbaraSen are ; 
// bath a funnel -Jhap'^d Flower ^ 
ionfifting 9fone Leaf nvhich is cut in* 
to /e*verai Segments at the Brim^ out 
o/twho/e Cup arifes the Fmntaly vohicb 
aftemuard iecomes the Fruit or Pod i 
•which, for the moft part^ gronv dou* 
ble^ and open Ungtlywife ; dif covering 
the Seeds, nvhich are ollong, and have 
a Border round them ; thefe are rang" 
ed over each other ^ like Slates on an 
Houfei and are faftened to the Pla- 

The Species arc ; 

1. Plume Ri A ^re rofeo odoratif- 
fimo, Jnft. R, H. Plumeria with a 
rofe-colour'd fweet-fcented Flower, 
commonly cali'd, in the fTeJi-Indies, 
Red Jafminc. 

2. Plumerxa flore majore odorato 
Csf incamato, Plumeria with a larger 
fweet - fceoted and incarnate Flow- 
er, called, in the Weft-Indies^ The 

3. Plvmbria flore niveo^ foliis 
longis anguftis £^ acuminatis. Inft, 
^. H, Plumeria with a fnowy Flow- 
er, and long narrow- pointed Leaves. 

4. Plumeria flore ni*veOf fait is 
hre^ioribus ^ obtufis, Jnft. R. H, 
Piomeria with a fnowy Flower, and 
{horter blunt Leaves. 

5 . P L U M E R I fi foliis longiffimis, mi^ 
nus fucculentibus\ flore palUdo, Houfl. 



Piomeria with very long and leb 
fucculent Leaves, and a pale Flow- 

6. Plumeria folio latiore obtufo^ 
flore luteo minor e. Plumeria with a 
broad obtufe Leaf, and a fmaller yel- 
low Flower. 

This Name was given to this 
beautiful Genus of rlants, by Dr. 
Tournefort^ in Honour to Father 
Flumier^ who was Botanift to the 
late King oi France, and along time 
in America, fearchipg after new 
Plants ; and who has publilhed a 
Catalogue of the Plants he difcover- 
ed, with the new Genus^s he conili- 
tutedj and two Volumes m^Falio^ 
with Figures and Defcriptions of 
many ot the Plants. 

Thefe Plants' grow wild in the 
Spanifl? Weft 'Indies, from whence 
fome of the moil beautiful Kinds 
were brought into the Engliftf Set- 
tlements in America, and are culti- 
vated in their Gardens for Ornament, 
The firfl Sort here mentioned is the 
moft common Kind, which it pre- 
ferv'd in the Gardens of the Inhabit- 
ants q£ Jamaica and Barbados, The 
Flowers of this Kind nearly sefemble 
thofe of the red Oleander ; but are 
larger, and have an agreeable Odour. 
Thefe are produced in (mall Bunches, 
at the Extremity of the Shoots, and 
generally appear in July and Auguft, 
in this Climate; but in ilitWefl- 
Indies they flower a great Part of 
the Year. 

The fecond Sort I received from 
the Ifland of St. Chriftophers, by the 
Name of Japan-tree: this Sort is 
very rare in the Engliftlf Setileroenta 
at prcfcnt, having been but lately 
introduced from the Spanifl^ Weft- 
Indies, It is in -Leaf and Stem v^r^ 
like the firfl; but the Flowers of 
this are of a paler Colour, and are 
produced in much larger Bunches, 
it is very common to have upward 


P L 

of twenty of thefe Flowers open in 
one Bonchy and a Number to fac- 
ceed thc(e as they decay, fo that the 
BoBches have continued in Beauty ' 
opward of two Months ; during 
which time they make a mo A beau- 
tiful Appearance in the Stove, and 
kfea very agreeable Flavour. 

The third Sort grows plentifully 
at Cawtpgehy^ from whence the late 
Dr. H9afi0um Test the Seeds. He al- 
fo obferved fome Plants of this Kind 
ti Jamaica, The fixth Sort is alfo 
pretty common in both thofe Places. 
Thefe are not near fo beautiful as 
the two former Sorts, their Flowers 
being fmaller, and producM in lefier 
BttQches, and are moreover of (hort- 
er Daration. But for the Beauty of 
their Stems and Leaves, and for the 
fake of Variety ,. they deferve room in 
every curious Collection of Plants. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts were 
difcDver^d by Dr. Hauficun, growing 
in great Plenty near Carthagena in 
thtSfoMt/Sb Weft'ln£cs, from whence 
he feat their Seeds to England. The 
fourth Sort produces fmall white 
Flowers, refembling thofe of the 
third ; fo is lefs valuable than the 
two firft. The fifth Sort produces ^ 
large Flowers as the firft ; but they 
are of a pale- red Colour, and fmell 
very fweet. The Leaves of this Son 
are fometimes ten Inches^ or a Foot, 
in Length, and about three Inches 
over in their broadeft Part. Thefe 
are not near ib thick, or full of Juice, 
as thofe of the other Sorts ^ nor are 
they fo deeply veined ; but being of 
a bright ihining-green Colour, they 
make an agreeable Variety amongft 
other tender Exotic Plants in the 

All thefe Plants may by propaga- 
ted by Seeds, which (bould be fowA 
in Pots filled with light rich Earth, 
and plunged into an Hot -bed of 

P L 

Tanners Bark ; and when the Plants 
are come up about two Inches high^ 
they ihould* be tranfplanted into fe« 
parate fmall Pots filled with light 
fandy Earth, and plunged into the 
Hot-bed again ; obferving to (hade 
them from the Heat of the Sun in 
the Middle of the Day, until they 
have taken Root : but they muft not 
have much Water ; for as all the 
Sorts are very fucculent» being full 
of a milky Juice, fomewhat like the 
Euphorbiums, Moifture will canfe 
them to rot. In hot Weather the 
Plants ihould have a pretty large 
Share of f.eih Air admitted to them, 
by raifiog the GlaiTes of the Hot- bed 
every £&y, in proportion to the 
Warmth of the Seafon. Toward 
MicboilMas^ when the Nights begin 
to be cold, the Plants (hould be re- 
moved into the Stove, Und plunged 
into the Bark-bed ; where they muH 
remain during the Winter. As thefe 
Plants all caft their Leaves in the 
Middle of Winter, and continue de- 
ftitute of them till about the Begin- 
ning of Aftfy, fo, during that time, 
tliey (hould be watered very fparing- 
ly ; becanfe they are in more Dan- 
ger of rotting, while they are in a 
lefs adlivc State, by too much Moift- 
ure, than when they are fumi(h*d 
with Leaves, through which the 
Moifture is more freely perfpired. 

All thefe Sorts are too tender to 
thrive in the Open Air of this Coon- 
try, in the Summer-ieafon; therefore 
ihould be conllantly prefd^rred ia 
the Stove, where, in warm Weather^ 
they muft have a large Share of freo 
Air ; but in cold Weather they muft 
be kept very warm. While they are 
young, it will be proper to continue 
them in the Bark-bed; but when 
they have obtained Strenetb, they 
ipay be placed in the dry Stove, 
where they will tlirive ytry well, 


P o 

?'Otrtded they are kqpt in a moderate 
emperature of Heat» and have not 
coo xmich Water. 

Thefe Plazut may alfo be propa- 
gated by Cttttings, which fhould be 
caken from die old Plants a Month 
before they are planted; during 
which time, they (hoald be laid on 
the Flues in die Stove, that the Part 
wluch joined to the old Plant may 
be' thoroughly healed, otherwife 
tficy will rot. Thefe Cuttings fhould 
be planted is fmall Pots filled with 
fight fandy Earth, and plunged into 
a n&oderate Hot -bed of Tanners 
fiark ; obferving to fliade them in 
the Heat of the Day from the Sun, 
and refrefh them every third or 
fourth Day with Water s but it muft 
be given to them fparingly each 
time. If the Cuttings fucceed, they 
will have taken Root in about two 
Months ; when they fhouki have a 
ki^er Share of Air, to harden them 
by degrees to bear the Sun and Air; 
and afterward may be treated ^s the 
old Plants. 

The milky Juice of thefe Plants is 
Very cauftic, and reckoned very 

foifonOtts. In cutting off any of the 
ranches of the Plants, if the Koife 
be net immediately clean'd, tfaejuice 
will corrode it^ and turn the Blade 
almoft black in a very little dme, fo 
as not to be deaaed off again ; and 
if dropped on Linen, will caufe it to 
wafh in Holes, equal to Jfuafirtu, 
POINCIAN A, BarbaJiu Flower* 
fence, or Sfaai/b Carnations. 
The CiMraSers are ; 
7h Flowir cmfifs ofJf<vi Leavn, 
m)bicb mrt fUc^J in d arctUar Order ; 
in tbi Centn of wbi^i wrifi Un 
€r$okid Stamina : tbi Primal^ wbub 
mrifes from m fmmfmfid Flower 'Cup^ 
becomes a /ntf , oroaJ^ fiat Pod^ opem^ 
ing into two PartSf and fill d nnith 
hrondy fiatf rwmdijh Seeds^ eaeb of 
mMch it lodged in a feparaU Ctll^ 

P o 

nobicb are fiinded if M then Psrfi'^ 

Tkt Species are; 

1. PoiNCiANA flore pulcberrimoj 
Toum. Barbados Flower-fenoe, widi 
a fair Flower. 

2. PoiNCiAVA fiore hiteo. Heufi, 
Barbados Flower-fence, with a yel« 
low Flower. 

3. PomciANA J09r# rubente. Houjtm 
Flower-feiKe with a redifli Flow* 

4.P01NCIAKA ffinofa^mnlgo Tanu 
tiuiL Prickly Plower-fesce^ com- 
monly called Tares. 

The firft Sort is very CMnmon in 
the Caribbee Iflaads, where it is plant* 
ed for a Fence to divide Fields ; and 
is gready efteem'd for the Beauty of 
its Flowers, which are produced on 
long Spikes in vftft Quantities. The 
Leaves of this Plant are alfo lis'd in» 
ftead of Sena, to purge widial. 

This was carryM from Cape, Ferd 
Iflands to Barbados^ as is related by 
Ligon^ and hath fince been difperfed 
thro* the other [(lands. It grows itt 
thofe Countries to be ten or twelve 
Feet highi and the Stem is often as 
laree as the Small of a Man*s Leg, 
and the Wood is very hard; from 
whence it hath obtained the Name oi 
Ebony in fome Places. 

The Seeds of this Plant are aftno- 
ally brought over in plenty from the 
Wefi'Udiest which, if fown apoa 
an Hotbed, will rife eafily : and 
when the Plants are come np, they 
fliould be tianfplanted into fmall 
Pots, and pluhg'd aato an Hot-bed 
of Tapners Bark, obferving to ihade 
them ttndl they have taken Root; 
after which yoa muft give them Air 
in proportion to the Warmth of the 
Seafon, and they mail be freqoendy 
refrefliM with Water. When the 
Plants have fiU'd the Pots with their 
Roots, they Ihould be taken out, and 
plac*d into larger ones, chat they may 


P O P o 

ksie rooai to grow* If Cftre be Tbeft Sorts are propagated hf 

takca eo water and fkih them, as of- Seeds, in the fame maimer as the 

leaas is secefihry, they mil grow to £rft ; and the Plants mnil be treatql 

be three Feet high the firft Seafon. in the &me way, being all of them 

At Mid^mdmrns the Pot* fhoiild be very tender Plants : uA although 

plug'd into a fieCi Hot-bed of Tan- they are fome Years before 6iey pio* 

nersBark, in the Stove; which (hoold dnce their Flowers, yet the r^elar 

bekeptttitheAaaDa*sHeat,taark*d Beauty of their branching winged 

on the Botanical Thermometers, and leaves renders them worthy of n 

ijeqoentlyrefreih^d with Water; but Place in every good Stove: and 

yeamttftncvergivethemlar^Qiian^ when they flower, they aie the great* 

titles, whsch is very injurioiis to thefe eft Omamenta in a CoUe6Uon of ram 

Phnts at that Seafon. The£arth Plants, 

which thefe Plants IbooU be planted POKE VIRGINIAN. FUtVkf^ 

hi# muft be frefh, light, and fandf tolacca. 

(bat not over-rich); in which the^ POLEMONIUM, Greek Vale. 

will Hand the Winter better than if rian, or Jacob's Ladder. 

ybnted ia a ftronger Soil. The Cbara&tn are j 

With this Manafement I haf« 7be FUw^r ewfiftt rf «ar Lm/^ 

rus*d feveinl Plants to be eighteen 'wbicb u detfiy di^wdtd imi§ fkm 

Feet high ; fiime of which I have Fmrts, smdit njihtilfifofd: the Pmrn- 

pieferVd £re or fix Years, which tal^ 'whub ri/ts fr9m thi Flmver-h^^ 

have ptodncM Flowers in the D^pth ^tuymird becmnet « ft m d yh fndt^ 

of Winter, when they made a fine i^ded hio tb^ge Cel/t^ nvbicb art 

Appearance in the Stove. ^fiitd nuitb 9bk»g Snds: ip wbi^b 

The fisoond and third Sorts were Jbm/dte added, Tbg L$a^i an /s'n» 

diicover'd by Dr. WiiUam Hmfimm aattd. 

diCampecby^ where he found them ThitSpetiii uti 

growing in plenty. Theie do not i. Polsmokium %mlgarg <4mrm^ 

diifier from the firft in the ontwmid leum, Jottrm. Greek Valerian, with 

Face of the Plants, but only in the n blae Flower. 

Cbiour of their Flowers ; one of e. Poi^tMoifivM niulgar$ aUmmm 

thefe having* yellow, and the other 7oam. Greek Valeriant with 4 

red Fkyweri ; whevMs thofe of the white Flower. 

Ibft are red and yellow variegated. 3. PoLeMt)NiVM <tr«/^f^#, JUrt 

ThefoorthSoirtwasdifcover^dby ntariigato, Trntrft. Greek Vfldcrian^ 

Peri Fmiiik, graving pleatifisUy in. with a ftrip'd Flower. 

iheValliescfXiwre. The Flowers of 4. Polsmonivm mmlgare^ film 

this Kind are imaller than thofe of eltgoHtar vatiigaiis. Spirb. hd. 

the other Sorts, and are of a greenpih* Greek Viderian, with bei^atifiil 

yellow Ooloar, fo that they are not Ariped Leaves, 

war fo beaatifttl. The Seed-pods The two firft Species are 'very 

of this Sort are uied by the D^ers oomnBon in masiy B^gHf^ GiidenSk 

in to Spamjb Wtfi-hdies^ kit dyeing where they aee eubiivftled for the 

ef Black ; and they are aUb nied lor Beauty of th^'Flewers. They have 

makmgoflnk-.thelnfofionofthefi^ aifo been foond wild in Cmrk$dk 

Pods with Galls affords the moft Beek^ and about Malbam Ow near 

Ncaiitif a} black Ink in the World. Cravm.^ The Sort with variegated 


P O P o 

Flowers, as alfo tbat with, dripM i. Toly AJUTUts JUHhu aUirm/. 

Leaves, are Varieties which have Un, Hort, Cliff. TheTaberofe. 
been obtainM from the former. 2. VohY hjurin^sfloribu/ alt^rnu. 

Thefe Plants are eaiily propaga- flortpUno. The doable Tuberdfe. 
ted byfowing their Seeds in the 3. Po lvanthes /#ri^«/ «MiA#/i^* 
Spring upon a Bed of light Earth ; /ii. tin. Vir, The African blue 
and when they are come up pretty umbellated Hyacinth, 
ftrong, they ihould be prick*d out The firft Sore has been long Cttlti« 
into' another Bed of the fame light vatedin the Englifif Gardens for the 
Barth,' about three Inches afunder $ exceeding Beauty and Fragrancy of 
obferving to ihade and water- them its Flowers : the Roots of this Sort 
until they have taken Root, after are annually brought from GewMp 
which they will require no farther by the Perfons who import Orange- 
Care b^t to keep them clear from trees : for as thefe Roots are too 
Weeds, until Michaelmas ; at which tender to thrive in the full Gromd 
time they nauft be tranfplanted into in England^ there are few Perfons 
the Borders of the Flower-garden, who care to take the Trouble of 
where, being intermix^ with differ- nurfing up their Off-fets, till they 
ent Sorts of Flowers, they will make become blowing Roots ; becaufe it 
a beautiful Appearance. Thefe pro- will be two or three Years before 
doce their Flowers in Jlfo^ and June^ they arrive to a proper Size for pro- 
and their Seeds ripen in Auguft. dudng Flowers : and as they mafb' 

The variegated Kinds are preferv- be proteded from the Froft in Win- 
ed by parting of their Roots ; be- ter, the Trouble and Expence of 
caufe die Phmts raifed from Seeds Covers is greater than the Roots are 
would befubjed to degenerate, and worth ; for they are generally fold 
become plain. The bell time to pretty reafonable, by thofc who im- 
part them is about Micbaiimas^ that port them from Itafy. 
they may take good Root before the The fecond Sort is a Variety <^ 
cold Weather prevents them. Thefe the firH, which was obtained from 
fliould have a freih light Soil ; but the Seed by Moniieur Li Cwr, of 
if it be too rich, their Roots will Leydm in Htliaml, who for many 
rot in Winter, and the Stripes will Years was fo tenacious of parting 
go off. with any of the Roots, even after he 

POL Y ANTHES, The Tnberofe. had propsgated them in fnch Plenty, 

The Cbara£iers are ; as to have more than hecould plant, 

ne Flower bath no Efnfalomint, as to cauie them to be cut in Pieces^ 

«yr^ is fmmtl'flfaftdj ofoneLeaf^ ba*V' that he might have the Vanity to 

ing a long curbed Tube^ and fpnad boafl of being the only Perfon who 

0fM mt tbiTopf wbefi St is dMded was pofTefTed of this Flower : but of 

into ^ Parts: in tbe Bottom of tbo late Years the Roots have been 

Flower isfitmated tbo romndijb Poin- fpread into inany Parts ; and as there 

#«/, attended ly fix tbick Stamina, is no other Method to propagate this, 

nvbieb are obtsJTo : tbe Pointal afters but by the Off-fets, moft People who 

wdard becomes a rouaMJb triangular have had of this Sort are careful to 

S^d-^feffel^bofvimgtbreeCiUt^njiibicb multiply and incrtafe it ; which is 

arefMofroimSp Seeds. done by planting the Off-fets upon 

The Species are 1 * % moderate Hot- bed, early mMarch^ 


P o 

tnd covering the Bed in cold Wea* 
tber with Mau or Straw ; and in 
Sammer they muft have plenty of 
Water in dry Weather : in this Bed 
theRoott may remain till the Leaves 
decay in Aatamn ; but if there 
(hoald happen any Frofl before that 
time, the Bed fboald be covered to 
goard the Roots from the Froft, be* 
caaie it will deftroy them if the Froft 
enters fo low as to reach the Roots s 
and where there is doe Care taken to 
fcreen them from Frofl, and too 
moch Wet, it will be the beft Way 
to let the Roots remain in the Bed 
till the End of Nwimbir^ or the Be- 
ginning of Diomiir, provided hard 
Frofts do not fet in fooner ; for the 
lefs time the Roots are out of the 
Groond, the fironger they will be, 
and the fooner they will flower : 
when the Roots are taken up, they 
ihould be cleaned from the Earth, 
and laid up in dry Sand, where they 
may be iafe from Froft and Wet ; 
where they ihonld remain until the 
Seafon for pUnting them again : this 
ikme Method fhould be praAifed by 
thoCe who are defirous to cultivate 
the fingle Sort. 

I ihall next give Dire£lions for 
the Management of thofe Roots, 
which are annually brought from 
Jtafy : and &xik, in the Choice of the 
Roots, thofe which are the largeft 
and {dompeft, if they are perfectly 
firm and foand, are the beft ; and 
the fewer Offfeu they have, the 
ftronger they will flower: but the 
Under-part of the Roots fhould be 
particularly examined, becaufe it is 
there that they firft decay : after the 
Roots are chofen, before they are 
planted, die OiF-feto Qioiiid be taken 
off ; for if thefe are left upon the 
Roots, they will draw away part of 
the Nourifliment from the old Root, 
whereby th^Flower-flcms will be 
greatly weakened. 

p o 

As theie Roots commonlv arrive 
in England in the Month otFthrua* 
ry^ thofe who are defirous to have 
thefe early in Flower, fhould make 
a moderate Hot-bed theBeginniag 
tX March ^ which fhould have good 
rich Earth laid upon the Dung,aboiiC 
eight or nine Inches deep : this Bed 
fhould be covered with a Frame i and 
when the Bed is in a proper Tempe- 
rature for Warmth, the Roots fhoald 
be planted at about fix Inches Di* 
fhnce from each other every Way« 
The upper-Part of the Root fhould 
not be buried more than one Inck 
in the Ground : when the Roots ara 
planted, there fhould be but little 
Water given them, until they flioof 
above-gronnd ; for too much Wet 
will rot them, when they are in aa 
unadUve Sute : but afterward the/ 
will require plenty of Water, efpe« 
cially when the Seafon is warm ; 
when the Flower-flcms begin to ap- 
pear, the Bed ihould have a large 
Share of Air given to it s otherwife 
the Stalks will draw up weak, and 
produce but few Flowers : for the 
more Air thefe Plants enjoy in good 
Weather, the ftrooger they will grow, 
and produce a greater Number of 
Flowers: therefore, toward the Be* 
ginning o{May^ the Frame may be 
quite taken off the Bed, and Hoops 
fattened over it, to fupport a Cover* 
ing of Mats, which need not be laid 
over, but in the Night, or in very 
cold Weather ; fo that by enjoying 
the free open Air, their Stems will 
be large : and if they are well water- 
ed in dry Weather, their Flowen 
will be large, and a great Number 
on each Stem. 

This firft Planting will require 
more Care than thofe which are dc- 
fign^d to come after them; for in 
order to haVe a Succeilion of thefe 
Flowers, the Roots fhould be plant- 
ed at three different times; «vi2« the 


P O P o • 

4rA the Begimiing of March ; the than in that before direfted ; for if 

lecood ch« Beginning of Jfrii ; and the Roots are not phinted in vtry 

the third at the End of that Months fmall Pots, there wilt be a Neceffity 

er the Be|^ingof M^f^ : bat thefe of making the Beds much larger, in 

Beih will require a much lefs Qaan- order to contain a Qaantity of die 

tity of Dong than the fir((, efpedal- Roots : and if they are iirft planted 

Ij that Bed which is the laft made ; in fmall Pots, they (hoold be (haken 

if there is but Warmth enoagh out of thefe intoPots of a largerSiae, 

to put the Roots in Motion, it is as i^en they begin to (hoot out their 

much as will be required : and this Flower-ftems ; otherwife the Stalks 

laft Bed will need no Corering ; for will be weak, and prbdoce bat few 

many times d&ofe Roots which are Flowers : therefore I prefer the other 

planting in the full Ground at this Method, as there is no Danger in re- 

Seaibn, will prodoce ftrong Fk>wen moving the Roots, if it is<l&ne witli 

Wk Autumn : but in order to fecure Care, 
their Flowermg, it is always the beft When the Roots are ftrong, ui4 

Hto plant them on a gentle Hot* properly manned, the Steau will 
As to the fecend Bed, that rife three or four Feet high i and 
Ihonld be arched over witii Hoops, each Stem will produce twenty Flow-* 
and covered with Mats evefy^^ght, crsormore: and in this the great 
and in bad Weather $ odierwife the Beauty of thefe Flowrnconfifts; for 
late Frofts, which fiequently happen when there are but a few lowers 
in Mt^, will pinch them. apon the Staiirs, they w31 fpoa fade 
Thefe Plants may remain in the away, and mnft be frequently re- 
Beds until the Flowers are near ex- newed ; for the Flowers are produ- 
panded ; at which time they may be ced in Spikes coming out alternately 
carefully taken up,, preferving the upon the Stalk, the lower Flowers- 
Earth to their Roots, and planted in opening firt ; and as thefe decav^ 
Pats* and then placed in the Shade ihofe above them open ; fo that in 
for four or five Days: after which proportion to the Number of Flow* 
time the Pots may be removed into ers upon each Stalk, they continue 
Halls, or other Apartments, where in Beauty a longer or fhorter time, 
they will continue in Beauty a long The Sort with double Flowers 
time I and their fragrant Odour will will reqaire a litde more Care, in 
perfume the Air of the Rooms where order to have the Flowen hltt but 
they*are placed ; and by having a this Care is chiefly at the time of 
Succeffion of them, they may be Blowing ; for the Flowers of this 
continaed from Miifwnmer to thf Sort will not open, if they are ex- 
End of OSf^hr: but as the Stems pofed to the open Air ; therefore 
ofthefe Plants advance, there (hould when the Flowers are completely 
be fome Sticks pat down by each formed, and near opening, the Pots 
Root ; to which the Stems (hould fhould be placed in an airy Glafs* 
be faftened, to prevent their being cafe, or a Shelter of Glaflfes (hould 
broken by the Wind. be prepared for them, that theDewt 
It is a common Practice with many and Rains may not fall upon them ; 
People, to plant thefe Roots in Pots, for that will caafe the Flowers to rot 
and plange the Pots into an Hot- away before they open ; and the 
bed: but there is tnuch more Trou- Heat of the Sun drawn thro* the 
ble in raifing thcjn in this Method, GlaiTes will caufc their Flowers to 


P O P o 

fxptad rery fair. - With thb Ma- Qaantitj ; (b that they wSI contiMC 
Da^eaty I have had this Sort with in Beaaty near two Months : ani 
very dooblo Flowers extremely fair, this being at a Seafon when then » 
and apward of twenty upon one a Scarcity of Flowers, readers that 
Strm; (o chat they have made a the more valaable. Indeed^ there 
beautifal Appearance : bnt where are few Plants which are preferfoi 
this has Aoc been pra£Ufed, I have in the Green-bonfe, that merit n 
nidyfeeno<Deoftheminany Beau- Flace more than this Plant i for 
tj. where they are in plenty, they aiaf 

The third Sort is a Native of the he^ managed, as to have a Sncorf- 
Capt ^/Gaod Hafe, from whence the lion of them in Flower upward «f 
Scedi were brought to fome curious three Months ; and this in the Whs* 
Gardeas ivkH^lUmd^ where the Plants ter-feafon, when they are|daced in 
HOC nifed and multiplied, and have the Green-faoufe . 
iice been difperfed into moft of the This Plant is pimagafed by p«t« 
corioas Gardens in Europe : this ing of the Roots ; ior the Seeds aic 
Pbat b wdU figured and defcribed ieldom p^feded in EngUwi: the 
hf Dr. C$mmBn^ in the HorhuJm^ beft time for parting the Roots k 
^ikiamgmfis^ bf die Tittle of Hya" about the End of Jl£; ; at whjck 
thihia Africtatus tuher^/ks^Jhre ttt^ Ifflie the Leaves are net in a growiM 
nli9 mnbtiiaH : bnt Dx. LinrntMs State: but in the parting of the 
hai reaoved this from the Genus of Roots, dMy muft not be divided mo 
B^inihus, becauie die Flowers of finall, efpeeialty if there is regadl 
thefe Plants have an incurvedTube, paid to their Flowering s. lor the 
and the Afkes are inferted in the fmaller the Roots are, the weaker 
apper Part ; whereas the Flower of will be the Flowers ; io that by in- 
the Ifyuinth i& bell-fhaped, and has crealing the Number of Roots ao9 
three NeSariums, whidi are joined fidl, they will not produce ib toutf 
IB the Centre. Flowers as they otherwife would do: 

The Roots of diis Plant are com- thefe Roou muft be planted in Fota 
poM of many thick fle(hy Tubers, filkd widirich fre(h£arth,attd (boald 
ibmewhat in Shape like thofe of the be placed in the Summer-feafon tm 
iUntrWa/, but are much larger: the open Air, in a fheltered Situation, 
die Leaves arc long and flat, reicm- and no:t too much watered dorsq; 
blieg diofe of Daffodil ; bat are of a that dme ; for as they ^ve then in 
dark-gieen Colour, lliefe remain the mod una£live Sute, much Wea 
green all the Year ; bat in Summer often rots their Roots. In Autiansiy 
they are not fo ftrong and vigorous when the Nights begin to be cold« 
as in Winter, which is the Seafon of the Pots ihould be removed into the 
their Growth : the Pbwers are pro- Oreen-hoafe, and placed near che 
^Bced in an Utebel, upon the Top Windows, where they may have n 
of a naked Stalk, which is about a large Share of Air ; for if they ttt 
Foot and an half high : thefe Flow- much crouded by other Plan ts^wheie' 
vn are ihajled (broewhat like thofe by the Air is excluded from thetn, 
of the Hyacinth, being large, and of the Flowers are fobjed to Mduldi^ 
a fine blue Colour : the Seafon of nefs, which will foon fpoil thevr 
this Plant's flowering, is about Mi- Beauty. During che Wiater-feaibn 
chaelmas : but when the Plants are the Plants mxift be frequently re- 
^^gf the FlowcTi Will be in greater freihed with VVaitr, erpecialiy while 




PO P o 

tliey continiie In Flower; but they $. Polium Fynnincum fnpiimm^ 
J&uil not have it in too 'great Qoan* bedera terrtfiris folh. Tourn. Creep- 
titles ; for as the Roots are thick and ing Fyrenean Foley -mountain, with 
flefhy^muchMoifture will caufe them a G round - ivy -leaf. 
to rot: thefePknts do not require aoy 6. Polium marltimum trtQum 
artiEcial Heat in Winter ; fo may Monjpeliacum. C. B. P. Uphghc 
beprefervedin a good Green-houfe; Poley-mountain of Mgntpelier, 
or if they are placed in a dry airy - 7. Polium montaxum ItUeum^ fer^ 
Glafs-cafe with Ficoides> and other ratis angufiioribus incamifoUis. Bar-' 
hardy fucculent Plants of the fame rtL Yellow Poley- mountain, with 
Country, they will thrive and flower narrow hoary ferrated Leaves, 
extremely well : and with this Ma- 8. Polium montanum aitirum^ 
nagement I have had the Seed-vef- fiUit angufiioribus^ capitulis isMgigri- 
fell formed, which, have grown to a bus. C. B. P. Another Monn- 
confidendble Size 1 but the long cold tain-poley, with narrower Leaves^ 
Nights, which then came on, canfed and longer Heads, 
the Air to be very damp, which 9. Polivm montanum rtpim. C 
occafioned a Mouldinefs, tha» de- B. P, Creeping Mountain^poley. 
firoyed the^eeds: but I believe by 10. Polium maritinum fn^nnm^ 
removing the Plants into a moderate Venetmm, C. B, P. Creeping man- 
.Stove, as foon as the Flowers are time Venetian Mountain-poley. 
over, this might be prevented, and 11. Voiiv u Hi/panicum, cbarn^- 
good Seeds may be ODtained. dryos foiio^ fiore furfurafcente. Inft. 

POLIUM, Poley-mountain. R. H. Spamjb Mounuin - polcy. 

The CharaSen are ; with a Germander- leaf, and a pur- 

// bath a labiated Flower^ cwfift - pliih Flower. 
hgofoneLea/p'wbo/eStamitkSL/upp/y 12. P OLivu Lufitanicumfitpinum 
Sbe Place of the Crefi : tbe Btard^ •r minus incanum^ caulibus pnrfmra/cen" 
Under- lip f is divided into fi*ue Seg- tibus^fiorealbo, Inft. R. H. Creep- 
snents, as tbg Germander : out of ing lefs hoary Portugal Mountain- 
tbe Flower-cup ri/es tbe Pointal, at- poley, with purplifh Stalks, and a 
tended, as it luere, by four Ewbryoes^ white Flower. 
m)bicb afterguard become fo many 13. Polium Hifpanicum latifoli* 
Seeds ^Jhul in tbe Flomier-cup : to tbefe nm^ capitulo bre*viori, purpurafiente 
Marks muft be added^Tbat tbi Flow- flore. Inft. R. U. Broad-leav*d 
ors are coUeBed into an Head upon tbe Spanijb Mountain - poley, with a 
7ops of tbe Stalks and Brancbes, ihorter Head, and a purplifii Flower. 

The Species are ; 1 4. Po li u m Hifpanicum maximum 

1. PoisivvL montanum lutenm, C album. Infi. R. H. The largeii 
B, P. Yellow Mountain-poley. white Spanijb Mountain-poley. 

2. Polium montanum album^ C. 1^*Poli\31a Hifpanicum maximum 
B.P. White Poley-monntain. /uteum. Inft. R. tf. The greateft 

3. Polium la*uenduLe folio. C. yellow ^^»^ Mountain-poley. 

S. P. Poley-mountain with a nar- 16. Polium Hifpanicum mart- 

rower Laveoder-leaf. timum frutefcensy rfnifmarim foiio^ 

4. Pohiv u lavendulie folio angU" florerubro. Inft. R. //..Shrubby ma« 
ftiori, C. B, P. Poley-mountain with ritime Spaniy/j Mountain-poley, with 
a narrower Lavender-kaf« a Rofmary leaf, aad a red Flower. 

17. PoLi- 

P O P o 

1 7. PoLiUM Ht/^m^arm J^nam, op6a the Groandi add htve woody 
JUreJUnMfcintt. hfi, R. H. Creq>- Branches : the chief Beauty of thefe 
ioc Spau^b Poky-moontain^ with a Plants confiAs in their hoary Leaves 1 
yeUowifli Flower. for the Flowers are fmall, lind havd 

18. PoLiVM Hi/famam^ Ummriit very little Beaaty in the^a i fo the 
filiis irtvimihus^ fifi alio. hft. R. Flints are feidom preferved in Gar- 
H, SfamjS^ Foley ' moanidm, with dens for their Beaaty: however^ 
ihorter Toadflaz-IeaTes, and a white fome of the fhrabby Kinds may be 
Fbwer. admitted .into the PleiLfur^-garden i 
. 19. PoLiuM moHtanum gkopba^ where, if they are planted on a dry 

Mis iMci/umyflort rmhro^bf fii^num. lean Soil, they will abide manj 

Barr. hw, Cteepine Poley-monn* Years, and add to the Variety, 
tain, refembling Cadweed^ with a Thefe Plants may be difpofed in i 

icd Flowel'. Garden, fo ^ to afford Pleafure, by 

20. PoLivM thffamtcmm lutnm^ mixing them with Aftf^jtoi, Maiich^ 

mjoran^e filio. hft. R. H. Yellow and feteral other aromatic Plants^ 

Bptuujb Foley - mountain^ with a upon the flopins Sides of Banks, 

Maijonun-leaf. which are e;cpofed to the San ; or 

ti. PoLluu Hi/^cgm, fi^y^^ "P^^ ^*'^^^ Hillocks raifed in a fheU 

M*f Purfurafcinitflore. Inft. R, H. tered Situation ; where, by the Di- 

ipanip Poley-mountain j with a Mo- Veriity of their hoary Branches, being 

ther-of-thyme-leaf^ and a parplifh of varidus Shapes^ they will make a 

flower. pretty Appearance : and in fach Pla- 

iz.FoLivu Hi/pantcvmithjmi/o' ces they will refill the Cold mack 

/w, tmfmrafantt coma. Injt, R. H. better than when they are planted 

Bpamfif Foley - mountain, with a in a good Soil 9 for if they grow 

Thyme-leaf, and purpliih Top. freely in Sammer^ their Shoots will 

23. PoLiuM Crttiaim maritimum be replete with Moiilare; and th^ 
hmidfufmm. Tourti. Cor. Trailing Prod will be much more likely t0 
mahdme Foley- mountain of Cntt;, deftroy thefe than it will chofe whofe 

24. Folium Smj^mtestm, fcordii Shoots are (hort, dry^ and hard : 
foUo. fount. Cor, Smyrna Foley- and this holds tt\ro* moft of the aro- 
aoQtttain, with a Water-germander- matic Plants; for Sage, Rofmary, 
kaf. Lavender, {sTr. which hare beea 

Thefe are all of them perennial grdwing Out of dry Walls, tho* 

Plants^ except the third and fourth greatly expofed to all Winds, have 

Sorts: thefe two feldOm continue refifted the Cold of the fevereft Win*^ 

loDger than two or three Years, fo ters; when moft of the Plants* which 

are propagated by Steds ; bot the were growing in Gardetss wete de« 

others, which are abiding Plants, are ftioyed . 

propagated by Cattings. Thefe They ard prdpagtited in Englan^^ 

Planu grow wild in the South of where they feidom produce Seeds, 

FroMcty m Spain^ Portagaiy and fome by Cuttings or Slips, which (hould be 

in the Lt^ant ; from whence th^ir planted the Beginning of ApHl^ juft 

Seeds have been obtained by thofe before they are about to (hoot, upotf 

Perfons who delight in Botanical a Border expofed to the EaU : and 

Indies : fome of tbefe Sorts grow if the Seafon proves dry^ they moS 

eprigfat to the Height of two Feet ; be watered and (haded until they 

but che greated Fart of them trail have taken Root ; and afterward 

You 111. 4 A 

P O P o 

Aey mil reqQire no odier Gare bot mfrtifiUa^ ftr$ earuUu. Tnm. Cor. 

to keep them detn from Weeds i Low Eafiern Milkwott, with a Myr« 

and at Micb9ilmus the Plants flioulcT de-leaf, and ablae Flower. 

lie removed where they are defign'd 8 . Po l y ga l a Orinaalu limfoUm^ 

to remain ; but it will be proper to flon magno nlb9, fount. Cor* Ekfiern 

pat a Plant of each Sort in Pots, that Milkwort, with a Flax-leaf, and a 

they may be ihdtered in Winter, to large white Flower. 

preferve the Kinds. 9. Poj.ygala Orientalis limfoUap 

The fecond and fixth Sorts are florimognopurfmrte^ 7oum,Cor. £aft- 

fometimes vfed in Medicine. «rn Milkwort, with a FIax*leaf» 

POLYANTHUS. ^iW Prima- and a large purple Flower. 

]a. 10. PolVoala Lufitanica /rmi$' 

POLYGALA, Milkwort. feaiM^ magna ^n./o/iijmmtmu.lnfi. 

The Charaaers are ; R. H. Shrubby Portugal Milkwort^ 

// hath a FJower eaufi/iug of ome with a large Flower, and vtry fouU 

Liu/, of an anomalous Figure, per^ Leaves. 

foratid bebindt hut di*vidfd into two 1 1 . Polyoal A Africama fruio* 

Ufth^fon: the ufpermoji Lif is di- fansanguftifoli^major^Oldeui^GteoX' 

nfidid into two Parts 1 hut the under er flirubby J/rican Milkwort, with 

0fti is eurioufj fringed: out of the a narrow Leaf. 

Inner Part of the Flower rifes the 12. Polycala Afrkana^ Umi fi' 

Point al, which afterguard beeomes a lie, magno fiore^ OldenL African 

broad Fruity divided into two Celh, Milkwort, with a Flax*leaf, and a 

. nuhich contain oblong &eeds : the Fruit large Flower. 

is generally inclos*d in the Flower- 13. Polycala Firgiman^f foBis 

cuf^tJohicb is composed of finre Leaves I oblongis, fioribus in tbyrfo candsAs^ 

viz. three fmall ones, and two larger, radice alexipharmica. Milkwort of 

nvhieh afterward embrace the Fruit Virginia^ with oblong Leaves, ana 

like fFings. white Flowers, growing in a loofe 

The Species are; Spike, whofe Root is alexiphamac; 

I . PoL\oALA major cotruUa. Ta- commonly called the Senegaw Rat- 

hem. Greater blue Milkwort. tle-fnake-root. 

2,PoLYGALAmsiJoralba.Tabem, 14. Polycala catrulea Anurica' 

Greater white Milkwort. na, angujlis i^ denfioribus foliis, vut- 

3. Polycala ^vulgaris. CS.P. go CUn-cUn, Festsllie, Blue ^tfSncrr- 
CommoQ Milkwort, with a blue r«irMilkwort, -with narrow Leaves; 
Flower. commonly called by \htln£cuu Clin- 

4. Pol YC ALA alba, Taberu, White din . 

' common Milkwort. 1 5 . Po l Yo a l a rubra Firginianm^ 

5. Polycala montana minima fpica parva compaSa, Bamft, Rtdl 
mvtifolia, Inft, R H. The leaft Virginian Milkwort, with a imalt 
mountain Milkwort, with a Myrtle- compad^ Spike. 

leaf. J 6. Polycala >^V«/«riii^«««- 

6. Polycala Cretica nmlgari fi- jor,foliis & caulibus coerulefciutibms. 
milts, /lore albido longiore. Toum. Cor, Bamfi. Greater red fpiked Milk- 
Miltcwort of Crete, like the common wort, with bluiih Leaves and Stalks. 
Sort, with a longer whittih Flower. 17. Polycala/ Flos ambarvaJii 

7. Polycala Orientalis fupina Firginiana, Jloribus luteis in caput ub-^ 


P o 

h^gm nagefis^ Bamfi, FirgimsM 

Milkwort; with yellow Flowcn col* 
kfied in an obloog Head. 

18. PoLYOALA quadrifdiaf, crU" 
dat^fioribtu €x^ri£ rmbiMiihrni^ in 
MwmcomfoBit.Bamfi, Foor-fta¥*d 
Milkwort, with rediSi*green Flow* 
Cfiy growiog in a compad Globe. 

19. Poly GALA fmidrifrlia mm^r 
firfiman^t fyica pamta rmbeniL Bm* 
mf. Smaller foor leavM Firpmam 
Milkwort, with a fmall rediih 

20. Po L YQ A L A Manama f awgn - 
fitrffolio^ JUrg furfam. PiukMrnti" 
tif. Narrow -leav*d Milkwort of 
iiarylarndt with a parple Flower. 

21. Pol YG ALA MarioMa qaadri" 
ftUa mner^ ft^^^ parva aliicante, 
PltA^Mantif. Smaller four-leav*d 
Milkwiirt of MaryUmd^ with a (mall 
viiitiih Spike. 

z%. Poly GALA Africana fnat" 
fttm^filio buxu fi»rt maximo. 01* 
dad. Shrubby African Milkwort, 
iHih a Box-leaf, and a very large 

The foor firft Species are foand 
wild in moift Meadows, in divert 
^aru of England^ and are never pre- 
ferred in Gardens, except for the 
f^e of Variety : however, I thought 
pfoper to infcrt them in this Place, 
to introduce the other Sorts ; fome 
of which are beautiful Plants, and 
are worthy to be preferved in all ~ 
puioas CoUedions of rare Plants. 

The fifth, fixth, feventh, alid 
eighth Sorts are alfo y^ humble 
Plants, which grow wild in Spain^ 
hnly^ and the South of France^ and 
are feldom introduced io Gardens j 
for it if very difficult to get any of 
thefe Plants to grow, when they are 
traafpianted from Fields to Gardens; 
for they delight to grow amongli the 
Grafs :-fo that when it is clear*d 
from about them* they feldom 


The fixtii, feventh, eighth, and 
ninth Sorts were difcoverol by Dr. 
T^amtfirt^ inxhtUvant: thefeare 
alio low Plants, which grow in the 
fiime manner as the former ; there- 
fore are not eafily cultivated in Gar- 
dens : the only Method to eet theft 
to grow in a Garden, is, to low their 
Seeds in Autumn, foon after t^ey 
are ripe, in a (hady Situation, and 
a moift Soil 1 where the Plants will 
come up the following Spring, and 
produce Flowers 1 but they feldom 
continue long after. 

The tenth, eleventh, and twelfth 
Sorts are ihrubby Plants, which are 
preferved in fome curious Gardens 
for Variety, Thefe may be alfo 
propagated by Seeds, which fliould 
be fown on a moderate Hot-bed in 
the Spring; and when the Plants 
are come up, they (hould be tranf- 
planted into feparate Pots filled with 
frefli light Earth, and then plunged 
into the Hot4)ed again, obfervmg 
to (hade them ^om the Sun until 
they have taken Root ; after which 
time they ihould have a large Share 
of freQi Air in warm Weather, and 
muft be frequently watered. About 
the middle of May thefe PlanU 
Ihould be inured to bear the open 
Air by degrees; and in Jmu they 
may be placed aliroad in a fheltered 
Situation, where thev may remain 
during the Summer-feafon ; and in 
Autumn they maft be removed into 
the Green-boufe, and managed as 
hath been direded for Myrtfes and 
Oleanders. Thefe Plants continue a 
long time in Flower ; fo are worthy 
of a Place in every curious Garden, 
for the fake of Variety. 

The fourteenth Sort is a Native of 
the Mountains in the Kingdom of 
Cbily, in the Spamjh Weft-lndiis^ 
where it is ufed by the Indians to 
cure Pleurifie5, and ail Complaints 
of the Side. This Sort is of low 

4 A 2 Growth^ 

P o 

Growtk^ feldom rifing higher than 
the common Sort ; bat is too tender 
to live in the open Air in Englandi 
fo the Plants ihould be planted in 
TotSy and preCerved in the Green- 
houfc in Winter. This may be 
propagated by Se^ds, as the two for- 
mer Sorts. 

The next fevcn Sorts, as alfo the 
thirteenth, are all of them Natives 
of Firginia^ Maryland, Ntw - Eng' 
lani^ and feveral other Places in the 
North of America ; fo arc hardy 
enough to live in the open Air in 
England, .provided they are planted 
In a warm Situation, and on a light 
Soil. Thefc are very pretty Plants, 
and require very little Trouble to 
cultivate them ; for after they arc 
come up from Seeds, the only Care 
they require, is, to keep them clear 
from Weeds, and in very dry Wea- 
ther to water them while they arc 
young { for when tb^ have obtain- 
ed Strength^ they will not be in 
muchDangefof fuffering by Drought ; 
for the Roots run pretty deep into 
the Ground, fo will find NouriOiment 
to fupport them. 

The Root of the thirteenth Sort 
hath been long ufed by the Senegaiv 
Indians to cure the Bite of the Rat- 
tlc-fnake ; which, if taken in time, 
is an infallible Remedy. And of late 
Years it hath been ufed by the Inha- 
bitants of Firginia in many Difor- 
ders, which arc occafioned by a 
thick fizy Blood ; fo that the Root 
of this Plant, when its Virtues arc 
fully known, may become one of 
the mod nfcful Medicines yet difco* 
vered. The fourteenth Sort, by the 
.Account which Pert feuillte gives of 
it, partakes of the fam>e Qualities 
with this, tho* the Indians ufe it dif- 
ferently ; for he fays they make a 
Decodion tff the Plant, which they 
drink to cure the Pain of the Side s 
whereas thtSenegaw Indians ofe the 

P o 

Root of the thirteenth Sort, Tviiidi 
they powder, and generally carry 
about them, when they travel in the 
Woods, left they (hould be bit by 
thc'Rattle-fnake ; and whenever this 
happens, they take a Quantity of 
the Powder inwardly, and apply 
fome of it te the Part bitten ; ivhich 
is a fure Remedy. * 

The twenty. fccond Sort is propa- 
gated by Seeds, which (hould be 
fown in Pots of light Earth, foon af- 
ter it is ripe, and iheltered in Win- 
ter ; and in the Spring the Pots 
(hould be placed upon a moderate 
Hot-bed : and when the Plants are 
come up, they (hould be prickM in- 
to fmall Pots filled with light rich 
Earth, and plunged into anothev 
Hot -bed, where they (hould be 
(haded until they have taken Root^ 
and often refrelhcd with Water ; tfi 
ter which they mn(! hare Air given 
them in proportion to the Warmth 
of the Seafon ; and in July they 
may be removed into the open Air, 
placing them in a warm Sitnation, 
where they may be (hdtered from 
ftrong Winds ; and in dry Weather 
they muft be often refreflied with 
Water : in this Place they may re- 
main until OSober, when the Nights 
begin to be frofty ; then yon (faodd 
remove them into the Green-honfey 
placing them where they may have 
the Advantage of the free Air, when 
the Weather is favourable enough to 
admit of the Glafies being opened ; 
for they only require to be protedled 
from Froft. During the Winter- 
feafon they (honki often be refre(hed 
with Water ; but it (hould not be 
given to them in large Quantities, 
which will injure their Roots. Is 
Summer they may be expofed with 
Myrtles, Geraniums, ^c. in a Si- 
tuation where they are defended 
from (Irong Winds; and as their 
Roots increafe, the Size of tkck 


P O P o 

PotB flioaU be ialarg^d; bat yoo 6^VQhYoovArvul4tiifiIium^ ttl* 

mutt be rtry cautious not to over- Uiori aibi fiUis. C. B, P, Broad' 

poctliem, which it iojuriout to all lcav*d S^Umom^i Seal, with Leaves 

Sorts of Exotic Plants. like the white Hellebore. 

The Earth in which thefe Plants 7.Polyoonatum latifolivm^fl^ri 

are iet, (boold be rich, frefh, and mapn $d$r9. C. B. P. Broad-leav'd 

light, in which they will thrive SoUmm'$ Seal, with a large fweet 

c^Kceedingly, and continue in Flow- Flower. 

er mott Part of the Year, which ren- 8. Polt co n atuu Orientali latU 

ders it ^trf valuable ; and if the foHtm^fiort par^o, Toum. Cor. £aft* 

Seafon proves favourable, the Seeds ern broad • leav*d S^Umou'i Seal, 

will ripen veiy well ; but you mud with afmall Flower. 

be careful to gather them when ripe, 9. Polygon atum angtiftifalium 

otherwide they will drop off*, and be non ramsfitm, C. B. P. Narrow* 

loft. The Seeds of this Plant will leav'd unbranched SoU/mmU Seal, 

(bmetimes remain above a Year in 10. Polygonatum atiguftifolium 

the Ground, fo that the Earth in the ramofum, C. B* P, Narrow-le^vM 

Pots fixould not be diilurbed when branching Solom»n^% Sea), 

the Plants do not come up the £rfl 11. Polycqhatum ^hmncatium 

Seaibn. fcandent altij/smitm^filiis tamni, Pkm. 

POLYGONATUM, Sohmn'z The talleft climbiqg Ammcan Solo- 

Seal. iSM/r*s Seal. 

The Chora ff en are s Thefe Plants are eafily propagated 

Thg Fhwer ^nfifis •/ me Leaf, is by parting of their Roots in the 

tubulms^ and expands at the Top in Spring, bmre they begin to (hoot, 

Zbafe of a Be/J, and is di'vided into obferving always to preferve a Bud 

fevered Segments : the Qntary^ nuhich to each OfF-fet : they (hould be 

is fituated in the Centre of the Flow- planted in a frefh light Earth, where 

jr, heromes afofi glohnUsr Fruit, con- they will thrive exceedingly ; but if 

taimifg rounSfi Seeds it be over-rich, it will deflroy their 

The Species are ; Roots. The £rft Sort is the mod 

1 . Polygon ATUM latifolinm vnl- common in England^ and is what the 

gare, C. B, P. Con^mon broad- College has dire&d for medicinal 

leav*d Solomon' I Seal. . Ufe. 

z, FoLY GOV ATVU /atifolium'vtft' The fifth and iixth Sorts grow 

gore, cauUhns ruhentihus. U. L. ^ery tall, provided they are planted 

Common broad-leav*d£0/9/8M»*s Seal, in a pretty* good Soil. In a moid 

with red Stalks. Seafon it is common for thefe to be 

3* PoLYGOMATVM latifoUttm MM- Upward of three Feet high ; whereas 

ffiw, JUre C, B. P. Leifer the ordinary Sort feldom rifei above 

broad-leav'd Solomon'^ Seal, with a half that Height. The Leaves of 

larger Flower. thefe Sorts are alfo very large, fd that 

4. Polygon ATUM latifolium^ they make an handibme Appearance 
fhre dupUci odore. H. R. Par, Broad- in the Borders of large Gardens. 
leaved SoUmon*$ Seal, with a double The feventh Sort hath broader 
fweet- (melling Flower. Leaves than the common Sort ; but 

5. PoLYQONATVM UtifoUum doth not grow much higher. The 
maximum. C. B. P. The greateft Flow^^s9f^is Sort being larger, ^nd 
broad-leav*d SokmonH Seal. having an agreeable Scent, render 

4A 3 it 

P 6 

it worthy of a Pkce in large Gar* 

The eighth Sort was difcovcred by ' 
Dr. Tournefort in the Levant ; -but 
is not common in Europe : this hath 
a broader Leaf than the common 
Sort, and the Flower is much fmall- 
er. it is preferved io fome corioas 
Botanic Gardens, for the fake of 

The ninth and tenth Sorts are very 
different from either of the former : 
thefe have fonr or five Leaves, pro- 
duced at each Joint, which are 
much longer and narrower than thofe 
of the common Sort; fo that they 
make a very different Appearance ; 
therefore fliould be allowed a Place 
in large Gardens, for the fake of 

All thefe Sorts are as hardy as the 
common Solomon't Seal, and may be 
propagated by parting of their Roots, 
m the fame manner as is dlrefled for 
the common Sort. 

The eleventh Sort is a Native of 
the warmeft Parts of ^/nmra, where 
it grows in the Woods, and climbs 
on whatever Trees grow near it ; by 
the Help of which it rifes to a great 
Height. This produces its Flowers 
in long Bunches, fomewhat like the 
black Briony. 

The Seeds of this Plant were fent 
from Camfechj by Mr. Robert Miliar^ 
Surgeon. This Plant muff be pre- 
ferved in Stoves, otherwife it will 
not live thro* the Winter in this 
Country : it may be propagated by 
Seeds, which (hould be (own on an 
Hot-bed early in the Spring : and 
when the Plants are come up, they 
Ihould be treated in the fame man- 
ner as hath been direfied for Diof- 
eoria : with which Management this 
Plant will thrive, and produce 
Flowers in this Country. 

POLYPODJUM, Polypody. 

P o 

The CiaraSm txt; 

It is a eapilUiry PUnt^ «unth oilowg 
jogged Liaveif having a middU Rio, 
*wbicb joins them to the Stalks rmmistg 
tbro^ each Divifion, 
The Species are ; 

I. PoLYPODitJM vulgare. C.9[P, 
Common Polypody. 

a. PoLTPODiUM majtis, firrai$ 
folio, 'Barr. Icon, Greater Pdy 
pody, with a ferrated Leaf. 

3. PoLYPODiuM Cdmhro-Britem" 
nieum, pinnulis ad margines iacintM' 
tis. Raii Syn, ^fV^ Polypody , wiA 
laciniated Leaves. 

There are feveral other Species of 
this Plant, which are Natives of 
America ; fome of which are pre- 
ferved in fome curious Botanic Gar- 
dens for Variety : but as they are 
rarely cultivated in other Gardens, 
it is not worth while to enomeratd 
them in this Place. 

The firft Sort is that whidi is nfed 
in Medidne, and is found growing 
npon old Walls, and fhady Banks, in 
divers Parts of England. The fecond 
feems to be only a Variety of the 
firft, which differs therefrom in be- 
ing larger, and having ferrated 
Leaves. The third Sort was brooght 
from fValfs, where it grows in great 
Plenty, and is the moS beautiful of 
all the Sorts. Thefe Plants may be 
propagated by parting of their 
Roots in the Spring before thejr 
(hoot, and (hould be planted in ja 
ytry poor moift Soil, under the 
Shade of a Wall ; for if they are 
expo&'d to the Sun, they will not 
thrive : they chiefly delight to grow 
out of the Joints of Walls, ana old 
Buildings ; but are commonly fonnd 
. expofed to the North. 




P o 

POPULAGO, Marih-miirigbU. 
Tbe CbarmSert are ; 

Thi flower €^hfifi$ of fevnal 
Uweu 'oA'ch mrt flic^i circiUariy, 
MMJexfimdinfirm #//« lU/g ; in iht 
mddU #/ nMch rifis the faikfat, 
^ubkh afterward hcomet A mmbra» 
nacious Frmt ; in ^mbitb tbert arefi- 
^tni Cilis^ which are, fir the moft 
fart, htm diwitward, <^lUBti inf 
Bttli HeSJi^ and ark fdl of oitong 


The Sfitiis ire ; 

I. PoPULACO^ff me^^e. Tntm, 
Marifa^marigoia with z large Flow- 
er. _ 

2.POPI7LAGO fhre miMre.ToMrn, 

MaHh- marigold with a fmallcr 

3. POPULACSO Jfore flew. Vwrnr. 

Marih - tnarigold with a double 


The two firft Sorti are very com- 
non on b^gy *nd watry Places in 
diven Parts of EngLxnd, and arc fel- 
dom CQltivaied in Gardens : bat the 
iird Sort, which is a Variety from 
the fecond. is prcfcrved in Gardens 
for its fine double Flowers. 

TWs Plant Is projwtgated by part- 
itig of the Roots in Autumn, and 
moft be planted on a moift Soil, 
othowife the Flowers will not be 
near ft) fair, nor wifl the Plants thrive, 
Thefe are very proper to place in 
Very wet Parts of the Garden, where 
fcwr other Plants will thrive s and 
will afford an agreeable Variety do- 
ring their Scafon of Flowering, which 
it from the Middle of ^i7 until the 
Lattcrcnd of i»f-ay; fo that they are 
worthy of a Place in every curious 

POPULUS, The Poplar-tree, 

The Chara^en are ; 

The Leaws Are broad , and ^ fir the 

»oft fart, angular: the Male Trees 

produce amentacenu Flowers, wbicb 

hawe matrj Bttli Leaves and Apices, 


Idf are bamm : tbt tmate Tnet frei 
duee membraneous Po4^, which ofem 
ittto two Parts, conraimng many Seeds, 
kvhicb bmff a large ^antity ofDowk 
adhering to tbm, and are collet edint^ 


The S fides are ; 

1. Pop V LOS alSa, minorthmfiU* 
is. q. B, p. While Poplar, with 
fballer Leaves ' 

2. PoPULVS alba, msforiius fih'* 
is. C. F. P. White Poplar, with 
large Leaves, commonly caird the 

5. PoPULUS tremula, C. F. P* 
The trembling Poplar, or Afpcn-tree. • 

4. PopOLUS«i^r<r. C. F. P. The 
black Poplar -tree, by fome falfly 
called the Cotton-tree. 

5. PoPOLVS eslha, filio minorg 
variegato. The white PopUr, with 
ftriped Leaves. 

6. PoPULUS nigra CaroBniana, 
fiBo maxima, gemmis bal/amum odo- 
ratijfimumfitndentibus. Catejb. The 
Carolina black Poplar, with the 
largeft Leaf; from whofeBods illhes 
a ^try fweet Balfam. 

Thefc Trees may be propagated 
either from Layers or Cuttings, 
which wilt readily take Root $ as al- 
fo from Suckers, which the white 
Poplars fend np from their Roots ill 
great Plenty. The beft time for 
tranfplanting thefe Suckers is in 
Oaober, when their Leaves begin to 
decay. Thefe may be placed in a 
Nurfery for two or three Year?, to 
get StrengA, before they are planted 
out where they arc defignM to re- 
main : bnt if you intend to propagate 
chem from Cuttings, it is better to 
defer the doing ot that until Febru- 
ary } at which ciroe you may plant 
Truncheons of ifbur or five Feet long, 
thrufting^hem about a Foot into the 
Ground: thefc will readily take 
Root I and if the Soil be moift in 
which they are planted, will arrive 

4A4 «• 

P O P o 

to t conftderabl^ Bulk ift a ftw clo not^ at prefent, bring in miicli 

Years. ^oney to their Owners; whereas, 

The black Poplar is not fo apt to if they were planted with thefe Trees, 
take Root from large Truncheons ; they wonld, in a very few Yean. 
therefore *tis the better Method to over-purchale the Groand, dear oi 
plant Cuttings about a Foot and ai^ all Expence : but there are many 
halfinl^engthythmfting them |i Foot Perfons in Ettglmtd^ who think no- 
deep into the Ground : thefe ^ill thing, ^^' Corn, worth cultivate- 
pke Root T^ry freely, aAd may b^ ing: or» ii they plant Timber, it 
afterward tranfplanted where . they miift be Qak, Afli, or Elm s and if 
are to renudn. This Sprt will gTPw their Land be not proper for cither 
upon almoft any Soil ; but will of thefe, it is ^eem*d little worth; 
thrive beft in moid Places. whereas if the Nature of the Soil 

I have planted Cuttings of thi$ was cipamined, and proper Sorts of 

Tree, which in fpurYears havie been Plants adapted to it, there might be 

tn'gger in the Trunk than a Man*9 very great Advantage made of feve- 

Thigh, and near twenty Feet in ni, large Tra^ of Land, w|iich at 

Height, s^nd this upon a very indilFerr this time lie negled^. 

ent Soil ; but in a moiil Soil, it is The Wood of diefe Trees, efpe- 

common for thefe Trees to ihoot ten dally of the Abele, is very good to 

or twelve F^et in a Seafon : fo that li^y for Floors, where it will laft 

where a Perfon hath a mind to xnake many Years ; and , for its exceeding 

f^ Shelter in a few Years, there is Whitenefs, is, by many Perfons, 

fcarce any Tree fo proper for that preferred to Oak i but, being of s^ 

Purpofe as this: but they ihould foft Contexture, is very fubjed to 

not be planted too near the Pleafure- take the Impreffion of Nails, &r. 

gardetubecaufe thcDown which falls which renders it lefs proper for this 

from thefe Trees will make a prodir Purpofe : it is alfo very proper for 

gious Litter in the Spring. Waiofcoting of Rooms, being IcCs 

The white Sorts, as alfo the Af- fubjed to fwell or (hrmk, than moft 

ped'tree^ likewife caufe a great Lit- other Soru of Wood : but for Turn- 

ter in the Spring, vyhen their Down ery-ware, there is no Wood equal 

ialls off; and their Roots being ve- to this for its exceeding Whitenefs^ 

ry apt to produce a large Quantity fov that Trays, Bowls, and many 

of Suckers, efpecially tbpfe Tree« other Utenfils, are made of it; and 

that came from Suckers, this render)- the Bellows - makers prefer it fo^ 

them unfit to be planted n^r an their Ufe; as do alfo the Shoema- 

Houfe or Garden ; but when they kers, not only fbrHeels, but alfo for 

are interfpers*d with other Trees in the Soles of Shoes : it is alfo 

large Plantations, they afford an eood to make light Carts ; and th^ 

agreeable Variety 5 their Leaves be- Poles are vqy proper to fupport 

log very white on their Under* fides. Vines, Hops, (sfc. and the Lopping 

which, when blown with the Wind^ will afford good Fuel, which in many 

are tum'd to Sight. Countries is ^uch wanted. 

A confiderabfe Advai\Me may The' fixth Sort of Poplar-trce 

be obtainVl by planting tlieK Trees grows by the Sides of Rivers, and 

ttpotimoift boggy Suils, wKere few ^ other moift Places, to SoMt/h-Ca- 

other Trees will thrive : mat)y fuch roJtma, where it rifes to a very large 

Places th^r^ 9J!^ in Sfgl^nilt whic^ Tree. The young Branches of this 


P o 

Titc ire commonly aQgnlar, feme- 
timet having three» and at other 
tiines four Angles. The Leaved arc 
nach broader, and are not fo point- 
ed as thme of the conunon black 
Poplar. The Buds of the Leaves 
are very larg&; and in the Spring, 
joft before they pufii, there ifiues out 
of them a very tweet Balfam. 

Although this Tree is a Native of 
a much warmer Couotry than Eng' 
M^ yet it is hardy enoiigh to en- 
core the Cold of our Winters in 
the open Air ; and may be propa- 
gated by Cuttings, in the (ame man- 
lier as the common black Poplar. 
The beft time to plant thefe Cuttings 
it in the Beginning of Novmhir : 
they (hottld be about a Foot or four- 
teen Inches long, and (hould be 
planted fix or eight Inches in the 
(jround. If the Spring following 
ihoald prove dry, they muft be fre- 
qaently watered until they have 
laade Roots ; after which time they 
will require no farther Care, but to 
keep them cleaMrfrom Weeds. Thefe 
f ottittgs will be rooted enough to 
bear tranfplanting in one Year ; and 
the 039htr following they ihoald be 
removed ; and planted either in a 
Karfery, where they may be trained 
up to Stems, or in the Places where 
they are defignM to remain, which 
paiiSL be in 1^ mpift Soil, where they 
will grow to be large Trees ; and 
being intermixed with other Trees 
of the (ame Growth, will make an 
agreeable Diverfity. 

PORRUM, Leek. 
The Cbara3ir$ are ; 

Wr flowir cmfifts •f fix ?ttaU^ 
fniiifija^d^ ms it were^ like a Bill: 
in the dntreari/is tin Fointal^ *wJbich 
mfttr*ward biۤmis a mundijb Frmt^ 
divided iMt§ three Ceils^ which con- 
tain romdijb Seeds: t§ thefe Netes 
muft be added f The Stamina etre gene- 
rallj hread and fiat^ ending in threi 

r o 

(utpiOaiunts i 9/ which the nuddit 

•ne is fnrnifiPd ivith a Chive : th$ 
Flowers are alpe gathered into almefi 
globular Bunches : the Roots art fong^ 
cylindrical^ and coated^ the C§ats 
ending in plain Leaves. 
The Species are i 

1. PoRRUii commune capitattme* 
C. B. P, The common Leek. 

2. Poaauii fe&ivnm latifoUnm. 
C. B, P. BroadleavM Leek, com- 
monly call'd the London Leek. 

There are fome other Species of 
this PJant, which grow wild in tho 
South of France, and Spain ; but aa> 
they are feldom cultivated in Gar- 
dens, I (hall forbear to mentioa 
them here. The two Sorts here 
mentioned are by many Perfons af- 
iirmM to be the fame, both of them 
rifing from the (ame Seed : bnt this 
is what theCardeners nesurLondonwill 
not believe; for they never fow 
Seeds of the latter, if they can pro* 
cure thofe of the firft Sort, there be* 
ing a great Difference in the Size of 
the Head, or principal Part of the 
Leekr but whether by long coltki 
vating ^hey may not alter, I cannot 
positively affirm, having never fowa 
the Seeds of the latter Sort above 
one Year. 

Thefe Plants are cultivated b^ 
fowing their Seeds in the Spring, ia 
the fame manner as was diredcd for 
Onions, with which thefe are com* 
monly fown, the two Sorts of Seeds 
being mix'd according to the Prd« 
portion which is defir'd of either 
Sort; though the mod common 
Method is, to mix an equal Quan- 
tity of both ; for the Onions will 
freatly out-grow the Leeks in the 
pring s but thefe being drawn oflF 
in yuly, the Leeks will have time to 
grow large afterwards, fo that there 
may be a moderate Crop of both 
Sorts. The Management of Leeks 
being exactly the fame with Onions, 

I fliall 


i itM tidt Hfiii It in ibis Place i 
6iil ihidl oiily add, t&t mttny Per^ 
feiis fdw their Leeks very thick 
iii Bfeds in theSpfiiig ; ind in 7»;i^^ 
ifter fditie of their edrly Crops ire 
takeo off, they dig ap the Ground, 
and plant thdr Lfceks out thfereon, 
iii Itows a Fodt ftpitt, and fix Tnches 
afander in this RbWs, obferving^ to 
li^atei' them until they have taken 
Root ; after ^hlth th^y «/iU reqaire 
90 farther Cdtitf ^ 6nt tb clear thii 
Oround from Weeds : the Lfceksi^ 
ftds jplaifited,^ will groW to a gre^C 
Sfai^ pfovided thci Groond be good; 
&d this Method is viry proper for 
ftch P^tfons i^bd have little to6m. 

If yOu wonTd ikve the Seeds of 
dils Plant, yOtt tfiould make choice 
6f feme of the largeft Ind bell you 
have, which mufi remain in the 
Pttcc where they erfew. until ft- 
h-ii^ry ; when they fiiodid be tranf- 
t^lanted in a Rotv againft a warm 
fledge. Pate, or Wall, at about eight 
Irfches afunder; and when their 
Stems advance, they (hould be fup- 
tbrted by i String, to prevent their 
Being broken down, to which they 
irh very liable, efpecially when in 
Read ; ind tint clbfer they are drawn 
to the Fence in Autumn, the better 
iSik Siseds ^ill ripen s for it fome-^ 
times happens, in cold Summers or 
Ailtiimhs, that thofe which grow in 
^ fbe open Garden, do not perfed 
fteir Seeds in this Country, efpeci- 
illy if there (hould be (harp Frofts 
early in Autumn, which will intire* 
ly rpoil the Seed. 

When "it is ripe (which may be 
known by^ the Heads .changing 
hrown], you (hould cut off their 
Heads with about a Foot or more of 
(he Sulk to eachj and tie them in 
Bundles, three or four Heads in 
each, and hang them up in a dry 
Place, where they may remain till 
ChriJImas, o» after, when yon may 


thre(h out die Seeds, for Ufe, The 
Hufk of thefe Seeds is very tough, 
i^hich renden it very difficult to get 
out the Seeds ; therefore Tome Pef- 
fbns, who have but a fniall Qnantitv. 
rub it hard againft a rough Ti!^, 
which will brea^ theHufks, and get 
the Seeds out better than moft 6th6r 
Methods I hkve known ufed: 
itoRTULACA. Pdrflanc, 

The Charaffert ire ; 
fBe Ftofwer cvkjtlls tfm4nj If Ave J, 
iSobich expand inform of A Jtofe ; ami 
of njoiofe Fionver-iuh (iuBici eonftjffi 
ofoiie Leaf) drifts tho Plnntaty'whici^ 
together nvifh He Ficki'er - ckp^ t'e- 
iomes a truiifor the moft part ovai^ 
full of /mall Seeds, andJjkrmfi'HJiritlh 
tnvo shells or Hujks At top ; of^uhieh 
the outer one, *whith tJUas the Fart §f 
the FU^er-cup that HMOsJpiit in tnxj9^ 
opens firfi ; and the inner on^, vahicb 
is the Pointal inldrg^d, opens lajf, dou- 
hfy and tranfverjty , nubile the lanuer 
Part of the Plower-ckp adheres to tbi 

The Species arc ; 

1. PoRTULACA UtifoKa fern faii" 
va. C. B. P. Btoad-IeavM or Gar* 
den Purflane. 

2. PoRTVLACA fativa tattfoUa^ 
fohis fatvis, Mor, Hift, Broad- 
leavM Gatden Purflitfe, with yellow^ 

3. PoitTULACA AiigJi^ifohA fi'Ua 

fyhiJlns, C. B. P. Nirrow-ldiv'd 
or Wild Purilane. 

4. POrTUlaca Ckrajfafvica, fo* 
lio capparidis. Par. Sat. Purdane 
from Cwraffo^ with a Caper-leaf. 

The firll Sort here mentioned is 
What the Gardeners near Lomdom do 
chiefly cultivate; though the (econd 
Sort does very often come up mix*d 
with the firft ; but whether it is onl^ 
an accidental Variety arifing. frooi 
the fame Seeds, or that the Seeds are 
promifcuoufly faved, f cannot deter* 
mine ; indeed^ there is no other Oir- 


P O P o 

facDce fcfitween theiny inc Only tfce for wfiick KetTon. it is tiot to afay 
C^oor cif tl^eir Leaves, fo tliat Parpofe to (bw it apon an Hot-bed ^ 

thc^ are bocb equally ^ood forUi^ i fince it wi)l conle early cnbit^ for 
bnt tlie grcfn Sort, baviiig a httter Ufe in the open Air. 
Appeannce, is gefieraily preferred in POT£NTILL A, Onqudlbil.' 
Ihe Markets. The Cbar^am are ; 

The wild Sort is not a Niltive of The Empmlemeni of the FUwir ti 
B^Lmdf but grows plentifally in ofom Leaf^ which is firghtly cut inti 
ilianj warm CoantHes ; where when fiue Farh^ mni mittmattfy cut de^ 
h has once obtainM fo Is to flied its tntofrvi Parts : the Flower is tomfo* 
Seeds, !tis very difficult fO extirpate fid •ffime Ltanjis, nnhtch an infertti 
again. This is feldom itsM \ though inU thi Emfalemint^ and ff read opinz^ 
*lL not different from the Garden ik the Centfn of the FUnver there are 
Kind, except in the Smalnefs of its ftveral Peinta/s ceUeQed into oiH 
Leaves. Head^ and are attended hy a Nnmher 

The fourth Sort is very common 0/* Stamina, nuhich rifiomt oftheEm* 
in moft of the warm Parts ofAmeri- falement : after the Flower it faff^ 
<«, where k grows in great Plenty ihe Pointals become an Head of rosind^ 
opoD the Shores and Rocks near the Seeds included in the FmfaUment. 
Sea. This is prefervM in fome cu- The Sfecies are ; 

rions Gardens for Variety, but is a i. Potehtilla foiiis finnatit^ 
Plant of no great Beauty. cauh refente. Lin, Fhr. Silver-weed, 

Purllane is propagated from Seeds, or wild Tanfey. 
which may be fown upon Beds of 2. Potbntilla foliit finnatik 
light rich Earth during any of the fuinatis, folio/is ovatis crenatis, caute 
Sunfmer-months ; but if you intend ereBo. Lin. Hort, Oiff, Upright 
to have it early in the Seafon, it Cinquefoil, with Meadow - fweet- 
Ihonid be fown upon an Hot- bed ; leaves. 

fbrit IS too ftader to be fown in the ). Potbntilla caule Jruttcofi* 
Open Air before Jprii^ and then it Un. Hort. Qiijf. Shrubby Cinque* 
muft be in a warm Situation. This foil. 

Seed is very fmall, fo that a little of 4. Torn nr ill a foiiis digitatis in^ 
it will be fufficient to fupply a Fa- cifoferratis^ caule reBo, Lin. Hort. 
mily. There is no other Culture C//^. Greater upright Cinque- 
which this Plant requires, but to foil. 

keep it clear fromWeeds,aird in dry 5. Potbntilla foUii digitaHi 
Weather to water it three or four iongitudinaHter fatentiferratis^ cauik 
dmes a Week In warm Weather refente. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Common 
this Plant will be fit for Ufe in fix cireepiog Cinquefoil. 
Weeks after fowing;fothat,in order 6. Potbntilla y9//f# tematie 
to continue a Succeflion of thisPlant, incijis^ caule diffufo. Lin. Hort, Cliff. 
yon (hould fow it at three or four The barren Strawberry, with np* 
dffierent Seafons, allowing a Fort- right Stalks. 
night between each Sowing, which There are fome other Spedes of 
will be faiBcieut to laft the whole this Genu?, which grow wild in (e- 
Seaibn, while it is proper to be eat- veral Parts ofEur^ ; but are rarely 
en ; for, beins of a very cold Na- admitted into Garoens ; therefore I 
ture,it is unfafe to be eaten, except ihall not enumerate them here : and 
in the Heat of Summer, in Englandi of thofe above- mentionM, it is only 

3 the 

P o 

tke third Species which is caUivated 
ia Gardens ; and this i« found grow- 
iag Wild in fome of the Northern 
Coanties of England, Thciirii Sort 
here mentioned fhtnds in the Cata- 
logue of Medicinal Plants in theDif- 
peniatory : therefore I have mea- 
tion^d it here, though it is one of the 
moft common Weeds in Englandf 
growing plentifully on Commons 
and waifte Land evcry-where, bat ef- 
pccially on all cold Ground i where 
by its creeping Stalks, which put out 
Roots at every Joint, it fpreads over 
the Surface of the Ground, and be*, 
comes a very troublefome Weed. 

The fifth Sort is alfo a badWeed, 
leaving the fame fort of creeping 
Stalks as the firft ; fo that where- 
ever it once gets PoiTeflion of the 
Ground, it multiplies and fpreads to 
a great Diftance i therefore thefe two 
Sorts fhould be extirpated from eve- 
ry good Garden, 

l^he fecond, fourth, and iixth 
Sorts are fometimes preferv'd xnGar- 
dens for the fake of Variety ; but as 
they are Plants of no Beauty, few 
Penbns care to allow them room in 
their Gardens : thefe will propagate 
^ery fad by Seeds, which if permit* 
ted to fall on the Ground, the Plants 
v/ill come up and thrive without any 
Culture. Thefe Plants, which come 
up from felf-fown Seeds, will flower 
and produce Seeds the next Seafon, 
^nd the Roots of the fecond and 
fourth will continue feveral Years ; 
but the fixth is biennial, and gene- 
rally penflies foon after the Seeds are 

The third Sort is propagated in 
many of the Nurfery- Ganicnj. near 
Lrndon for Sale. This is a low Shrub, 
ieldom rifing above four Feet high, 
branching out on every Side from 
the Stem : the Leaves ate divided 
into feveral narrow Segments, which 
join ^c the Fooiftalk: the Flowers are 

p o 

yellow, and in Shape like thofe of 
the common Cinquefoil ; thefe are 
produced at the Extremity of the 
Branches, and by their Succeffion 
continue to flower upward of two 
Months, efpecially when thty grow 
upon a moift Soil. 

This Plant is commonly propaga- 
ted by Suckers, or laying down the 
tender Branches, which will take 
Root in one Year, and may then be 
Uken off from the old Plants, and 
planted in a Nurfery for a Year or 
two, to get Strength, before they are 
planted where they are defign'd to 
remain : it may alfo be propagated 
by Cuttings, which may be planted 
during any of the'Summer-manths, 
in a moid (hady Border, where they 
will foon takeRoot, and tkcMicbail- 
mas following, may be tranfplantcd 
into the Nurfery. 

The bed Seafon for tranfplantiog 
of thefe Plants is in OSoher^ that 
they may get new Roots before the 
haiti Froft fets in : for as this Plant 
grows naturally upon moid boggy 
Land, fo when it is removed in the 
Spring, if due Care is not taken to 
water it in dry Weather, it is apt to 
mifcarry : nor will this Plant live 
in an ho^ dry Soil ; but in a (hady 
Situation, and on a cool moift Soil, 
it will thrive exceedingly. 

The Title of this Genus has been 
long applied to the firft Species by 
feveral Writers on Botany and Me- 
dicine ; but Dt. ^ourntfort has fepa- 
rated all thofe Species which have 
wing'd Leaves, and conllituted a 
Genus of them, by the Title of P/9- 
tnpbyllaidis ; which, being a com* 
pound Name, Dt, Unn/eus has re- 
jeded : the other Species wiih band* 
rd Leaves has been ranged under the 
Genus of ^uinqucjh/ium ; but now 
they are both join'd under the Title 
of FoiaiU/Ia. 


P R 

PRASIUM, Shrubby Hedge- 

The CbaroBert are ; 

Tbt EmpaUmtnt of tbi Flonuir is of 
me htmf^ dvvidti into two Lipf, tbi 
Mfftr being cut into three acnte Sig- 
ments: tbe Flower is of tbe Lip -bin J, 
the tipper Lip being o*vmI and treS ; 
hut tbi Beard is di*vided into three 
Farts, the middleSegment being broad- 
er than tbi other two : after the 
FiTVjer is paft^ the four Germens in 
tbe Fkwir turn to fo many pnlpy Bir- 
ties, each inclofing a fingle ^eed. 
The Species arc ; 

1. ? ti ASiv M foiiis ovate*ob!ongis 
firratis, Lin, Hort. Cliff, Shrubby 
itinking Hedge- nettle, with oblong 
iftwed Leaves. 

2. Prasivm filiis o^jatis, dvflici 
ntriwjue crena notatis. Lin, Hort, 
Clif, Shrubby (linking Hedge- net- 
tle, with oval Leaves indented on 
eveiy Side. 

The lirft Sort hath by fome Bo- 
taaifts been ranged with the Lami- 
on, by others under the Genus of 
Meliflky and by Dr. Totime/ort un- 
der that of Galeopiis, to which laft 
it agrees very well in all its Chara- 
den, excepting that of the Seed be- 
ing inclofed in a pulpy Cover, like 
a Berry, which is fufficient Reafon 
for feparating it from Galeopiis; 
tboagh, by the eftablifh'd Rules of 
Dr. Linna^usU Method, it cannot be 
jufH6ed: yet he has feparated it from 
that Genus, and applied this old 
Hiaae of Dio/corideSf which he had 
applied to a Plant of this Clafs, to 

The fecond Sort is ranged under 
the dame Genus by Dr. Boerbaave ; 
but in the Hortus Catbolicus it it 
ranged with the Lamium. 

Thefe are both low (hrubby Plants, 
which feldom rife above two Feet 
high, and retain their Leaves thro* 
the Year : they wU) live abroad in 

P R 

England, provided they are plantd 
on a dry Soil, and in a warm Situa- 
tion, and produce Flowers from tbe 
Beginning of Jitne to the End of 
Aignfl \ but there is little Beauty ia 
their Flowers ; fo they are only pre« 
ferv*d by thofe who are curious in 
colleding of rare Plants. 

Thefe Plants are Natives ofSplun, 
Portugal, and Sieilj, (o that they arc 
impatient of fevere Cold: therefore 
a Plant or two of each Sort fliould 
be ihelterM in Winter; becaufe whea 
the Froft is very fevere, they are of- 
ten de(lroy*d when they are planted 
in the full Ground, though they 
will abide tbe Cold of our coni' 
mon Winters very well ia the epea 

They may be propagated either by 
Cuttings, or from the Seeds : if they 
are propagated by Cuttings, they 
(hottld be planted on a (hady Border, 
toward tbe End of April; but the 
Cuttings (hould not be uken froia 
thofe Plants which had been drawa 
weak, but rather from thofe whick 
had been exposed to the opea 
Air, whofe Shoots are fliort and 
-ftrong; and if a Joint of the former 
Year's Wood is cut to each of then^ 
they will more certainly fucceed : 
thefe Cuttings may remain in the 
fame Border until the following Au- 
tumn, when they may' be tranfplaal- 
ed into the Places where they are to 
remain , or into Pots, that they mny 
be iheltrrM in Winter under a com- 
mon Frame, where they may have 
as much free Air as poffib.'e in mild 
Weather, but only require to be 
fcreen*d from hard Froft. 

If they are propagated by Seeds 
(which the Plants produce in Plenty 
every Year), they fhould be Town on 
a Bed of light harth in April; and 
in May the Plants will come up, 
when they require no other Cace 
but that of keeping them clean from 


PR P ». 

Weeds iWoAintht Aatainn follow- ins imcifis^ cauU Jmgulari. F&r. 
log ttktif xnay be tranfplarited in the ^^''^* Dr. JFiti^s Ratde-fnake Root. 
&me manner asjbefore dired^ed for 5. PasNAifiTHis /9/1V/ inttgris 
thofe raifed from Cuttings, and may firr^t^ fcahris^ raJice npente^ JUre 
|>e afterward treated more hardily^ fufpwo * cp^rulio. Jtmriean wild 
as they acquire Strength. Lettuce, with whole faw'd rough 

A Plant or two of each of thefe Leaves, a creeping Root, and pur* 
Species may be allowed to have a pie Flo^ver. 
place where there are Colledions of The firfi Sort grows wild open 
the different Sorts of ever -green the Sides of dry ilony Backs, and on 
Shrubs, for the fake of Variety, cf- tl^ Tops of Walls, in feveral Parts 
pecially where the different Sorts of of England, The fecond grows wild 
Ciilus; Phlomis, Tree - wormwood, in feverat Parts of Europe : but the 
and Medicago, are admitted, becaufe others are Natives oi America, The 
thefe are equally hardy, and when a fourth Sort has been efteemM a fare 
fevere Winter happens, which de- Antidote to expel the Poifon of the 
tiroys the one, the others are fureof Rattle-fnake, and therefore I have 
ebe fame Pate. mentionM thefe Plants; for they 

PRENANTHES, Wild Lettuce, are never prefcrv'd in Gardens, ex- 
The ChataStrs are j cept for the fake of Variety, being 

h bath fiofadous Flowtrs^ 'which troublefome Weeds, where diey aue 
mre i^chi4k4 in one common Empale^ permitted to fcatter their Seeds ; (b 
mint J which is cylindrical and /qua' that whoever is defirous to cultivate 
wusss : the Florets are hermaphroditey them, need be at no Trouble but to 
each being monopetakus^ ba*oing one fow their Seeds tn a moid Ihady Si- 
$ide ftretched out like aTongue^ and tuation, whjere the Plants will come 
£wded into four Segments, each of up and* thrive without any farther 
tbefe homing a Pointal in their Centre Care. 
attended iyfrue Reader Sxzminzi and PRIMULA, Primrpfe. 
0fttr*ward the Pointal becomes an ob^ The CharaQers are ; 

Ab^ Seedy crowned <witb o Down, The Flower confijts ofmu Leafi the 

The Species are ; lower Part of which is tubulo/ey but 

I. Prbnanthbs JIq/cuUs qwnisy the upper Part expand: itjelf fiat its 

fihis pimsato - hafiatis, Lin, Hort, form of a Sal^ver^ and is cut into fe- 

CUff, Wild Lettuce, or Sowthiftle, *ueral Segments : from the Flower -c^ 

with fpear • fhapM wing*d Leaves, (which is fifiukus) ari/es the Poin- 

and a yellow Flower. tal \ which^ when the Flower is eig- 

2» Prbnanthes fiofculis quinis^ ^^yd^ becomes an oblong Fruit or 

filiis lanceolatis dinticulatis, Lin. Hujk, lying almoft concealed in the 

Hart, Cliff* Purple mountain wild Flower-cup^ and opens at the Top^ in 

Lettuce.. 'which are contain d many roundijb 

j.pRBNANTHEs fiofcuHs plurimisy Seeds fajler^d to the Placenta. 
fihis hafiatis angulatis, Lin, Hort, The Species are i 

Cliff, American Wild Lettuce, with i PRXMULA<i«i^ariV, P«ri. Com- 
angular Leaves. mon Primrofe. • 

4. Pjlbnanthes autumnalisn flore 2. Primula Confiantinopoliteeeea^ 
JUute purpureo deorfum nutanttj /pi' fiere albo, Tourn, Primrofe of Cmo^ 
4atd/n ad cauiem di/fo/to, foliis fca^ Jlantinople, with a wJiite Flower, 


P R 

P R 

conndhly caird diie Paper-white oponaStelk, fochattlie)re5[iiaIthe 
frimrofc. Auricuhi'i in the Beab^ of thefr 

Aft dilute earner. I$Mr^. Erimrofe 
SUCnfanHnopU^ with a pale fleih- 
colour*d Flower. 

4. PKIIII7I.A C^nfi4intinMiitqna, 
fvi dikttptrfmre9^T9itm. Prin^ofe 
fJiCMJiantiHopiiy with ajpole-purple 

c. P&iMULA Confiantitiopolitanm^ 

Flowers ; and as they require but 
little Cultiirey they have. In many 
Gardeniy obtained the Preference to 
moft other Spring Flowers. 

ThefirftSort'ofPrimrofe growy 
wild in Woods, and other Aady Pla- 
ces, in moft Parts of England^ from 
whence their Roob may be cafi{v 
transplanted into theGarden; where. 

/0Y alb» ibipUci. Primrofe of Cm* if they are placed under Hedges, an4 
fmiinpUt with a double white in (hady Walks, they make a beau- 

Fbwer, commonly caird the doable 
hper-wbite Primrofe. 

6. Pf IMULA <vmlgaris^ fiore dilute 
prfvee. Common Primrofe, with 
a pde-fwr^^lQwer. 

j^ltMSSmfVuIgaris, flare plene. 
Common Primrofe, with a very dou- 
ble Flower. 

8. PaiMVt A 'vulgaris^ flare fltno^ 
Ahttt rmbente. Common Primrofe, 
with a doable pale-red Flower. 

9. Primula petllido flore^ eUtior. 
Quf, Common Pj^s or Cowflips. 

10. Pr I M u L a umbeUmta odot^attL 
frotettfis. Great Cowflips, or Ox- 

11. Primula geminate flere, H, 
Ejft, Double Cowflips, or Hofe in 

Hofe. ' 

1 1. Pr I M u L A eauli/era, flore luteo 
flemodoraio. J,B, Cowflip or Pagil, 
with a ncry double Flower. 

13. Primula hortaifis umMIafa, 
tUklt if fierefeliefo coccinee majore, 
H. L. Garden Primrofe or Polyan- 
thus, with a large red Flower. 

14. Primulje umbellate odor at a 
hertcnfis fimplicis 'varietai uberrima 
fro *varietate jucundijffhna^ coloris mul' 
eifiieis, Beerb, Ind. 

There are a great Variety of the 
Garden Primrofes, or Polyanthus's, 
which are annually produced from 
Seeds ; the Flowers of which are 
beaatifully ftripM, and feme of them 
have a great Number of Fiowers 

tiful Appearance early in the Springs 
when few other Plants are in Flow- 


The befi Time to tranfplant them 
is at MiebaelmaSf that their Roots 
may have Strength to produce thei/ 
Flowers early in the Spring. Thefe 
delight in a itrong'rich Soil, but will 
grow in almoft any Sort of Earth, 
provided they have a fliady Situa- 

The fixth, ftrenth, and rightii 
Sorts are Varieties of the firfl, w^ick 
hare been accidentally prodacei 
from Seeds : thefe may brpropa^- 
ted by parting of their Rpots at 
Micbaf/mas, and muft be treated a* 
the common Sort. 

The ninth and tenth Sorts al(e 
grow wilj) in the Meadows in divers 
Farts of England, the Roots of 
which are ofcen tranfplanted int4> 
Gardens; where, if they are inter- 
mixed with other early - flowering 
Plants, they afford an agreeable Va- 

The eleventh and twelfth Sprfs 
are Varieties which were produced 
from Seeds of the former $ but the 
laft is, at prefent, very rare in Eng- 
land, Thefe may be propagated by 
parting their Roots at Micbaelmat, 
and fliould be planted on a firong 
Soil, and exposed to the mcmiiTg 

The feveral yarictiw of Polyan- 

P R 


tlids*s are produced by fowing of 
Seeds» which ihoold be fav^d from 
fach Flowers as have large upright 
Stems, producing many Flowers 
upon a Sulky ue Flowers large, 
beautifully ftripM^ and that open flat : 
from the Seeds of fuch Flowers there 
is room to hope for a great Variety 
of good Sorts. 

Thefe Seeds fliould be foon in 
Boxes flird with light rich Earth, in 
Decembir^ being very careful not to 
bikry the Seed too deep ; for, if it 
be only covered with light Earth, it 
will be fufiicient : thefe Boxes (hould 
be plac'd where they may receive 
the Benefit of the morning Sun until 
Ten of the Clock ; but muft by no 
jneans be exposM to the Heat of the 
Day, efpecially when the Plants be- 
gin to appear ; for at that time one 
whole Day's Sun will intirely de- 
firoy them: in the Spring, if the 
Sealon fliould prove dry, you muft 
often refreih them with Water ; and 
as the Heat increafes, you (hould 
remove the Boxes more in the Shade ; 
for the Heat is very iujurious to 

In May thefe Plants will be ftrong 
enough to plant out ; at which time 
you mould prepare fome (hady Bor- 
dersy which fhould be made rich ; 
upon which you muft fet the Plants 
about four Inches afunder, obferv* 
sng to water them until they have 
taken Root ; after which they will 
require no farther Care but to keep 
them clear from Weeds, until the 
Latter -end of Auguft following; 
when you fhould prepare fome Bor- 
ders, which are exposed to the Eaft, 
with good light rich Earth, into 
.which you muft tranfplant your 
Polyanthus's, placing them fix Inches 
afunder equally in Rows, obferving, 
if the Seafon prove dry, to water 
tKem until they have taken Root. In 
thefe Borders your Plants will flow- 


e^ the fttcceedi£e Spring ; at whicB 
time you muft obferve to mark fuch 
of them as are fine, to preferve ; and 
the reft may be tranfplanted into 
Wildemefles, and other fhady Pla- 
ces in the Garden ; where, although 
they are not very valuable Flowers, 
they will afibrd an agreeable VariC'^ 

Thofe which you intend to pre^ 
ferve, may be removed foon aftef 
they have done flowering (provided 
you do not intend to fave Seeds from 
them), and may be then parted and 
tranfplanted into a frefli Border of" 
the like rich Earth, allowing them 
the fame Diftance as before ; obferv- 
ing alfo to water them until they have 
taken Root, after which they witt 
require no farther Care, but only to 
keep them clean from Weeds i and 
the following Spring they will pro- 
duce ftrong Flowers; and if the 
Kinds are good, will be little in- 
ferior to a Shew of Auricnla^s. 

Thefe Roots fliould be conftandy 
removed and parted every Year, and 
the Ear^h of the Border chang*d, 
otherwife they will degenerate, and 
lofe the greateft Part of their Beau- 

If you intend to faveSeeds^ whieh 
is the Method to obtain a great Va- 
riety, you muft mark fuch of them, 
which, as I faid before, have good 
Properties : thefe fliould be, if pof- 
fible, feparated from all ordinary 
Flowers i for if they ftand f urround- 
ed with piain-colour'd Flowers, thay 
will impregnate each other ; where* 
by the Seeds of the valuable Flow* 
ers will not be near fo good, as if 
the Plants had been in a feparate 
Border where no ordinary Flowers 
grew : therefore the beft Way is tof 
take out the Roots of fuch as yoa 
do not efteem, as foon as the Flow-* 
ers open, and plant them in ano- 
ther Place, that there may be dors 

P R 

left m the Border^ but fach as you 
woold choofe for Seeds. 

The Flowers of thefe ihoold not 
be gathered* except fach as are pro- 
docM fingly upon Pedicles, leaving 
all fach as grow in large Bunches ; 
and if the Seafon fliould prove dry, 
yon maftBOW-aDd-chenrdrefli them 
with Water, which will caofe their 
Seeds to be larger, and in greater 
Qnantity, than if they were intirdy 
aegleded. Towards the Latter^nd of 
^^ the Seed will be ripe, which nay 
he eafily known by thePods change- 
ing brown, and opening ; fo that yoa 
(hoidd at that time look over it three 
times a Week, gathering each time 
fach of it as is ripe, which fhould 
be laid upon a Paper to dry, and 
may then be put up until the Seafon 
of (owing. 


PRINOS, Winter-bcrry. 
The Cbara£iirs are; 

7bi EmfaUmtnt tftbi fhwer is of 
•Hi Limfs cut at tbi Brim into fix 
Parts: tbi F/ower is of tbt WbieU 
* fiittfd Kindy cut into fix Parts at tbi 
Top, but is ofong Leaf: in tbi Ceu' 
tre of tbi FUwer arifes tbi Pointal, 
attended by fix Stamina, fupporting 
obtufi Stimsuits: tbi Pointai after- 
nxard becomes a romndi/h Berry, bav' 
ing fix Cells containing one bard am* 
giar Seed, 

We have but one Species of this 

PaiNOS. Flor. Firg. The Winter- 

This is but a low Shrob with us in 
England^ rarely growing above four 
Feet high } but in Norfb America^ 
which is the native Place of its 
Growth, it rifes much higher, and 
hranches out on every Side : the 
Branches are (lender and pliant, and 
are gamifh'd with oblong blunt 
Leaves, which are intire. In ^furn 

Vol. hi. 

P R 

the Flowers are produced, which are 
white^ and not verv beautiful % but 
thefe are fucceeded by round Ber- 
ries, which are ihap*d like thofe of 
the Holly, and are of a bright- red 
Colour : thefe renuun upon the 
Shrubs after the Leaves are fallen^ 
and make a pretty Appearance, and 
from thence had the Title of Win- 
ter-berry applied to it, by the Inha- 
bitants of thofe Countries. 

It is projpagated by Seeds, which 
Ihould be iown foon after they are 
ripe, upon a Bed of light Earth, 
covering them about one Inch with 
the fame Sort of Earth : the Seeds 
which are fo foon put into the 
Ground will many of them come 
up the following Spring, whereas 
thofe which are kept longer out of 
the Ground, will remain a whole 
Year in the Ground before the Plants 
will appear, in the fame manner as 
the Holly, Hawthorn, and fome 
others ; therefore the Ground ihould 
not be diAnrbed, if the Plants do 
not come up the iirft Year. The 
young Plants may be treated in the 
fame manner as hath been directed 
for the Jmerican Hawthorns, and 
are full as hardy ; but they delight 
in a moifl Soil, and a (hady Situa- 
tion : for in hot dry Land they 
make but little Progrcfs, and rarely 
produce any Fruit. 

PRIVET. I^Vr.Ligiiftwm. 

PROTEA, The Silver-tree, W- 

The CbaraSers are; 

^bi Flofwer is of one Leaf and are 
many of them colleSed in an Htad^ 
like tbofi of the Artichoke : in each of 
thefe the Pointal is fituated at the 
Bottom^ attended hy four Stamina, 
njisbich extend beyond the Petal of th$ 
rio^wer : the Pointal aftetnvard bo' 
comes a fingle roundijh Seed: tbt Seeds 
are colUSed togethtr infucb a manner 
as to form a fort of Cone^ 

4B The 

P R 

The Spicies tre ; 

1. Pkotba foliis limari-Umciola" 
tis intggirrimis, fuptrioribns hirfutii 
nitidu, Flor. Leyd, The narrow or 
willow-leavM Silver-tree. 

2. Pro TEA foliis laneeolatis intC' 
gerrims acufis hir/utis niiiJis, Lin* 
Bort, Cliff. The broad - leav'd Sil- 

3. Protea foliis lafueolatis acU" 
minatisfiixuofiSf capitulis corona /«- 
Haaa fuccinhis. Flor, Leyd, Silvcr- 
iree with flexible pointed fpear- 
ihap^d Seeds, and the Heads crowned 
with Leaves. 

Thefe Plants are Natives of the 
Country near the Capt of Good Hope 
in Africa, where there are a great 
Namber of Species : in the Cata- 
logue of the Lydiu Garden there are 
upward of twenty Sorts enumerated : 
not that they have them growing 
there, but they have good Drawings 
of them, which were made in the 
Country where they are Natives. 
The three Sorts here mention^ are 
what I have feen growing ; but at 
prefent we have but two of them in 
the Englijb Gardens, which are the 
firft and fecond Species, and thefe 
are but in few Gardens here. 

Thefe Plants are many of them 
well figured in the Index of the 
Plants of the Leydin Garden, which 
was publifhM by Dr. Botrbaamt in 
the Year 1 7 1 9. by the Titles of Li^ 
pisbcarpodendron, Conocarfodendron, 
and HypophjUocarpodendron \ and by 
fome former Writers on Botany, this 
Genus was intituled Scolymo-eepbalusy 
from the Refcmblance which the 
Cones of thefe Trees have to the 
Head of an Artichoke. 

As thefe Planes are Natives of the 
Cape of Good Hope^ they are too ten- 
der to live abroad through the Wm- 
ter in England^ but the firft Sort is 
hardy enough to live in a good 
Grcen-houfe: this Sort will grow to 

P R 

the Height of ten or twelve PeeC, 
and may be trained up with a^ regu- 
lar ftrait Stem, and the Branches 
will naturally form a regular large 
Head: the Leaves are long and nar- 
row, and of a (hining filver Colonr ; 
and as they remain the whole Year, 
fo the Plants make a fine Appear- 
ance, when they are intermik*d with 
others in the Green-honfe. In the 
Summer thefe may be placM in the 
open Air, in a fhadv Situation ; fox 
if xAty are exposM to Winds, the 
Plants will be torn, and rendered on- 
fightly, nor will they make any Pro- 
grefs in their Growth : in warm 
Weather they muft be freqoently 
watered ; but in cold Weather this 
muft not be done in large Quanti- 
ties, nor too often repeated, left it ' 
fhould rot their Fibres. 

The other Sorts are not fo hardy 
, as this; therefore they muft be plac*d 
in a moderate Stove in the Winter, 
otherwife they cannot be preferv^'d 
here. Thefe do not form fo large 
Heads as the firft ; but, however, for 
the fine filver Leaves with which 
their Branches are dofdy gamifliM, 
they merit a Place in every good 
ColleAion of Exotic Plants. 

I have not as yet leeo either of 
thefe Sorts in Flower; though as 
the Plants grow older, we may hope 
to have them produce their Flowers 
in England: but if theyfiiould not 
produce any, yet the fine Appear- 
ance which the Leaves of thefe 
Plants make, renders them worthy 
of being preferv'd. 

The firft Sort may be propagated 
by Cuttings, which fhould be plant- 
ed in Aprils in Pots of rich Earth, 
and plunged into a moderate Hot- 
bed, and muft be (haded from the 
Sun in the Heat of the Day, and 
duly watcr'd. Thefe Cuttings will 
have good Roots by the Mooch of 
^dguft^ when they (houU be care- 

■ fully 


Mf tnu^/planted, eachy Sato a fe- na^e to bave a fufficient Quantity 
psntfe haa^ Pot fiiPd with light rich of bearing Wood in every Part of 
£art^ aad plac'd in a fliady Sitaa- the Trees ; and at the fame time there 
tioA oatil they have taken BCi¥ Root; fhould not be a Superfluity of ttfelefs 
after which they may be placed in Branches* which would cxhauft the 
a ihekered Situation, where they Strength of the Trees, and caufe 
BAy remain till OSohir^ when they them to decay in a few Years, 
ffiui be remov*d into the Green- The Reaibos which have been laid 
toofe. down for Pruning of Fruit-trees, are 

The other Soits are not fo eatty as follow : Firft, to preferve Trees 

propagated i for I have not been longer in a vigorous bearing State ; 
able to get one Plant from the Cut- the fecond is, to render the Trees 

tiags ; aor do the Blanches which more beautiful to the Eye ; and, 

ate hid down take Root, h that thirdly, to caufe the Fruit to be 

thsy are propagated from Seeds only i larger, and better tailed, 
and as it is very difficult to procure i . It preferves a Tree longer in 

t^ Seeds from the Conqtry where an healthy 4>earing State ; for by 

thefe Trees are Natives, fo they are pruning off all fuperfluous Branches* 

very rare io Europt, fo that there are no more left upon 

PRUNING OP TREES: There the Tree than are neceffary, or than 

is not any Part of Gardening, which the Roots can nourilh properly, the 

is of more general Ufe than that of Root is not exhauded in fupplying 

IVoning ; and yet it is very rare to ufelefs Branches, which muft afcer- 

bt Fruit-trees flcilfully managed : al- wards be cot out ; whereby much of 

iDoft every Gardener will pretend to the Sap will be nfelefly expended, 
be a Maflier of this Bufinefs, though a. By fkilful Pruning of a Tree, it 

tikece are bat few who rightly un- is rendered much more pleaiing to 

deriland it ; nor is it to be learn'd by the Eye : hut here I would not be 

Rote, but requires a ftri6l Obferva- underflood to be an Advocate for a 

tion of the different Manners of fort of Pruning, which I have feen 

Growth of the feveral Sorts of Fruit- too much pradisM of late; o^/e. 

trees ; fome requiring to be managed the drawing a regular Lfne againU 

one way, and others muft be treated the Wall, according to the Shape or 

iaa quite different Method, which Figure they woul^ reduce the Tree 

is only to be known from carefully to, and cutting all the Branches, 

observing how each Kind is naturally ilrong or weak, exadly to the chalked 

difpofed to produce its Fruit : for Line ; the Abfurdity of which Pra- 

foflie Sorts produce their Fruit on £iice will foon appear to every one 

the fame Year's Wood, as Vines ; who will he at the Pains of obferving 

others produce their Fruit, for the the Difference of thofe Branches 

Aoft part, npon the former Year's (hooting the fucceeding Spring. All 

Wood, as Peaches, Nedarines, fffc. therefore that I mean by rendering 

and others upon Curfons or Spurs, aTreebeautiful,is, thattheBranchts 

which are produced upon Wood of are all prunM according to their fe^ 

three, four, or hwe^ to fifteen or veral Strengths, and are naiPd aft 

twenty Years old, as Pear?, Plums, equal Diflances, in proportion to the 

Cherries, {ffr. therefore, in order to different Sizes of their Leaves and 

the right Management of Fruit-trees, Fruit ; and that no Part of the \^'a!i 

there ihoold always be Frovihoa (fo far as the 'J!iet% are advan-^o) t e 

4B 2 left 


left unfumWh'd with bearing Wood. 
A Tre# well manag'd^ though it 
does not reprefent any regular Fi- 
gure, yet will appear very beautiful 
to the Sight, when it is thus drefs'd, 
and ni^lM to the Wail. 

3. It is of great Advantage to the 
Fruit ; for the cutting away all ufe- 
lefs Branches, and (hortening all the 
bearing Shoots, according to the 
Strength of the Tree, will render 
the Tree more capable to nourifli 
thofe which are left remaining, fo 
that the Fruit will be much larger, 
and better tailed. And this is the 
Advantage which thofeTrees againft 
Walls or Efpaliers have, to fuch as 
are Standards, and are permitted to 
grow as they are natnrdly inclined ; 
for it is not their being trained either 
to a Wall or Efpalier, which renders 
their Frait fp much better than 
Sundards, but becaufe they have a 
lefs Quantity of Branches and Fruit 
for their Roots to nouriih 1 and con- 
fequently their Frait will be larger, 
and better tailed. 

The Reafons for Pruning being 
thus exhibited, the next Thing is 
the Method of performing it ; but 
this being fully handled under the 
feveral Articles of the different Kinds 
of Fruit, I (hall not repeat it again 
in this Place. 

PRUNUS, The Plum-tree. 
The Chara^ers are ; 

Tbi Tlowir confiftt of fi*Oi Letrves^ 

nubich an placed in a circular Or^ 

dn-t and expand in form of a Rofi % 

from wbo/e Flower 'Cup rifes fbrPoin* 

tal^ tubicb aftenward becomes anovai 

ar globular Fruity bawng afoftflfjbj 

Pulpf furrounding an bard oblong 

Stone^ for ibe mofi part pointed : to 

mnbicbJLould he added, Tbe Footftalks 

art long and flendcr, and ba*oo but a 

ftngle Fruit upon eacb. 

The Species are ; 

. I . PavN vs fru^a farvo fracosi. 

P R 

foum. The Jean-hitive, or While 
Primordian. This is a fmall longiih 
white Plum, of a clear yellow Co- 
lour, covered over with a white 
Flew, which ealily wipes oflF. The 
Juice is fwcet; is a pretty good 
Bearer ; and, for its coming very 
early, one 1 ree may be allowed to 
have a Place in every good Garden 
of Fruit. This ripens the Begin- 
ning of Juiy^ but fooa becomea 
mealy. / 

a. Prumus fruQu magno craffa 
fuhacido. Tourn. Damas noir hitiv^ 
i. #. the early black Damafk, com- 
monly called The Morocco Plum, 
This is a pretty large Plum, of a 
round Shape, divided with a For- 
row in the Middle (like Peaches) $ 
the Outfide is of a dark-black Co- 
lour, covered with a light-Tiokt 
Bloom; the Flefh is yellow» and 
parts from the Stone. It ripens ia 
the Middle oijufy, and is eftcem*d 
for its Goodnefs. 

3. Ftivvvsfru^u farvo dulei atru 
earruleo. Toum. The little black 
Danaik Plum. This is a fmall black 
Plum, cover*d over with a violet 
Bloom ; the Juice is richly fugar^d; 
the Fleih parts from the Stone; and 
it is a good Bearer, "ftipe the AAid* 
die of July. 

4. Pa UN us fruSu magno daki 
atro-caeruloo, Toum, Gros Damaa 
Violet de Tours, i . e. Great Damalk 
Violet of Twir/. This is a pretty 
large Plum, inclining to ah oval 
Shape s the Outfide is of a dark 
Blue, covered with a violet Bloom ; 
the Juice is richly fagarV), the 
Fleih is yellow, and parts from the 
Stone. Ripe the Middle of >^. 

5. PaUNUS /rf/^7ji rotundo mhnw 
rubente. The Orleans Plum. The 
Fruit is fo well known to almoft 
every Perfon, chat it is needlefs to 
defcribe it ; is a very plentiful Bear* 
er, which has ocpafton'd its being lb 


P R 

gCBcnllj planted by thofe Perfoas 
who fopply the Markets with Fruit $ 
but it is an indifferent Plam. 

kttt. The F^tbiringtam Plum. This 
Frait is femewbat long, deeply fur- 
lOwMin tbe Middle; the Flefh is 
firm, and parts from the Stone ; the 
Joice is very rich. This ripens abpat 
the Middle of 7«^. 

7. PauNUS fmBu nigr9^ cam$ 
in-a. Tmrn, The Perdrigon Plum. 
This is a middle-£z*d Plum, of an 
Ofil Shape : the Outfide is of a ytry 
dark Cblour, covered over with a 
▼blet Bloom : the Plelb is firm, and 
fiill of an excellent rich Juice: this 
is greatly efteem^d by the Curious. 
Ripe the Latter-end of Julj, 

8. PauN V8/nr^« magnp t 'vUlacea 
riAtnie fiumijjiw&o faccharat; TonrM. 
The violet Perdrigon Plum. This 
is a large Fruit, rather round than 
long, of abluilh red Colour on the 
Oucfide: th#^e(h is of a yellowifh 
Coloor, pretty firm, and clofely ad- 
heres to the Stone : the Juice is of 
an exqnifite rich Flavour. This 
ripeni the End of Ju/j. 

9. PauNUS fruQu 9njat9 ex aih 
/Mve/cemie. The white Perdrigon 
Plum. This is a middling Plum, of 
an oblong Figure: the Outfide is 
yellow, covered with a white Bloom : 
the Flefh is firm, and well -tailed : it 
is a very good Fruit to eat raw, or 
for Sweet- meats, having an agree- 
able Sweetnefs mixed with an Aci- 

io.Vrvvvs Jru^u ovato magna 
rwbentt, Toum, The red Imperial 
Plum, fometimes calPd the Red Bo- 
naoi Magnum. This is a large oval- 
fiiap^d Fruit, of a deep-red Colour, 
covered with a fine Bloom : the Flefh 
is very dry, and very indifferent to 
be eaten raw; but is excellent for 
making Sweet-tneats : this is a gre^t 
Sciarer. Ripe the End of Ju/y. 

P R 

ti. PavNVs /ruSu 0vato mag90 
fiamtf<$ute. Tourm, White Imperial 
Bonum Magnum ; white Holland or 
Mogul Plum. This is a large oval- 
ihapM Fruit, of a yellowilh Colour, 
powdered over with a white Bloom t 
the Flefh is firm, and adheres clofely 
to the Stone : the Juice is of an acid 
Tafie, which renders it unpIeaCsnC 
to be eaten raw 1 but it is very good 
for Baking, or Sweetmeats : it is a 
great Bearer, and is ripe towards 
the End of ifmgufl, 

12. PavNUs^iK?ii ovatff cafruli0. 
The Chefton Plum. This b a mid- 
dle-fiz'd Fruit, of an oval Figure ; 
the Oucfide is of a dark Blue, pow. 
der*d over with a violet Bloom ; the 
Juice is rich, and it is a great Bear- 
er. Ripe the End of July. 

1 3. PauNUS fruQu maxima raiun^ 
iofittwa & dulci, Toum. Prune d*A- 
bricot, /. e. The Apricot - plum. 
This is a large round Fruit of a yel- 
low Colour on the Outfide, powdered 
over with a white Bloom \ the Fleih 
is firm and dry, of a fweet Tafte, 
and comes clean from the Stone. 
This ripens the End of July, 

14. P R u N us fnt^ujuhratmndo^ §x 
rubra fcf flofvo mixta. The Maitrc 
Claud. Although this Name is ap- 
plied to this Fruit, yet it is not what 
the f ranch fo call. This is a mid- 
dle-fiz*d Fruit, rather round than 
long, of a fi.le mix'd Colour, be* 
tween Red and Yellow ; the Flefh is 
firm, and parts from the Stone, and 
has a delicate FlavQjr. Ripe the 
End of >i^. 

1 5 . P K u N V s fruS.u rubenta duldf' 
Jtmo, Taurn, La Rochecourbpn, or 

Diapr^e roi^e, /. e. tbe red Diaper 
PI am. This is a large round* Fruit, 
of a redijb Colour, powdered over 
with a violet Bloom ; the Flefh ad- 
heres clofely to the Scone, and is of 
a very high Flavour. Ripe in the 
Peginning of Jugufi^ 

4 B 3 i6.Pav« 

P R 

1 6. "PKvnvs/rttSM rtitundo fiafH" 
fcente. La petite Reine Claade, /. #. 

Queen Claudia. This is a fmall 
round Fruit, of i whitifti -yellow 
Colour, powderM over with a pearl- 
coloured Bloom ; the Fle(h is firm 
snd thick, quits the Stone, and its 
Juice is richjy fugar'd. Ripe the 
Middle of Auguft. 

17. pRUNusy9Tsr^« rotttttdo nigro^ 
furpurco tnojori dutci, Toum. Myro- 
balan Plum.. This is a middle-fiz^d 
Fruit, of a round Shape ; the Out- 
ftde is a dark Purple, powder'd over 
with a violet Bloom ; the Juice is 
very fweet. It is ripe the Middle of 

\%,^tMYiM% fru3u rolundo e in- 
ridi fu'vefcentCy came dura^fua'Vtffi' 
mo. La grolTe Reine Claude, f . e. 
the large Qaeen Claudia, by fome 
the Dauphiny. At Tou7's it is call'd 
the Abricot verd, t. r. Green Apri- 
cot : at Rouen, Lc vertc bonne, /. e, 
the good Green : and in other Pla- 
ces, Damas verd, x. e. Green Da- 
mafk, orTromp-valet, the Servants 
Cheat. This is one of the beft Plums 
in England \ it is of a middle Size, 
round, and of a yellowifh - green 
Colour on the Outfide ; the Flefh is 
firm, of a deep - green Colour, and 
parts from the Stone ; the Juice has 
an exceeding rich Flavour, and it is 
a great Bearer. Ripe the Middle of 
Augvfi, This Plum is confounded by 
moft People in England, by the Name 
of Green Gage ; but this is the Sort 
which (hould be chofen, although 
there are three or four difFereot Sorts 
of Plums generally fold for it, one of 
which is fmail, round, and dry : this 
quits the Stone, and is later ripe, fo 
not worth prefcrving. 

19. Prunus fruBu amygdalino. 
Toum. RognondeCoq, /. e. Cock's 
Tcfticlcs. This is an oblong Fruir, 
deeply furrowM in the Middle, fo as 
to refembk the Tcfticlcs ; it is of a 

P R 

whitifli Colour on the Ontfide, 
ftreak*d with Red ; the FIcfli of il 
adheres firmly to the Stone, and it 
is late ripe. 

20. Pbunus frudu rotunda fta^m 
dulcijpnto, Drap d'Or, /. e, the Cloth 
of Gold Plum. This is a middle- 
fizM Fruit, of a bright-yellow Co- 
lour, fpottcd or flreakM with red oa 
the Outfide ; the Fleih is ydlow, and 
fall of an excellent Juice. It is a 
plentiful Bearer, and ripens aboat 
the Middle of Auguft. • 

21. Vkvhv% fruSu eerei colms» 
Tourn. Prune de Sainte Catharine, 
i. e St. Catharine Pfum.This is a large 
oval - ihapM Fruit, fomewhat flat ; 
the Outfide is of an Amber Colour, 
powder'd over with a whitiih Bloom; 
but the Flefli is of a bright-yellow 
Colour, is dnr and firm, adheres 
dofely to the Stone, and has a vtry 
agreeable fweet Tafte. This ripens 
at the End of Auguft, and is very 
fubjeft to dry upon the Tree, when 
the Autumn proves warm an J dry. 
This makes fine Sweetmeats, and is 
a plentiful Bearer. 

22. Prunus fruHu cvato ruhentt 
dulcL The Royal Plum. This is 
a large Fruit of an oval Shape, draw- 
ing to a Point next the Stalk ; the 
Outfide is of a light -red Colour, 
powder'd over with a wliiti(h Bloom ; 
the Flcfli' adheres to the Stone, and 
has a fine fugary Juice. This ripens 
the End of Auguft. 

z 3. Prunus fru3u par*vo ex o;/- 
ridi fia^cfcente. Toum. La Mira- 
belle. This is a fmall round Fruit, 
of a greenilh -yellow on the Outfideji 
the Flefh parts from the Stone» is of 
a bright-yellow Colour, and has a 
fine fugary Juice. This is a great 
Bearer, ripens the Beginning of jiu- 
guft, and is excellent for Sweetmeats. 

2+. Prunus Brigonienfis^ fruSlu 
fuantijftmo. Toum, Prune de Bri- 
gnolei f. i. The Brignole Plum. 



This if a large 0Tal-(hap*d Fruit, mix^d therewith, they make a bean- 
of a ydlowiih Coloar, mbCd with tiful Appearance before manv other 
Red on the Outfide; theFleih is Sorts put out: but by this bloiTom- 
of a bright-yellow Colour, is dry, ing fo early, there are few Years that 
and of an excellent rich Flavour, they have modi Fruit. 
This ripens the Middle of Augufi^ %%, Y%vy^j3% fruQu Mo ohUngiuf- 
aad is efteem*d the beft Plum for cub actio, Tourti. The white Pear- 
Sweetmeats yet known* plum. This is a good Fruit for Pre- 

25. ?xvviv%fru3u magno e 'vioia- ferWng ; but is very unpleafant, if 
r/v ruhenti ferotino. 7ourn, Impera- eaten raw ; it is very late ripe, and 
trice, / . /. The Emprefs. This is a feldom planted in Gardens, unlefs for 
large round Fruit, of a violet-red Stocks to bud fome tender Sorts of 
Colour, very much powdered with a Peaches upon ; for which Purpofe it 
wliitifh Bloom ; tiie Flcfh is yellow, is efleemM the bell amongft all the 
deaves to the Stone, and is •f an Sorts of Plums. 

agreeable Flavour. This ripens 29. Prunus MyteUinum. Park. 

about the MiSdle of September. The Mufcle-plum. This is an ob- 

26. ?VLVV\^^ru^u o*vato maximo long flat Plum, of a dark- red Co- 
f^tvo, Toum, Prune de Moniieur, lour; the Stone is large, and the 
I. f. The Moniieur Plum. This is Flefh but very thin, and not well- 
fometimes calPd the IVentnuortb tailed, fo that its chief Ufe is for 
Plain. It is a large oval fhap*d Stocks, as the former. 

Fruit, of a yellow Colour both with- 30. Pr u n u ^fruQu p4tr*ve inoJaeeo. 

io and without, very much refem- TheSt. Julian Plum. Thisisafmall 

bling the Bonnm Magnum ; but the Fruit, of a dark-violet Colour, pow- 

Fleih of this parts from the Stone, derM over with a mealy Bloom ; the 

which the other doth not. This ri- Flelh adheres clofely to the Stone, 

pens toward the Latter-end of Ju^ and in a fine Autumn wilt dry upon 

in/ff and is very good to prcfcrve ; the Tree. The chief Ufe of this 

but the Juice is too (harp to be eaten Plum is for Stocks, to bud the more 

raw : it is a great Bearer. generousKinds of Plums and Peaches 

27. pRUNUS fruRu majori rotun- upon ; as alfo for theBruxe//es Apri- 
i»rubro, Tourn, Prune Cerizette, cot, which will not thrive fo well 
/. e. The Cherry Plum. This Fruit upon any other Stock. 

it commonly about the Size of the 31. Prunus fylveftris major, y, 

Ox-hcart Cherry, is round, and of a B, The black Bullace-tree. This 

red Colour ; the Stalk is long, like grows wild in the Hedges in divers 

that of a Cherry, which ttis Fruit fo Parts of England^ and is rarely cul- 

much refembles, as not to be di- tivated in Gardens, 

fbngaifh'd therefrom at fome Di- 32. ^vlvhv^ Jylveflris^ fruRu mih- 

ftance. The Bloflbms of this Tree jore alho. Rati Syn. The white Bul- 

comc out very early in the Spring, lace tree. This grows wild, as the 

and, being tender, are very often former, and is feldom cultivated ia 

dcftroy'd by Cold ; but it affords a Gardens. 

very agreeable Prefpedl in the ^i.?nvsvs/yhe/rij,Gfr,Emac, 

Spring; for ihefe Trees are gene- The Black-thorn, or Sloe-tree. Thi» 

rally cover'd with Flowers, which is very common in the Hedges almoft 

open about the fame time as the Al- every-where : the chief Ule of this 

monds ; fo that when they are inter- Tree is to plant for Hedges, at 

4 B 4 Whit*. 

P R 

White -tborn, {ffr, aod, being of 
quick Growth^ is very proper for 
tiiat Purpofe. 

AH the Sorts of Plams are propa- 
gated by badding or grafting them 
upon Stocks of Uie Mufcle. White 
Fear» St. Julian, Bonam Magnum, 
' or any other Sorts of free>ihootinjp; 
Flun^. The manner of raifing thefe 
Stocks hath been already exhibited 
under the Article of Nurferies; there" 
fore need not be repeated again in 
this Place: but I would obferve, 
that Budding is much preferable to 
Grafting for thefe Sorts of Fruit- 
tvees, which are very apt to gum, 
where-cver there are large Wounds 
made on them. 

The Trees (hould not be more 
than a Yearns Growth from the Bud, 
Vhen they are tranfplanted ; for if 
they are older, they feldom fucceed 
ib well, being very fuhjedl to can- 
ker ; or, if they take well to the 
Ground, commonly produce only 
two or three luxuriant Branches ; 
therefore it is much more advifeable 
to choofe young Plants. 

The manner of preparing the 
ground (if for Walls) is the fame as 
for Peaches; as is alfo the pruning 
the Roots, and planting ; and there* 
fore I ihall forbear repeating it 
again. The Dillance which thefe 
Irees fhould ]be planted at, muft 
not be lefs tlian twenty, or twenty- 
four Feet ; and if the Wall is low, 
they fhould be placed thirty Fee( 

Plums (hoold have a middling 
Soil, neither too wet and heavy^ nor 
over -light and dry; in either of 
which Extremes they feldom do fo 
well : and thofe Sorts which are 
planted againft Walls, (hould be 
placed to an Eaft or South-eafl Af- 
pt'fb ; which is more kindly to thefi: 
fruits than a full South Afpefl, on 
l^hich they are fubjed to flirivel, and 

p R 

be very dry ; and many Sorts wiB 
be extreme mealy, if exposed too 
much to the Heat of the San ; hut 
moft Sorts will ripen extremely well 
on Efpaliers, if rightly managed. 

There are fome Perfons who plant 
Ploms for Standards, in which Me- 
thod fome of the ordinary Sorts will 
bear very well; but then the Fruit 
will not be near fo fair as thofe pro- 
ducM on Efpaliers, and will be more 
in Danger of being bruifed, or blown 
down, by fbong Winds. TheDi- 
ftance of placing them for Efpaliers 
mud be the fame as ag^ainft Walls s 
as mud alfo their Pruning and Ma- 
nagement ; fo that whatever may be 
hereafter mention d for one, ihould 
be likewife underltood fo^ both. 

Plvims do not only prodi^ce their 
Fruit upon the iaA Year's Wood, but 
alfo upon Curfons or Spurs, which 
come out of Wood that is many 
Years old ; fo that there is not a Ne-- 
cefTity of (hortening the Branches, 
in order to obtain new Shoots annu- 
ally in every Part of the Tree (as in 
Peaches, Ncdarines, Cffr. hath beeA 
direfled), fince the more thefe Trees. 
are pruned, the more luxuriant they 
grow, until the Strength of them x$ 
exhauiled, and then they gum and 
fpoil : therefore the fafefl Method t<^ 
manage thefe Trees is, to lay in 
their Shoots horizontally, as they 
are produced, at equal Diftances, in 
proportion to the Length of their 
Veayes ; and where there is not a 
fu^cient Quantity of Branches to 
fill up the \'^acancies of the Tree, 
the.'-e the Shoots may be pinched the 
Beginning of May (in the manner as 
hath been direfled for Peaches,tfr. j; 
which wil] caufe them to produce 
fome lateral Tranches to fupply thofe 
Places ; and during the growing Sea- 
fon, all fore-right Shoots (hould be 
difplaced ; and fuch as are to remain 
cnuil be regularly traii^^d in to ths 



Wnl) or Efpalier; which wSl sot Thofe few Roles, before laid 
only render them beautif nl, but alfo down, will be fufficient, if due Ob- 
giye to each an equal Advantage of fervation be join'd therewith, to in- 
Sun and Air : apd hereby the Fruit ftrud any Perfon in the right Ma- 
will be always kept in a ductile, nagement of thefe Sort of Fruit-trees i 
growiog State J which they feldom therefore I (hall not fay any more on 
are, when overihaded with Shoots that SnbjeA, left, by multiplying 
ibme Part of the Seafon, and then Inffarudions, it may sender it more 
fadtoly e^pofed to the Air, by the obfcore to a Learner, 
taking off or training thofe Branches PSEUDO ACACIA. ViJi Robi- 
ii| their proper Poiicion. nia. 

With thus carefully p>ing ever PSYLLIUM, Pleawort. 
thefe Trees in the growmg Seafon,' The Cbarafftrs are ; 

there will be but little Occaiion for This Plant agrees nuith Plantain 
cutting them in Winter ; which (as I mnd Bnckficm - plantain in e^ery rt" 
before have faid) is of ill Confe- JpeS^ exteptini that this rifes nfnuitb 
qaence to all Sorts of Stone-fruit ; Ufty Stalks^ mnd Mnfida into maw^ 
/or when the Branches are (hortenM, Brandies ; whereas both the ethers 
the Fruit is cut away, and the Num* prodnee their Flowers nfen naked Pe^ 
ber of Shoots increased : fo where- dicles* 
ever a Branch is Ihorten'd, there are The Speeies are t 

cpmoionly two or more Shoots pro- i. Psyllivu majnt ereSwm. C 
ducM from the Eyes immediately be- B. P. Greater upright Fleawort. 
low the Cut ; and by thus unikilfulty a. Psyllium mmus fupinum. C. 
Pruuing, many Perfons croud their B, P. Greater Reawort, whoie 
Trees with Branches, and thereby Branches fpread to the Ground, 
render what little Fruit the Trees 3. Psyllium LuHeum, foUis efe- 
produce, very fmall and ill- tailed; natis,J,B. LuSan Flcsiv/on, with 
which is very cpmmonly found in nptch«l Leaves, 
too many Gardens, where the Ma- There are feveral other Varieties 
nager, perhaps, thinks himfclf a of thefe Plants, diftioguiih'd by Wri- 
oomplete Matter of his Bufinefs. For ters in Botany : but fince they are 
nothing is more conunon, than to of little Ufe or Beauty, I (hall pafa 
fee every Branch of a Fruit-tree pafs them by without naming, 
the Difcipline of the Knife, however Thefe Plants may be propagated 
agreeable it be to the feveral Sorts by fowing their Seeds in the Springs 
of Fruits. And it is common to fee on a Bed of light Earth ; and whea 
thefe Trees planted at the Diftance they are come up, they fhonld be 
of fourteen or futeen Feet, fo that cleared from Weeds ; pulling out at 
the Walls are In a few Years covered the fame time fome of the Plants^ 
with Branches i and then all the where they fEand too dofe, leaving 
Shoots are cut and mangled with the the remaining ones about eight or 
Knife, fo as to appear like a flump- nine Inches afnnder : after which 
ed Hedge, and produce little Fruit: they will require no farther Care^ 
therefore the only way to have but to clear them from Weeds ; and 
Plum-trees in good Order, is to give in Jnlj they will flower, and their 
them room, and extend their Branches Seeds will ripen in Autunm. 
fU full Length. The fe^ond Sort will abide two or 


P T 

thrte y^rs, provided the Plants are 
on a poor dry Soil $ but the other 
two Sorts perifh every Year. 

The firft Sort, which is the moft 
common, is ufed in Medicine ; but 
the other two are never ufed in Eng- 

FTARMICA, SneezworC. 
The CbaraSers are ; 

It hath radiatii Flanjoirs^ tuho/e 
J>ijk confifis rfmany fUrets ; but the 
Borders ate compo/ed of Half -floret $ : 
the Embryoei are lodged in the Flower * 
ettp, ivhicb is fcalj^ each of *wbicb 
becomes one flender Seed^ 
The Species are ; 

I.Ptarmica vulgaris t folio longo 
firraio, fore albo, J, B, Common 
Sneezwort, with a long ferrated 
Leafy and white Flower. 

2 . Pt A R M I c A vulgaris f flore ///- 
«f. C!uf, Hift. Common Sneezwort^ 
with a double Flower^ by fome call- 
ed Double Pellitory. 

3 . Pt A R M X OA foliis profundis fer- 
rails, late *viridibus, elatior. -H, L, 
Taller Sneezwort, with broad green 
Leaves deeply ferrated. 

4. Ptarmica AlpinOy htcanis fer^ 
ratis foliis, H, L, Alpine Sneezwort, 
with hoary ferrated Leaves. 

5. Ptarmica incana, pinnuli^cri- 
Jlatfs, T. Cor, Hoary Sneezwort, 
with crefted Leaves. 

6. Ptarmica incana humilis^ fo^ 
his laciniatiiy abfimtbii ^emulis, H. L, 
Dwarfhoary Sneezwort, with jagged 
Leaves, refembling Wormwood. 

7. Ptarmica Jlpina, foliis an- 
gvfiis, partim ferratis^ partim inte- 
gris. Socc, Muf, Alpine Sneezwort, 
with narrow Leaves, Part of which 
are (awed on their Edges, and the 
Other Part are whole. 

8. Ptarmica Cretica frutefcens, 
fanfolina facie. Inft, R. H. Shrubby 
Sneezwort of Crete, with the Ap- 
pearance of Lavender-cotton. 

9. Ptarmica Oriiutalis, foliis 

P T 

crijfatis, Tonrn. Cor. Eaftem Sneez- 
wort, with crefted I^eaves. 

10. Pt A R m I c A Orientalis, foliis 
criflatii longioribus, Csf cafitulis am* 

joribus. Tourn, Cor. Eaftern Sneez* 
wort,'' with longer crefted Leaves, 
and larger Hea£. 

1 1. Ptarmica Orient alts, fauto- 
Una folio, flore majore. Tourn, Cor, 
Eallern Sneezwort, with a Laven- 
der-cotton-leaf^ and a larger Flow- 

12. Ptarmica Orient alis, fanta^ 
Una foUo, flore minore. Tourn. Car, 
Eaflem Sneezwort, with a Lavender- 
cotton*leaf, and a fmaller Flower. 

13.PTARMXCA Orient alis, foliis 
tanaceti incanis, flore aureo. Tourn, 
Cor. Eaftem Sneezwort, with hoaiy 
Tanfey-leaves, and a golden Flow- 
er. $ 

14. Ptarmica Orientalis, foUis 
tanaceti incanis, femiflofculis flomm 
pallide luteis, Tourn, Cor, Eaftem 
Sneezwort, with hoary Tanfey- 
leaves, whofe Half florets are of a 
pale-ydlow Colour. 

15. Ptarmica Orient aUs, foliis 
tanaceti incanis, femiflofculis fU rm m 
brevioribus, Tourn. Cor. Eaftem 
Sneezwort, with hoary Tanfey* 
leaves, whofe Half florets are very 

16. Ptarmica Orientalis^ fant^- 
Una folio, radice rrpente. Eaftem 
Sneezwort, with a Lavender-cotton- 
leaf, and a creeping Root. 

17. Ptarmica Orientalis, tana- 
ceti folio ^ facie fflyre minimo. Tourn, 
Cor. Eaftern Sneezwort, with the 
Leaf and Face of Tan fey, and the 
leaft Flower. 

18. Ptarmica Orientalis incana^ 
foliis pennatis, femiflofculis floruen nfix 

confpicuis. Tourn. Cor. Hoary Eailefn 
Sneezwort, with winged Leaves, and 
the Half- florets fcarcely difcernible. 

19. Ptarmica Orients Us, foliis 
argent tis conjugatis. Tourn, Cor. Eaft- 

P T P T 

cm Socezwort, with fihrer conja- ferM to fpraid, die Sttlks Cbme up 

ptsd Leaves. thin and ftraggUng ; and the greateft 

AU. thefe Sorts of Ptarmica are ' Beanty of it is, to fee itgrowclofe 

liaid/ enough to endure the Cold in large Tufts: for which Reafon 

ofour ordinary Winters in the open many Perfons choofe to plant it in 

Air, provided they are planted in a Pots fiird with light fan^ £arth ; 

dry leafiSoil; for when they are in which, if they are dnlrwaterM in 

in a moift rich Soil, chey grow very dry Weather, diey will thrive ex- 

luxoriant in the Sommer, and are ceedingly, and make a ray hand- 

fiHed with Juice ; which renders them fome Appearance. It is alfo very 

lefs capable to refill the Cold, than proper to plant on fach Borders as 

when they are more ftinted and are gravelly and poor (on which few 

woody ; and they make a much bet- other things will thrive), where the 

ter Appearance, when they grow Roots of this Plant will be confinM^ 

fTowly, than if they were greatly en- more than if planted in a better Soil* 

cooraged in their Growth ; becaufe and they ^ill flower very well, 
tkey appear more hoary,and produce The third and fourth Sorts are 

a greater Number of Flowers. fddom prefcrv'd in Flower-gardens, 

The fxrft of thefe Plants is very being Plants of little Beauty : thefe 

common upon Heaths, and in fhady may be propagated by parting their 

Places, in divers Parts of England i Roots, either in Spring or Autumn^ 

hot is rarely cultivated in Gardens, and will grow upon almoft any Soil, 

This is the Sort direfled for raedici- or in any Situauon. 
Btl Ufe in the College Difpenfa- The fifth Sort was brought from 

tory. the Levant byMonf. Tounufort ;^ut 

The fecond Sort is a Variety of was known long before. Many of 

the firft, which was accidentally ob- the old Botanifts were of Opinion, 

uin'd : the Flowers of this Kind are that the Seeds of this Plant were the 

very double, and generally produced Simtn Santonicum of the Shops ^ but 

in large Bunches ; which, together it is now generally believ*d to be the 

with its long Continuance in Flow- Seeds of fome other Plant of this 

er, renders it worthy of a Place in Kind : but however, this Plant de- 

evcry good Garden. This Sort pro- ferves a Place in every good Garden, 

plates itfelf very faft by its Roots, for the Variety of its filver-cOlonr^d 

which fprcad very far under-ground; Leaves, together with its long Con- 

fo that it fhould not be planted too tinoance in Flower, 
near other Plants, left it over«run It may be propagated by planting 

and deflroy them. Cuttings during any of the Summer- 

The bed time to tranfplant thefe months, upon a Bed of lieht Eartha 

Roots is in Autumn,, that they may obferving to water and made them 

take Root before Winter : fo that until they have taken Root : after 

theywill be in noDangerof fuffering which they will require no farther 

from Drought the Spring following; Care, but only to clear them from 

and will be capable of producing Weeds, until SetNmber following^ 

ilronger Stalks, and a greater Quan- when t^ey flionla be carefully taken 

tity of Flowers. up, preferving a Ball of Earth to 

This Plant always makes the beft theRoots of each Plant, and planted 

Appearance when its Roots are con- in a warm dry Situation : and if it 

fi^'ds becaufe, when they are fuf* be on a poor gravelly or rubbifhing 


P T P T 

Son ,they will endare the CoM better, and tbe otiien not half fo high ; fo 

ahd make much more beautiful that they (hoold not be mix^ with 

Plants: this Sort feldom perfeds larger Plants, becaufe thofe would 

Seeds in England. overbear and deftroy them. When 

The other Sorts are all (except the thefe Plants are well rooted, thev re- 
fixteenth) propagated by Cuttings quire no other Culture, but to Keep 
in the Summer - months ; which tnem clear from Weeds ; for their 
ibould be planted in a ihady Border Roots will abide many Years, pro- 
of frefli Earth, and mud be conftant*. vided they are not defiroyed by wzry 
\y watered, until they have taken fevere Frofb, which feldom happen 
Root; after which time they will re- in Englami, 
quire no farther Care but to keep PT£L£A, Cardina Shrub-tre- 
diem clear from Weeds, until M- foil. 
thailma^^ when they (hould be care- The CharaStrs are ; 
fully taken up, and tranfplanted ^hi Empalimemt of tbi Flowgr it 
where they are defignM to remain ; one Leaf, cut into four aeuit Segmttai: 
which mnil be done fo early in the the Flower is compo/edoffour Petals, 
Autumn, that they may have time mubicb ffread if en : in tbe Cen^ 
to get good Roots before the Froft tre is placed tbe Pointal, nvbicb isjbti 
comes on, otherwife they will be in and roifud^ and is attended hy four 
Danger of fuffering. The fixteenth Stamina, eacb crown" d witb roundijh 
Sort propagates greatly by its creep- Summits : tbe Pointal afterward 
ing Roots, therefore requires to be cbanges to a roundifi mtmhranactout 
confined ; otherwife it will fpread, FrwV, like tbatoftbe Elm^ in which 
and intermix with whatever Plants is contained one taper Seed, 
grow near it. This is alfo a very We have but one Species of this 
hardy Plant ; but being of humble Genus ; wk. 
Growth, makes no very good Figure Ptble a . Hort. CRff. Caroiemet 
ja a Garden i fo is feldom preferv'd. Shrub- trefoil, 
but by thofe Perfons who are curl- ' This Shrub was firft taken notice 
ous in Botany, for the fake of Va- of by Mr. Banifier^ who found it 
riety. growing in Virginia^ and mentions it 

Although thefe Plants do not pro- in his Catalogue of Plants, by the 

duce very beautiful Flowers, yet Name of FrutexFirginianus trifolius, 

they may be difpofed in large Gar- tdmi famarris. It hath fince been 

dens, (b as to make a very agreeable found in plenty on the upper Part of 

Diverfity; for their hoary Leaves ^^San>annab River, in Carolina^ 

of different Shapes, when intermixed where the Shrubs grow to theHeight 

with other hardy Plants of the fame of twelve or fourteen Feet la* 

Growth, on fmall Hillocks, will England there are many of thefe- 

have a pretty Effed ; and as they Shrubs, which are upward of ten 

retain their Leaves all the Winter, Feet high, and produce plenty of 

at that Seafon they add to the Varie- Flowers tstry Year. The Flowers 

ty : and in Summer, when their arewhite, and grow in large Bunches 

Flowers are produced, they alter the at the Ends of the Shoots ; thefe are 
PioQpeft fo as to be vtty agreeable. ^ fncceeded by the membranaceous 

Tjiey are all of them low Plants ; Seeds, which fall away, and never 

the talleft and moft (hrubby of them ripen here, There yrere fome pret- 

feldom rifes above two Feet high, ty large Shrubs of this Kind in lome 


P T 

canons GaideiUy which weredefboj' 
cd inthc fevere Winter in 1 74Q-50.1 
bm tkey arc fo hardy, as to renft the 
Cold of oar ordinary Winters very 
wdl in the open Air. 

Thefe Shrubs may be propagated 
hf CutdngSy which fhonld he planted 
in Pou of freih rich Earth, and 
ploog*d into a moderate Hot-bed. 
The beft time for planting them is 
m the Beginning of March ; bat tliey 
mnft be carefully manag'd, fo as not 
to have too much Heat» and (haded 
iiom the Sun in the Middle of the 
Day,odierwife they will not focceed. 
They may alfo be propagated by 
Layers; bat thefe (hoald be duly 
witer'd» otherwife they will not take 
Root : bat if good Seeds can be pro- 
car*d from abroad, the Plants raifed 
from thofe will be much ftronger, 
thanthofe which are propagated by 
eidier of the former Methods. 

Thefe Seeds may be fown the Be- 
mning of jffri/, on a Bed of light 
lartb, in a warmfhelterM Situation; 
where, if the Ground is moiften'd in 
4ryWcather,thc Plants will come up 
in five or fixWeeks : bat if the Seeds 
are (own inPots,and placed on a veyf 
asoderate Hot-bed, the Plants will 
come op fooner, and make greater 
Pmrefs the firft Year : but they 
anfnot beibrc*d or drawn, for that 
will make them very tender ; there- 
finrein y$m0 tht Plants ihould be ex- 
pos'd to the open Air, in a Ihelter*d 
Sitaation, where they may remain 
till the Proft comes on ; when thofe 
in the Pots ihould be either placed 
vnder a common Frame, to fhelter 
then from fevere Froll ; or the Pots 
plang*d into the Ground, near an 
Hedge, that the Froft may be pre- 
vented from penetrating through the 
Sidet of the Pou to the Roots of the 
PUnts. The following Spring the 
Plants may be planted into a Nur- 

p u 

fery-bed, at aboat one Foot Di« 
fiance, where they may grow two 
Years ; by which time they will be 
fit to tranfplant where they are de- 
figned to remain. 

FULEGIUM, Penyroyal, or Pud- 
den -graft. 

The CharaSwrs are ; 

h batl^ labiatid flower ^ f^nfijt* 
ffg ^fwt Ltaff 'wbofe mfper Lip .^(^ 
Crefi) is intirg ; but tht la^wer Lif 
(or Biord) is £nfidid imit tbrtf 
Parts : out of tbt Flowtr-ctif rifis 
tbi Pointai^ attended by four Em- 
bryoes^ nobicb aftertvard become fe 
manj Seeds : to ^bicb may be added^ 
That the FUnjotrs grerw in Jbort thick 

The Species ^re I 

1. PuLEGiuu latifolium. C. S. 
P. Common, or Broad-leav'd Pc- 

2. Pu LEG I u uHfpanicwm ereSwi^ 
ftaminibus Jioram ixtantibns. Up- 
right Sfanijh Penyroyal, whofe Sta* 
mina ftand out from the Flowers. 

3. PvLECivM angmftijoiium. C« 
B. P. Narrow - leav*d Penyroy- 

4. ?VLUoiVH ofigm/lifolimmf /or0 
aJbo. H. R. Pirn. Nam>w-leavM 
Penyroyal, with a white Flower. 

The firft of thefe Plants is very 
conmion on moift Heaths in dtveip 
Parts oiSngiand: this it the Sort re- 
commended by the Phyficians for 
medicinal Ufe. Bat the fecood S6ft« 
although not a Native of Englond^ 
hath fo much obtained in the Gar* 
dens where medicinal Plants are cul^ 
tivated, as to have quite faperfeded 
the other in the Markets, for its up- 
right Growth, early Flowering, and 
rao.e beautifiil Appearance : bat 
whether it is equally good for Ufe, I 
ihall leave to thofe to whofeProvince 
it more immediately belongs to ej^ 


P U P u 

The tUrd Sort ^is alfo recom- of Jerufukm^ and Jtrufaltm Cowf- 
inended to be ufed in Medicine : this lip. 

iangt of £flr^/^ Growths butisve- 2. Pulmonaria major ^nw mu^- 
ly hardy^ anid will thrive very well, cultfa, J, B. Greater Lungwort, 
if planted on a moift Soil ; as will without Spote. 
alu> the fourth Sort, which is only 3. FvLtAovhUiA/oIiisecifii, LA. 
a Variety of the third, from which /r. Lungwort with Leaves like Vi- 
3t diflFers in nothing bat the Colour pers Buglofs. 
of its Flowers. * 4. Pulmonaria maxima^ fohU 

All thefe Plants propagate them- quafifaccharo incrufiatis. Pluk, ?byt. 
felves very faft by their Branches Greateft Lungwort, with Leaves ve- 
trailing upon the Ground, which ry much fpotted. 
emit Roots at Vi^ Joint, and fallen 5. Pulmonaria nmlgari^ latifi^ 
themielves into the Earth, and fend lia^ fion alb; Infi. R. H, Com- 
forth newBranches ; fo that no inore mon broad-leav'd Lungwort, with a 
isrequired in theirCulture,thanto cut white Flower, 
offanyofthefe rooted Branches, and 6. Pulmonaria JJpinm, fiUu 
plant them out in freih Beds ; allow- m^llihusfuhrotuM^s^JUre ceermUo. Injt. 
ing them at leaft a Foot from Plant R^ H. Alpitu Lungwort, with foft 
to Plant every Way, that they may roundiih Leaves,and a blue Flower, 
have room to grow* 7. Pvj^monaria anguftifiUa^ c^r* 

The beft time for this Work is in ruUo fion, J. B. Narrow-leav'd 
SipUmbiTf that the Plants may be Lungwort, with a blue Plower. 
rooted before Winter s for if the old ^. Pulmonaria AlpUa^ mtgufi^ 
Roots are permitted to remain fo fi^Oy Italica. Bocc. Muf, Nanow- 
dofe together, as they generally grow leav*d Alpini Lungwort, 
in theCompafs of a Year, they are 9. Tv luoka9.i a mith, /rag^n^^f 
fabjed to rot in Winter : befides, the «^r/. Bocc Muf, Mild Lungwort 
young Plants will be much ftronger, finelling like Strawberries, 
and produce a larger Crop the fuc- ^ lo. Pulmonaria Cretua tmmm^ 
ceeding Summer, than if they were calya vefiearie, Jnfi. R. H, An- 
removed in the Spring : thefe Plants nual Lungwort of Candy, with a 
all love a moift ftrong Soil, in which bladdered Flower-cup. 
they will floori(h exceedingly. 1 1. Pulmonaria nnridt, fiAr9» 

PULMONARIA, Lungwort. /m^, non $iuiculatcfoli9, B^cc. MmA 

The CbaraSin are ; Green Lungwort, with a roundifli 

i^fh$ Flower <onfiJls rf one Leaf^ unfpotted Leaf. 
^hich is Jhaped like a Funnel, fwbofo 1 2. Pulmonaria Cbia^ echiifi^ 
vfper Fart is cut into federal ^eg' Uo nnmuofa^ c^lyce 'oeficario, Jiort 
ptents : from thefiftubns Flonner-cup, alho. Tourn. Cor, Lungwort of the 
luhich is^or the tnoft part, pentagonal, liland of ^cio^ with a warted Vipers* 
rifes the Pointal, encompajfed by four buglols-Ieaf, a bladdered Flower* 
Emhryoes, •which afterguard become fo cup, and a white Flower. 
many Seeds inclofed in the Flower' 13. Pulmonaria LrJbia,echisfo' 
cup, lio <verrucQfo^ calyte vejicario^ Jiore 

T!%% Sff^ies MTC } ceeruleo. ^ourn. Cor, Lungwort of 

1. PuLMOMARiA ^vulgaris, macw Lejboj, with a warted Viper- buglofs- 
h/o folio, Cluf liijl. Common fpot- leaf, a bladdered Flower-cup, and a 
ted Lungwort, by fome callM Sage blue Flower. 

14. PUL- 

P u 

1 4. PO LMOH ARIA OrinttAUs^ CM^ 

(jfct vfficarhffiiiis echiifjiorefmr^- 
rf§ uifwfuRhtdiformi, Tomm. Gpt. 
-EiHern Lungwort, with a bladdcred 
Flower-cnpy a Vipers-baglofs-kaf, 
asd a parple funnel (hapM Flower. 

15. PVLUONARIA On>ff/«/Vy r«- 
ifCi vijicaria, foliit ubiit JUrw slho 

iMfiudHmUfirmi, Totim. Cor. Eaft- 
cm Lungwort, with a bladdered 
Eower-cap, a Vipen-buglofs-leaf, 
and a white fanneMhap*d Flow- 

16. FULMONARIA tafyci iub9 C0* 

nlU hrenji$re^ferianthitsqtu»quepar-- 
titis. Fkr, Firg. • American Lung- 
ivoit, with a ihort Flower - cup, 
which is cut into fiveSegments, call- 
ed in America^ Mountain Cow flip. 

Tlie firft Sort is ufed in Medicine 
ai a vuhierary Herb, but is by many 
People prefervM in Gardens ; as are 
alfodie three other Sorts fbr the Va- 
riety of their fpotted Leaves, and 
pretty Bandies xof blue Flowers. 

The firft, fecond, third, fourth, 
fifth, fixth, feventh, eighth, and 
ninth Sorts are abiding Plants, which 
ntybe propagated by parting of 
their Roots. The beft time for doing 
of this is in Autumn, that they may 
be rooted before the Froft comes on. 
They ibould have a (hady Situation, 
and a fireih nodung'd Soil ; in which 
they will thrive better than on a 
rich Soil. 

Thefc Plants may be cultivated 
by parting of their Roots ; which 
nay be done either in the Spring or 
Aotnmn ; but if the Ground be 
noift, into which they are planted, 
it is better to be done in the Spring ; 
otberwife the Autumn is the moft 
preferable Seafon, that the Plants 
Slay be well rooted before the dry 
Weather comes on in the Sp*ing, 
vhich will caufe them to flower 
nuch ftronger. 

p u 

The Soil in which they are platt- 
ed (hould not b6jckh 1 but rather a 
freih light fiindy w'ouod, in whick 
they will thrive much better than 
in a richer Soil, in which thcjr 
are very fubjedl to rot in Winter. 

The fourth Sort makes the bcilAp- 
peanmceof all the Kiad8,and is very 
hardy ; will grow either ia Sua or 
Shade ; and, uking up little rooaa, 
is worthy of a Place in every good 
Garden for the fake of Variety* 

The fixteenth Sort is a Native of 
Avurica^ and is found in moil Parts 
of North America, The Seeds of 
' this Plant were formerly feat over 
from Virgima^ by Mr. Batifttr: 
thefe were fown ia the Garden of 
the Biihop t^^ London^ 2X¥ulbam^ and 
in thofe of fomc^ other curious Per- 
fons, where the Plants were fevetal 
Years preferv*d ; but when the PoTr 
feflbrs of thofe Gardens died, the 
Plants being negledted were loft; lb 
that for feveral Years this Sort ws 
not in England, 

The Leaves of th^s Plant aie 
fmooth and intire; the Flowers are 
produced in a loofe hanging Paniclew 
on the Top of the Stalks : theie hate 
long Tabes, ftrttched out beyond 
theEmpalement; and, being of a fine 
blue Colour, they make a pretty Ap- 
pearance. The time of this Pianfa 
flowering in England is xn May; aad 
if the Plants are in a ihady Sitiaa* 
tion, the Flowers will continue a 
Month in Beauty. 

The Roots of this Plant are pereiv 
nial, being compofed of many chick 
flefiiy Tubers, fomewhat re/embliag 
thofe of Comfrey. The Leaves de- 
cay every Autumn, and new ones 
oome out early ia the Spring. The 
Flower - ftems ufually grow aboac 
one Foot and an half high 1 and the 
Fiowers hang down much after the 
fame manner as thofe of oar cooa* 

P U T^U 

jBon rpotted Lungwort i bat thefe iffo^$firflfem§Jifart,Kvst6Chivtst 

are v.ery rarely iuccfceded by Seeds which a/terward hecomes a Frmt^ in 

in this Cottntry, which occafions the 'wbicb tin Seeds art gaiber^df as it 

prefenjt Scarcity of the Plaatt in 9uer$^ int§ a little Head^ eacb en£ng 

Englemd ; for they do not propagate in afmallHairt tavbicb mmfi he add- 

fail by the Root. ed^ > S$me little Leaves encomfaffing 

This Pbmt ihoald be pUnted in a tbe Pe£cle below tbe Flower, as in 

ihady Situation^ bat not under the tbeAntsnone \ from wbicb tbeFaffu* 

Dropping of Treet ; and in dry Wea- Jlower differ s^ im tbe Seed ending in 

ther it will require to be frequently et Tail. ' 

watered^ otherwife k cannot be pre- The Species nit ; 

ierved in this Country. In the t. ?vL9 at ilj. a Jblioers^ffiorefbt 

Winter»if the Froftfhould prove fe- majore flore. C. B, P. Pafquc- 

vere, it will be proper to lay fome flower with thicker Leaves^ and a 

light Covering over the Roots, to larger Flower, 

prevent the Froft from penetrating 2. ?u lsktivl a Jloreviolaceodn- 

deep into theGround» which will be fUcifmbriato. H. R. Par. Pafque- 

a fure Method to preferve them. flower with a double fringed vi- 

The other Sorts are annual, and olet-colour*d Flower, 

propagated by Seeds only. The bed 3. Pulsatilla Jlore minoreni' 

time to fow thefe is in Autumn, foon gricante. C, B. P. ' P^fque-flower 

after they are ripe ; for the Plants with a fmaller darker Flower, 

will reiift the Cold of our Winters 4. ?v lsatill a Jlore mbrooiin- 

very well ; fo will flower early the /o. C. B. P. Red Pafque-flower. 

following Summer, and good Seeds 5. PuuATiLLA^/-/a/&9. C. B. 

may be obuined ; whereas thofe P . White Pafque-flower. 

which are fown in the Spring, fome- 6. Pulsatilla latea, apii hortat- 

dmes mifcairy. Thefe Seeds (hould fisfilioCC. B. P. Yellow Pafque- 

be fown where they are defignM to flower, with a Leaf of Garden-par* 

remain ; for the Plants do not fuc- fley. 

c^ed very well, when they are tranf- 7. Pulsatilla lutea Alpina hi- 
planted. When the Plants come up, ffidior, C, B. P. Yellow hairy 
they require no other Culture, but Pafque-flower of the Alps, 
to keep them dear from Weeds ; and 8. PuLSATiLLAyp/rtf tennims inci- 
where they are too dofe, to thin /o> (Sf Jlore minore^Jive paluftris. C 
them. If thefe Plants are permitted B. P. Marfli Pafque-flower, with 
Co fcatter thdr Seeds, the Plants will fipe-cut Leaves, and a fmaller Flow- 
come up, and be better than when er. 

they are fown. All thefe Plants are 9. Pulsatilla foUotemtisu inci- 
prcfervM by the Curious in Botany ; fi//eu palujiris^fiore dilutiore. H. R. 
but they have no great Beauty ; fo Par. Mai Hi Pafque-flower, with a 
are not often kept in other Gar- fine-cut Leaf, and a paler Flow- 
dens, er^ 

PULSATILLA, Pafque-flower. 10. Pulsatilla cpii folio, nter- 

Tht C/mradfrs zre ; nalis, for e majore. C' B. P. Spring 

Tbe Flonver cot/fjfs of fever a I Paf^ae flower, wirh a SmaJlagc- 

Leaves, fwbicb are placed in a circu* leaf, and a larger Mower. 

lar Order, and expand in firm of a 11. Pulsatilla epii folio, vtr' 

Riffe ; out of wbicb rifcs a Poiuttd^ nslis,fore ffiincrg, C. 2?. P. Spring 

6 Paiquc- 

ra4ue-8bwtf, with a SmaUage-leafy 
ud a fmaller Fiower. 

12. Pulsatilla apii folir^ au' 
UnuaHi. C, 3. P. Smallage- 
ieav^d Pafque - flower of the Aa- 

13. Pulsatilla filia ^emonts 
ft€mnd^^fi'Ve/khr0tMnJo. C. B, P, 

Pafqae- flower with a roandifll Flow- 

14. Pulsatilla Pynntdcityflon 
lalhJuplici. H. R. Par. Pafque- 
lo«rcr of thii Pjrnuer, with a double 
white flower, 

15. Pulsatilla /ufeA, pafihiac^ 
ffhitfiris foiio, C. B. P. Yellow 
Pafqize-flowery with a wild Parfnep- 

t6. Pulsatilla Ongnta/is^ tenu- 

iffime di*vi/d (ff *viilofa^ flort rubro. 
TVilnr. Or. Eaflern Pafque-flower, 
with jiD hairy finely divided Leaf, 
and a red Flower. 

17. Pulsatilla .<^iV««4, ikul- 
9ijid» /lore^ mfii filio rigidQ. Rati 
Si^. AfricoH Pafque-flower, with 
a raukifid Flower^ and a ftifFSmal- 

The firft of tfaefe Plants is common 
in diven Parts of England : it grows 
10 great Pknty on Gogmagog Hl/li 
«Q the Left-hand of the Highway 
leading from Cambridgf to Hd'Verii, 
joft on the Top of thfc Hill ; alfo 
Bboutffri^^Sr7>^tfM,fix Miles fromCam^ 
iru^ei and oh Btmmck Htatb not 
&r from Stamfird 1 and on S^uthrop 
Comrnvh adjoining thereto ; alfo on 
aoancainotts and dry Failures jufl 
hy Ltadfiotti HaU near PontefraS in 
Ttrk/bire, It flowers about the End 
of Mafxh, or the Beginning of 

The other Sorts are lefs common 
in England^ being all of them Na- 
tives of oth^r Countries, and are on- 
ly to be met within fome curious 
Garden^ in Emgland, where they arc 

Vol. III. 

P u 

cultivated for the Beauty of their 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by Seed, which (hould be fown in 
Boxes or Pots fiiPd with very light 
fandy Earth % obferving not to cover 
the Seeds too deep with Mould, 
which will prevent their rifing ; for 
they require no more than jufl to be 
QOver'd. Thefe Boxes fhould be 
placed where they may have the 
morning Sun until Ten of the Clock; 
but mult be fcreenM from it in. the 
Heat of the Day : and if the Seafon 
proves dry, the Earth (hOuld be 
often refrefticd with Water. The 
bed time for fowing of thefe Seeds if 
in yttfyf foon after they are ripe; 
for if they are kept till Spring, they 
feidom grow. 

Thefe Boxes or Pots, in which the 
Seeds are fown, fhoald remain in 
this (hady Situation until the Begin- 
ning of 0^«^^, whlsn they fhoald 
be removed where they may enjoy 
the full Sun during the Winter-fea- 
fon : about the Beginning of March 
the Plants will begin to appear^ at 
which time theBoxes (hould be again 
remov*d where they may have only 
the forenoon Sun ; for i^ they are 
too much expofed to the Heat, the 
young Plants will die away. They 
fhould alfo be refrelhed with Water 
in dry Weather, which will greatly 
promote their Growth ; and they 
muft be caitfully preferved from 
Weeds^ which, if fu^r'd to grow 
amongd them, will in a fhort time 
deilroy them. 

When the Leaves of this Plant are 
intirely decay*d (which is commonly 
in Ja(iy)t you (hould then take up all 
the Roots, which^ being nearly of 
the Colour of the Ground, will he 
difficult to find while fmall ; there- 
fore you ihould paf» the Earth 
through a fine Wire-fieve, which is 
4 C 'the 

P u 

the beft Method to feparate the 
Roots from the Earth (but notwich- 
Handing all poflible Care taken, yet 
there will be many fmall Roots left ; 
fo that the Earth {hould either be 
put into the Boxes agan, or fpread 
upon a Bed of light Earth to fee 
what Plants will arife ouc of it the 
fucceeding Year) : the Roots, being 
taken up, fliould be immediately 
planted again on Beds of freih light 
fandy Earth, about three 0t four 
Inches afunder, covering them about 
three Indies thick with the fame 
light Earth. The Spring following, 
mod of thefe Plants will produce 
Flowers ; but they will not be fo 
large and hit as in the fucceeding 
Years, when the Roots are larger. 

The Roots of thefe Plants gene- 
nlly run down deep in the Ground, 
and are of a flefhy Subftance, fome- 
what like Carrots : {o will not bear 
to be kept long out of the Ground ; 
therefore when they are removed, 
it ihould be done in Autumn, that 
they may uke frelh Root before the 
Froft comes on ; for if they are 
tranfplanted in the Spring, they will 
not produce ftrong Flowers : thefe 
Plaats thrive beft in a loamy Soil s 
for in very light dry Ground, they 
are very apt to decay in Summer. 

The laft Sort is tender ; therefore 
will not live ihro* the Winter in 
Englan^t anlefs it is (heltered from 
the Cold : wherefore thefe Plants 
muft be planted in Pots, and in the 
Winter placed under a Frame, where 
they may be covered in bad Wea- 
ther ; but they ihould have as much 
free Air as poflible in mild Weather : 
they will ^ do better under one of 
thefe Frames^ than when they are 
placed in the Green houfe, becaufe 
there the Plants draw up weak ; fo 
do not produce their Flowers fo 
|farong» nox in fo great Plenty, as 

p u 

when they have a greater Share of 

This Sort is propagated by Seeds, 
which (hould be lown in Pocs of 
frefh Earth, foon after they are ripe, 
and placed in a fliady Situation till 
Autumn ; when they fhould be re- 
moved where they may enjoy the 
Sun : and when the Nights begin to 
be frofly, the Pots muft be placed 
under a Frame with the old Plants ; 
in the Spring the Plants will appear & 
and after they have obtainedStrengtfay 
they may be tranfplanted each into 
a feparate Pot, and treated in the 
fame manner as the old Plants. 

PUMPION. VidiVt^. 

PUNICA, The Pomgranate* 

The CbaraBin are; 
The FUfWir cwfifis •fmtuj Ltamts^ 
placed in a circular Order ^ which tx* 
fond in film •/ a R^fe^ nvbo/e hgii* 
Jbaped muliifid Flower-cup aftem/mrd 
becomes a globular Fruity having a 
tbick^ fmootb^ briiile Rind; and is di* 
njidedinto federal Cells ^tvbicb conieum 
oblong bard Seeds^/urromided *udtb a 
fofi Fulp. 

The Species are ; 

1. PuNiCA, qnso malum grearnhnm 
firt. Cafalp. The common Pom* 


2. FvmcA /ruau dulci. Tmtrm. 
The fweet Pomgranate. 

3. ?vv\Q^/yheftrii. Cord.Hift. 
The wild Pomgranate. 

4. Punic A Jlore pleno majorg. 
Touru. The douUe-flowcr'd Pom- 

5. PuNiCA Jmericana nana^ fm 
bumillima^ Toum, The American 
dwarf Pomgranate. 

The firft of thefe Trees is now 
pretty common in the EngUJb Gar-, 
dens, where formerly it was nurfed 
up in Cafes, and preserved in Green- 
houfes with great Care (as was aKo 


'tikeJoablf doweringKind); but they 
are both hardy enough to refill the 
ferereft Cold of our Climate in 
the open Air ; and if planted againft 
warm Walls, in 'a good Situation, 
the firft Sort will often produceFruit, 
wbich, in warm Seafons, will ripen 
tolerably well : but as thefe Fruits 
do not ripen till late in the Autumn> 
they are feldom well tailed in Eng- 
UtJ; for which Reafon the Sort 
with double Flowers is commonly 
preferred to it. The Sort with fwcct 
f ruit» as alfo the wild Sort, are lefs 
common in xheEngli/S^ Gardens than 
the former two. 

Thefe Plants may be eafily propa- 
gated by laying down their Branches 
in the Spring, which in oiie Year*s 
time will take good Root, and may 
then be ttanfplanted where they are 
defigQ*d to remain. The bed Sea- 
fonfor tranfplanting of thefe Trees 
is in Spring,' jufl before they begin 
to (hoot : they fliould have a flrong 
rich Soil, in whicl^ they flower mucn 
better, and produce more Fruit, 
than if planted on a dry poor Earth : 
bat in order to obtain thefe in plen- 
ty, there fhould be care taken in the 
Praning of the Trees ; for want of 
which, "we often fee thefe Trees ve- 
ry foil of fmall Shoots ; bat do not 
find many Flowers prodoced upon 
them : therefore I (hall fet down 
Diredions for pruning of thefeTrees, 
fo as to obtain a great Quantity of 
Flowers and Fruit. 

The Flowers of this Tree always 
proceed from the Extremity of the 
Branches which were produced the 
fame Year: this therefore direcJl*, 
That all weakBranchcs of the former 
Year ihould be cut out; and that the 
ftronger (hould be (hortened in pro- 
portion to their Strength, in Order 
to obtain new Shoots in every Part 
•f tlie Tree : thefe Brinches rcay be * 

P u 

laid in againfl the Wall, aboat four 
or five Inches afunder ; for, as their 
Leaves are fmall, there is not a Ne* 
ceifity of allowing them a greater 
Diflance. The beft time for this about Michaelmas^ or a lit« 
tie later,, according to the Mildnefs 
of the Seafon : but if they are left 
until Spring before they are prunM, 
they feldom put out their Shoots fo 
early ; and the earlier they comeoor^ 
the fooner the Flowers will appear, 
which is of great Confequence where 
Fruit is dcfired. In Summer they 
will reqnire no other Drefling, but 
to cut off very vigorous Shoots which 
grow from the Wall, and never pro- 
duce Flowers (for they are the mid- 
dling Shoots only which are fruit- 
ful) ; and when the Fruit is formed, 
the Branches on which they grov^, 
fhould be faftened to the Wall to 
fupport them ,* otherwife the Weight 
of the Frnit, when grown large, will 
be apt to break them down. 

Tho', as I faid before, the Fruit of 
this Tree feldom arrives to any Per- 
fe£lion in this Country, fo as to ren- 
der it valuable; yet, for the Beajty 
of its fcarlet-coloured Flowers, toge- 
ther with the Variety of its Fruit, 
there fhould be one Tree planted in 
tvtry good Garden, fince the Cul- 
ture is not great which they require: 
the chief Care is, to plant chem upon 
a rich (Irong Soil, and in a warn 
Situation. Upon fome Trees which 
had thefe Advantages, I have ob- 
tained a great Quantity of Fruit 
which have arrived to their full 
Magnitude ; but I cannot fay ihry 
were well flavpur'd ; however, they 
made a very handfome Appearance 
upon the Trees. 

The double -flowering Kind i^ 
much more cfleemed than the other 
in this Country, for the fake of its 
large fine doable Flowers, whi:h 

4 C 2 are 

P u 

are of a tnoft beautifdl fcarlet Co' 
loar; and, if the Trees are fupplied 
with Noarifliment, will continue to 
produce Flowers for near three 
Months fucceffively, which renders 
it onoof the moil valuable flowering 
Trees yet known. This mud be 
]prun*d and managed in the fame 
mantier as hath been already diredt- . 
cd for the fruit-bearing Kind : but 
this Sort may be rendered more 
produ£Hve of its beautiful J^lowers, 
by grafting it upon Stocks of the 
iingle Kind, which will check the 
Luxttriancy of the Trees, and caufe 
them to produce Flowers upon al- 
moft every Shoot : by which Me- 
thod I have had a low Tree, which 
was planted in the open Air, ex- 
tremely full of Flowers, which made 
a very fine Appearance. 

The dwarf Sort was brought into 
Eur^i from the warmefl Parts of 
Jmerica^ where the Inhabitants cul- 
tivate it in their Gardens for the 
Beaiity of its Flowers, together with 
its continuing to produce Flowers 
and Fruit moft Fart of the Year : 
this Sor% feldom grows above three 
Feet high. The Fruit of this Kind 
is rarely much larger than a Walnut, 
and not very pleafant to the Tafie ; 
fo that 'tis rather cultivated for 
Shew, than for the fake of its 

This Plant may be propagated by 
Layers in the fame manner as the 
former Sorts; but muft be planted 
in Pots filled with rich Earth, and 
preferved in a Green-houfe ; other- 
wife it is too tender to endure the 
Cold of our Winters ; and in the 
Summer, when the Flowers begin to 
appear, if the Plants are expofcd to 
the open Air, the Buds will fall off, 
and never open : fo that it fhould 
not be expoied to the open Air, but 
placed in an atry<Glafs-cafe, giving 
them a large Share of Air every 

P Y 

Day : but as they will be covered 
at Top, fo the Flowers will expand, 
and the Fruit will grow to the full 

I have heard of a Sortof Pomgra- 
nate with double-ftriped Flowers, 
and have fouod it mentioned in fome 
foreign Catalogues ; but have not 
feen thePlant growing; tho* I believe 
it may be eafily procured from //«- 

PURSLAIN. ^i/if Portulaca. 


PYROL A, Winter-green. 
The Cbaraffers are ; 

// hatb a rp/e-Jhaped Flt^wer^ ttm- 
fijling rffro9ral Leagues, nvJbich tori 
placid circularly ; out of nvbo/i Cup 
rifis tht Pointal, ending im a ProbO' 
fcis ; which afiirvjard inrns to a 
roundifif Fruity which ii chancWd^ gi' 
nerally umbellated^ and cmtfifittg of 
f<ve Cells t *which are commoufyfidlof 
fmall Seeds, 

The Species are ; 

1. Pyrola rotwieRfbiia major, 
C. B. P. Great round-leav'dWin- 
ter-green. . 

2. Pyrola rotunMfoUa mimr, C. 

B. P. Small round-leav'd Winter* 

3. P Y ^01. h foUomucr9nataferra' 
to. C. B, P. Winter-grecn, with 
a pointed Leaf, fawed on the Edg- 

4. Pyrola fnutefcens^mrhuti fo&o. 

C. B. P. ShrubbyWiotergreen,with 
an Arbutus- leaf. 

X The firft Sort grows wild in many 
Places in the North of England^ on 
moffy Moors, Hills, and Heaths, as 
alfo in fhady Woods ; fo that it is 
very difHcult to prcferve in Gar- 
dens, in the Southern Parts. 

The other three Sorts are Natives 
of the Hills in Germany, Italy^ and 
Hungary, Thefe are all of them "'ft- 
ry difficult to cultivate in Gardens : 


P Y P Y 

kr u thty grow on rery cold ^at tbe ixtremi Pmrt : thi Cells in 

HiUs, and in a moiTy moortih Soil, nfobicb thiSeidt art Udg^d^ urtfifa^ 

h when tbey are removed to a bet- rated by fift Mtmiranesy and tk§ 

ter Soil, and in a warmer Situation, Seeds are obUng. 
they feldom continoe long. The The Sfeeies are ; 

befttioe to tranfplant tliefe Plants i. 'Pykvs fativa, fruBm itfti^)% 

into Gardens, is aboat Michaelmas^ pamf racemefo •d$ratiffiiM, Tomm, 

proTided the Roou can then be Petit Mnfcat, i . e. Little Muik Pear, 

foond ; when they ihould be taken commonly called the Supreme. This 

pp with Balls of Earth to their Fruit is generally produced in large 

Roots, and planted in a ihady Sitoa- Clufters : it is rather round than 

iioD| and on a moift undunged Soil, long ; the Stalk (hort; and, when 

wiiere they ihoold be freqoently wa- ripe, the Skin is of a yellow Colour^ 

tped in dry Weather, otberwife they the Juice is fomewhat muiky, and, 

will not thrire. Someof thefe Plants if gathered before it is too ripe^ it 

nay be planted in Pots, which an excellent Pear. This ripens at 

iboald be filled with Earth as nearly the Beginning of July^ and will C0Q« 

fdembling that in which they natu- tinne good but for a few Days. 
nJly grow as pofliUe; and place s. Pyrus fati'ua^ fru8u afiva 

them in a (hady Situation, where if minmo od«reitiffimo, Toum. Poire 6m 

they are confiantly watered in dry Chio, i . /. The Cbio Pear, com- 

Wcathcr, they will thrive very monly called the Little Ballard Mufk 

weU. Pear. Thb is fmaller than the for* 

The Leaves of the firft Sort are mer,but is inShape pretty much like 

ftapcd like thofe of the Pear-tree, that : the Skin, when ripe, has a 

from whence the Name was given few Streaks of Red on the Side next 

to it : thefe Leaves are of a deep- the Sun ; and the Fruit feldom hangs 

green . Coloor, and continue mod in Clufters, as the former ; but in 

Part of the Year ; but there is no other refpe&s is nearly like it. 
mat Beauty in their Flowers ; tho* • 3. Ptrvs fotiva^ fruBu ajli'uo 

fer Variety they are admitted into par*vOy e nnridi albido, Toum. Poire 

many curious Gardens. Haciveao, f . e. The Hailing Pear t 

The firft Sort is ordered by the Poire Madeleine, ou Citron des Car- 
College of Phyficiaus to be ufed in mes : commonly called the Green 
Medicine, and is generally brought ChilTel. This is a larger Pear than 
orer from SwoHtcerland^ £unongft either of the former, and is produced 
•ther vnlnerary Plants ; amongft more toward the Pedicle : the Skia 
which Clafa this Plant it ranged $ is thin, and of a whiti(h*green Co^ 
and by fome hath been greatly com- lour when ripe ; the Fleft is meltf 
mended. ing, and, if not too ripe, of a fa* 

PYRUS, The Pear-tree. ^ gary Flavoor ; but is apt to be men- 
The CbaraSiere are ; ly • this ripens the Middle of July, 

The Flenver confifts of fe<ueral 4. Pyrus Jatwa^ fruBu afii^B 

Leai^es^ 'which are placed in a circu- partim/atttraSe ruhente^fartimjlanfe'' 

larOrder^ and expand in form of a fcenie. Toum, Mafcadelles Rouges, 
Rofe ; nvhofe flo-wer cap afterward i, e. The Red Mufcadeile. It is al- 
iecomes a fiefoy fruity nvhich is more fo called La BelliiTime, i, e. Thf 
produced toward the Foofftalis than Faireft or Supreme. This is a large 
the Apfhi hut is hollrw'dlike a Na- early Pear, of great Beauty : cheSkin 

4C3 h 

V Y 

tf of a fine yellow Colour, when ripe^ 
beautifully (Iriped with red; the 
Flefh is half melting, and has a rich 
Flavour, if gathered before it he 
too ripe ; but it is apt to be m^aly. 
This generally produces two Crops 
of Fruit in a Year : the firft is com- 
inonly ripe about the Middle of Jufy^ 
and the fecond ripens in September ; 
but this late Crop is feldom well- 

5. Pyrus /atiKfa^ fruSu aft mo 
farmo ftamefcenU mofcbato. Toum. 
Petit Mufcat, 1. e. The Little Muf- 
cat. This is a fmall Pear, rather 
round than long : the Skin is very 
thin, and when ripe, ofayellowiih 
Colour : the Fle(h is melting, and 
of a rich mu(ky Flavour ; but will 
not keep long when ripe. This 
comes the Middle of July. 

6. PvRus /ati^a, ^fruStu afti^uo 
chlong9 ferrugineOf carne ttnera «o- 
ffhata. iourn, CuifTe Madame, Lady's 
Thigh, in j^/r^/air^ commonly called 
Jargonelle. This is a very long Pear, 
of a pyramidal Shape, having a long 

. Footllalk : the Skin is pretty thick, 
of a rulTetgreen Colour from the 
Sun ; but toward the San it is* in- 
clined to an iron Colour ; the Fle/h 
is breaking, and has a rich muiky 
Flavour: ripe the Middle ofjuij. 
This is one of the beft early Sum-^ 
sner Pears' yet known, and is cer- 
tainly what all the French Gardeners 
call the Cuiffi Madame^ as may be 
cafily obferved by their Dcfcription 

• of this Pear : but I fuppofe, that the 
Titles of this and the Jargonelle 
were changed in coming to England \ 
and have been continued by the 
feme Names. 

y»^YKV9 fati'vay fi-uffu ohkng9^ 
# 'viridi fiayefcente. The Wind/or 
Pear. This is an oblong Fruit, 
which IS produced toward the 
Crown ; but near the Stajk is drawn 
loward a Point : the Skia is fmooth» 

p Y 

and, when ripe, of a yellowiAi-gree« 
Colour ; the Fleih is very foft ; and, 
if permitted to hang but two or three 
Days after it is ripe, it grows mea- 
ly, and is good for nothing. 

8. Pyrus fatwa^ fruQu 4tfii'09 
Mango, i qnridi alio. The Jargo- 
nelle, now commonly called Cuifie 
Madame. This is certainly what 
the French Gardeners call die Jar* 
gonelle ; which, as I before obferv- 
ed, b now, in Engiand, given to an- 
other Fruit, m^uch preferable to 
this; fo that the two Names are 
changed; for the Jargonelle if al- 
ways placed amongft thofe which 
the French call bad Fruit ; and the 
CuifTe Madame is fet dowi^ amoi^ft 
their beft Fruit 1 which is certainly 
the Reverfe with us, as' they are now 
named. This Pear is fomewhat like 
the Windfw ; hat is produced mare 
toward the Crown, and is fmaller 
toward the Stalk ; the Skin is fmooth, 
of a pale-green Colour : the Fleih is 
apt to be mealy, if it ftands to be 
ripe ; bat being a plentiful Bearer, 
is much propagated for the l^ndn 

9. Pyrus fathm^ fruBu aftho^ 
giohofo fiffiU nufchato, maculit nigrii 
eonjperfo, Tourn. Orange Mufquee, 
f. i. The Orange Mulk. Tbis is a 
middle-fix'd Pear« of a (hort gk)bo« 
lar Form : the Skin is of a yellowifh 
Colour, fpotted with black ; the 
Flefh is mufky ; but is very apt to 
be a little dry and choaky. It ripens 

I o. P y R u s fativa, fruBu afiiv^ 
alhldo majori. Tourn. Gros Blan- 
quet, /. e. Great Blanket. Tfiis is 
sdfo called La Mufiette d'Anjou, 1. /. 
The Bagpipe of Jnfen. This is a 
large Pear, approaching to a round 
Form : the Skin is fmooth, and of a 
pale-green Colour ; the Fleih is foft, 
and fuM of Juice, which hath a rich 
Flavour ; the i;talk i& Hiort, thick. 


P Y 

and fpotted ; the Wood is deader; 
and the Leaf is very nmch like that 
of the Tree called the jargonelle. 
Tiiis ripens the End of jljj. 

1 1. Pravs /ativa, fruSu aftiva 
slbido foccharatQ odoratiffimo. Toum, 
The Blanqnette^or Muik Blanquette i 
tk Little Blanquet Pear. This Pear is 
ffloch Icfs than the former, and more 
piochM in near the Stalk, which 
is aifo (bort, but flenderrr than that 
of the formers the Skin is foft^ and 
of a pale-green Colours thcFlefliit 
tender, and foil of a rich muikv 
Jttioe: the Wood of this Tree* is 
much ftronger than is that of the 
Conner, and the Shoots are com- 
mooly ihorcer. This ripens the End 

iz. Pyrus fatifua, fruSu mlhiik, 
ftMculo Itmgo de»at§. foum. Blan* 
qoette a longae qaeiie» /. /• Long- 
fblkM Blanquet Pear. This Pear is 
10 Shape fomewhat like the formers 
bat (he Eye is larger, and more hoi* 
low*d at the Cfown ; toward the 
Sodk it is (bmewhat plumper, and a 
little crooked: the Skin is very 
fmoodi, white, and fometimes to« 
ward the Sun is a little coloured : the 
Flelh is betWMn melting and break- 
ing, and is foil of a richfttgary Juice. 
This ripens the Beginning oiAugufi, 

13. Pyrvs faii'va^ fruBm neftvvo 
thUngi rufe/ceutt Jacchmrmt: Tntrw, 
Poire fans Peau, i . #. The Skinlefs 
Par. It is alfo called Floor de 
Gaigne, i. t. flower of Gmgne ; and 
by fome, RoofTeiet hatif , i. r. The 
Early Rttflelet. This is a middle- 
fized Fruit, of a long Shape, and a 
redifli Colour, fomewhat like the 
Roflolet: the Skin is extremely 
thin ; the Fle(h is melting, and full 
of a rich fngary juice s the Shoots 
are long and ftrait. Tbb ripens the 
End of July. 

14. Pravs /ativM^ fru8u ^fiin)9 
furUwatCf cams tenera faccharata. 

'P Y 

^ourm. Mufeat Robine, /. #. The 
Mafk Robine Pear. This is alfo 
caUed Poire k la Reine, f . #. The 
Qneen*s Pears Poire d'Ambre, L e. 
The Amber Pear; and Pucelle de 
Xaintosge, i. #. The Virgin of 
Xainingg^ Thb is a fmalliound 
Pear, of a yellowiih Colour when 
ripe s the Flefh is between melting 
and breaking s it has a rich muiky 
Fhvour, and is a great Bearer : it 
ripens the End of July. 

IJ. Pyavs fatwa^ fruffuafti<V9 
fwrhinai0 mt/cbmto, Le Bourdon 
Mofqne, 1. i. The Muik Drone 
Pear. This is a middle-fized round 
Fruit, whofe Skin is of a yellowifli 
Colour when ripe s the Flelh is melt- 
ing, and full of an high muiky 
Juice : but it muil not hang too long 
on the Tree, for it is fubjed to 
grow mealy in a ihort time. This 
ripens the End of July. 

1 6. Py au zfatvva^ aftiwofruSu gl9* 
^ofi/iffiUf i^iriM fKrpurafc9nt4 fac» 
eb^trmto od^rato, Ttfivnr.OrangeRouge, 
i.i. The- Red Orange Pear. This 
Pear hath been the moil common of 
all the Sorts in France^ which was 
opcafioned by the general Efteem it 
was in fome Years iinccThis is a mid- 
dle-fized round Fruit, of a greenifli 
Colour; but the Side next the Sun 
changes to a purple Colour when 
ripe s the Fleih is melting, and the 
Juice IS fugar^d, with a little Per- 
fume s the Eye is very hollow, and 
the Stalk is ihort. This ripens the 
Beginning of Augvft, 

17. PvRUS /ati*va^ fruffu aftiv9 
$hlongo piinori cintreo o^rato. Toum. 
CaiTolette Frlolct, Mufeat vcrd 
Lrchefrion. This is fo called frbm 
its being Ihaped like a Perfuming^- 
pQt. Ic is a long Fruit, in Shape 
lil^e tlic jargOQclie, of an Afli-co- 
loor s its Fleih is melting, and full 
of a perfumed Juice ; but is very 
apt to rot in the Middle as ^on as 

4C4 ripes 

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ripe ; otherwife it wpuM be eilcemed 
an exctllent Pear. It is ripe the 
Beginning of Avguft. 

i8.. Pyrvs fatinja^ fruHu £ftvo9 
turbinate^ e 'viridi mlhido. Orange 
Mufquee, i. e. l*he Muik Orange 
Pear. This b a large round Pear, 
in Shape like a Bergamoc : the Skin 
is green ^ and the Flefli is melting ; 
but it is very fubje^t to rot upon the 
Tnte, which renders it not near fp 
Wluable as fome others. It ripens 

the£ndof7«^« ' 

19. Pyrus yi/iw, fmBu aflruo 

glohofo e miridi purfurafcente. Tourn, 
Gros Oignonnety 1. r. The Great 
Onion fear. It is alfo called Amire- 
roux, f. #. Brown Admired; and 
Roy d^Ete, /. e. |£ing oJF Summer ; 
Archiduc d'Ete, 1. /. The Summer 
Archduke. This is a middle*fiz\l 
round Pear, of a browniih Colour 
next tht Sun ; the Fleih is melting, 
and the Juice is paiTably good. This 
ripens the End of yufy, 

20. Pyhus fati*v^ fruSu afihu» 
ghtfojofeffili ix allnio ftamtfcente fac^ 
iharaU ubraU. Toum, Robine. It is 
alfo called Mufcat d'Aouft, 1. #. The 
Aoguft Mufcat; Poire d*Averat, 1. #• 
The A vent Pear ; and Poire Royale, 
J. #. The Royal Pear.^ This is a 
roundiih flat Pear, in Shape very 
like a Bergamot : the Stalk is long, 
firait, and a little fpotted, and the 
£ye is a little hollowed ; the Skin is 
fmooth, and of a whitifh - yellov^ 
Cblour ; the Fleih is breaking, bat 
not hard; and its Juice is richly 
fagar*d and perfumM : it is a great 
B^er, and is efteemed one of the 
beft Summer Pears yet known. It 
ppens in Jugtf/f. 

2 1 P Y au ifati'va^fruSu ^ftin}9gU* 
itf^feJpUoioratoSmtm, Poirerofe; /. 
#. TheRofc-pcar;and L'Epinc-Role, 
f . f . The Thorny.Rofe. This isa (hort 
round Fruit, (haped like the Great 
Onion Pear, but much larger ; of a 

p Y 

' ydlowifti green Colour ; batalhth 
inclining to Red on the Side next the 
Sun: the Stalk is very long an4 
ilender ; the Fielh is breaking, and 
the Juice is muflcy. This ripens in 
Juguft. The Shoots and the Leaves 
of tnis Tree are large. 

23. Pyrus fatwa^fruQu €tfiiv9 
ghhofo albidofaccbarato\ T^wm. Poire 
du Pouchet. This is a large round 
whicilh Bear, ihapM fomewhaf like 
the Befidcri : the Flefli is foft and 
tender, and the Juice is fugary. This 
ripens the Middle ofjtgifjf, 

23. Pyrus fati^ua^ fruBu 4^/rW 
turbinatofeffiiifatmratim rubenie fuMT 
Sato. Tdurm. Poire 4e Parfom, i, #. 
The Perfum'd Pear. ThU is a mid- 
dle-iized round Fruit, whofe Skin is 
fomewhat thick and rough, and of a 
deep -red Coloar^^ fpdtted with 
brown: the Flefli is melting, but 
dry, and has a perfumM Flavour. 
This ripcQs the Beginning of Jm- 

24. Pyrus f^rva^ fhtBu ajirvo 
ohlongo magna, partim rubro^ p4irtim 
aibidf^ odoraio, Toum, Bon-cretiei^ 
d*£te, f . #.The Summer Bon-cretien, 
or Good ChrifHan. This is a large 
oblong Fruit, whofe Skin is fmooth 
and tlun : the Side next the Sun ix 
of a beautiful red Colour; but the 
other Side is of a whitiOi- green : the 
Flefli is between breaking and ten- 
der, and is very full of Juice, which 
is of* a rich perfum'd Flavour. It 
ripens the End of Jtuguft, 

25. PYRVs/t/fVtf, frtfSu afti^ua 
ghhofo^ ex rubra aUfidoque^fiin/eJctnii 
faccharato odoraio, Toum. Salviatt. 
This Pear is pretty large, round, 
and flat, very much like the Befideri 
in Shape, but not in Coloar : the 
Stalk is very long and flender, and 
the Fruit is a little hollowed both at 
the Eye and Stalk ; the Colour is red 
and yellow next the Sun ; but on thei 
other Side is whiciih : the Skin is 

rough ^ 

P Y 

fM^; tbe Flefh is tender; but a 
little foft, and has no Core; tbe 
Joke is fagary, and perfumed, fome- 
wJut like tbe Robine ; but is not 
near lb moift. This ripens the End 

26. Pyrus fatwa^ fruQu tejiivo 
1^)9 fiffiii rufefcentt odara$o, foum. 
Cailloc-rorat, 1. e. Rofe-water Pear. 
This is a large round Pear, ibme- 
what like the Meffire - Jean, but 
roonder: the Stalk is very fhort^ 
and the Fruit is hoHow'd like an 
Apple, where the Stalk is prodocM: 
the Skin is rough, and of a brown 
Colour : the Fieih is breaking, and 
the Juice is very fweet, T^is ripens 
thcEndof u^ir^v^. 

27. Pyavs /aHfUif fruSu afir»9 
ib«gf , acirbitote ftrangulatimum mi- 
tdtanie. Toar^ Poire d^Etrangilion, 
1. /. The Choaky Pear : the Fleih is 
red. This is ieldom preferved in 
(lardens; fqthexp needs no Defai|K 

28. Praus fatinta^ fruSu afthw 
^ilngo e ftrrvgiiUQ ruientt, nonmwi'* 
§tum macuiate. Poire de Rouflelet, 
I. f. The RaiTelet Pear. This is a 
large oUong Pear : the Skin is 
brown, and o£ a dark-red Colour 
next the Sun 1 the Flefh is tender and 
foft, without much Core : the Juice 
is agreeably perfum'd, if gathered 
before it be too ripe : this produces 
krger Fruit on an Efpalier 'than on 
Staadard-trees. It ripens the End of 

29. Pteus faipoa^ frnSu itftrw 
fryntMwk^' partim ruiro^ fartimfia* 
'otfitute^ odorato. Poire de Prince, 
'.^ The Prince's Pear. This is a 
fmall voimdiih Pear, of a bright-red 
Colour next the Sun* but of a yel- 
lowiOi Colour on the oppofite Side : . 
the Fleih is between breaking and 
?^tiag 5 the Juice is very high-fla- 
^tti*d ; and itis a great Bearer. This 
fipenithcEnd ofJi^uJii but wiU 

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keep a Fortnight good, which is 
what few Summer-fruits will do. 

30. Pyrus fativm^ fm&u gefti^v 
glebpfi njiridi^ in ore Hquefctmti. Gros 
Moiiille - bouche, /. e. The great 
Month-water Pear. This is a Su|;c 
round Pear, with a fmooth-greea 
Skin : the Stalk Is fhort and thick 1 
the Fleih is melting, and full of 
Juice, if gathered before it be too 
ripe i otherwiiie it is Jtpt to grow 
mealy. This ripens the Middle of 

31. Pyrus fatrvn^ fruSu aftinn 
rotundo fiffiii /aecbarato^ viridi 
fia<uefcenie ; Bergamotte d'Ete, / . e^ 
Summer - Bergamot. This is by 
fome called the Hamden^ Bergamot* 
It is a pretty large round flat Pear, 
of a greenifli - yellow Colour, and 
hollow*d a little at both Ends like an 
Apple : the Fleih is melting, and the 
Juice is highly perfuQiM. This ri- 
pens the.Middle of Augufi. 

32. Pyrvs fatitfa^ fruBm amum^ 
noli fgffiii faccbarat9 od»rmt9 einridi 
flavefcenti^ in 9r$ lifiufcetUi. Tourm* 
9ergaiB0tte d'Automne, i. e. The 
Autuinn B^gamot. This is a (inallec 
Pear than the former^ but is nearly 
of the fame Shape : the Skin is of a 
yellowiih Green, but changes to « 
faint Red on the Side next the Sun 1 
the Fleih is melting, and its Juice is 
richly perfumed : it is al great Bear- 
er, and ripens the Middle of Sep^ « 
Umbir ; and is one of the beft Pears 
of theSeafon. 

33. Pyrus fativat fruQu autum" 
nak iurbinato nfiridi^Jiriis foHguinHi 
diftin^a. Team, Bergamot de Suifle, 
I. e. The Swi/s Bergamot. This 
Pear is fomewhat rounder than 
either of the former : the Skin is 
tough, of a greeniih Colour, flriped 
with red ; the Fleih is melting, and 
full of Juice } but it is not fo richly 
perfumed as either of the former, 
This ripens the End of Septembgr. 

34. Pyavt 


34. Pyrus fativa^ fruBuatUum' 
mati fuamffimOf in tre liquefetnti^ 
loum, Beurr^ roage, i. e. The Red 
3tttter-pear. It is called T Amboife ; 
and in Normandf, Kambert ; as alfo 
Bearre gris» i. ^.The GreyButcer;and 
Beurre vert, /. /. The Green Butter* 
pear. All thefe difFerent Names of 
9eurres have been occaiioned by the 
Difference of the Colours of the 
fame Sort of Pear ; which is either 
owing to the difFerent Expofure 
where they grew» or from the Stock; 
thofe upon Free-ftocks being com- 
monly of a browner Colour than 
thofe which are npon Quince-ftockss 
whence fome Perfons have f uppofed 
them to be difFerent Fruits, tho* in 
Reality they are the fame. This is 
a large long Fruit, for the moil part 
of a brown Colour 1 the Flem is 
very melting, and full of a rich fu« 
gary Juice. It ripens the End of 
September ; and, when gathered horn 
the Tree, is one of the very beft 
Sort of Pears we have. 
- 3 5 . P YRU 8 fatwa^ fruBu tnOmm" 
nali turbinatofiffiU fla^e/antit CsT in 
nri liqnefcente. Tonm. Le Doyenne, 
r. e. The Dean*s Pear. It is aUb 
called by all the following Names 1 
Saint Michel, i. #. Saint Michael ; 
Bearre blanc d'Atttomne, /.#• The 
White Autumn Batter -pear; Poire 
de Ncige, /. /. The Snow - pear ; 
Bonne Ente, / . #. A good Graft ; 
tiie Carkfle and Fideniia. This is a 
large fair Fruit, in Shape fomewhat 
like the Grey Benrre ; butisihorter 
and rounder: the Skin is fmooth, 
and, when ripe, changes to a yel- 
lowifh Colour : the Flefh is melt- 
ing, and full of Juice, which is ytty 
cold ; but it will not keep good a 
Week after it is gathered, being 
very fubjed to grow mealy : it is a 
vtry indifferent Fruit. This is a great 
^arer, and riptns the find of Sip* 

p Y 

36. Pravs fativa^ frniinammm^ 
nah longo wridifue tderaio, in on 
liquefcente/l9wm. La Verte-kK^ue, 
/. i. The Long-green Pear. Ic la 
alfo caUed Mouille - boache d^Au* 
tomne, i, e. The Autumn Moath- 
water Pear. This is a long Frait, 
which is very green when ripe : the 
Flefh is melting, and ytry fall of 
Juice ; which, if it grows npon « 
dry warm Soil, and apon a Free- 
ftock, is very fiigary ; otherwife it is 
buta very indifferent Pear. It ri- 
pens the Beginning of Oi?«^/r; but 
fome Years they will keep till D^ 

57. Tykvs /ativa, fruQn anlnmn 
nali tnbirofi ftJJiU facchnrmtOj carnt 
dnra. Tonm, Meiiuv Jean blanc U 
gris, /. #. The white and grej 
Moniieur John. Thefe, altho* made 
two Sorts of Fruit by many Perfons, 
are indubitably the fame ; the Dif- 
ference of their Colour proceedtag 
from the different Soils and Sitoa* 
tions where they grow, or dieStockt 
on which they are grafted. This 
Pear, when grafted on a Free-ftock, 
and planted ona middling Soil, nei- 
ther too wet, nor over-dry, is one of 
the beft Autumn Pears yet known 1 
but when it is grafted on a Qoinoe- 
fiock; it is very apt to be flonyi 
or, if planted on a veiy dry 
Scdl, is very apt to be fmall, and 
good for little, unlefs the Trees aro 
watered in dry Seafons : whidi hat 
rendered it lefs efteemed by iteio 
Perfons, who have tiot confider*d 
the Caufe of their Hafdneft s lor 
when it is rightly managed, there is 
not any Pear in the fame Seafon to 
be compared with it : this is a large 
ronndifh Fmit ; the Skin is rough, 
and commonly of a brown Colour 1 
the Flefh is breaking, and vesy fall 
of a rich fdgar*d Juice, it ripens the 
Beginning of 0^«^, «nd will conti- 
nue good moll Part of the Month. 

38. Pti^vs 

P Y 

18. P 7 1 V s fativa ^fruBd autuM" 

fjMffima. Tcum. MafcaC fleari, /.#. 
The flowerMMofcat It is alfo calied 
JdMfciU a luigue queiii iT Antamne^ 
Lt. The Long-ftalk'd Mufcat of the 
i^atniQQ. This is an excellent Pear, 
of a middling Siset and round ; the 
Skin is of a dark*red Coloor ; the 
Fieih is very tender, and of a delicate 
Flavour. It ripens in the Middkof 

39. P YRU 8 fativa, fruQu, amfmnr 
9Aii glohafo /errugineOf cam vifcida. 
Ton, Poire de Vigne» 1. e. The 
Vine-pear. This b a round Fruit, 
of a middiing Size ; the Skin of a 
4ark-red Colour; the Flefli 13 very 
melting, and fuH of a clammy Juice. 
t^Stau: is very loi)g andflender. 
This Fruit ihoold be gathered before 
k be full ripe ; otherwife it grows 
mealy, and foon rou. It ripots the 
Middle of Oaobir. 

40. ?rtiVs/atJ'uaf/riiSHaMium» 
wU Maagep Jilmtg rufefctnit^ fac* 
th«rat9^ ^oratiffima. 'Tourtt. Poire 
Rouffeline, /. i. The Ronfleline 
Peir. It ia alfo called in ^Touraine^ 
Le Mufcat a longue queiie dc la fia 
d^Aatomne, /. /. The long-ftalk'd 
Mofcatof the End of Aatumo. Thii 
ij by ibme EngUfi> Gardeners called 
the firote-bonne : but that is a very 
different Fruit from this. It it ihar 
ped fomewhat like theRouflelet; but 
the Skin of this is fmooth, and of a 
Greenilh-yellow from the Sun $ but 
the Side next the Sun is of a deep- 
red Cobur, with iaoL^ Spots of 
Grey ; the Flefli is very tender and 
delicate ; the Juice is very fweet, 
with an agreeable Perfume. It ri* 
pens the Beginning of Offct$r ; but 
mad not be long kept, left it rot in 
the Middle. 

41. ?Y%vs /afiva,/ni£tt autttm^ 
na& cbUmgo majtri cit/eno, Tourtt. 
Poire Pend4r, 1. r. Thip Kn^v^'s 

P Y 

Pear. This is very Ske the Caflb^ 
lette Pear ; but is fomewhat larger } 
the Flefli is fine and tender : thejuic^e 
is very much fngair'd. Itripens the 
End of Oi?^**r. 

4a. Vr^vsfaiiva^fmSm auiuM' 
nali iwrtimtU tMbir9fi viri£ faccim* 
ra/0, in 9re U^MiJc9nt$. ^9mm. Sucrt 
vert, f . #. The Green Sugar-pear. 
This Pear is fliaped like the Winters- 
thorn, but is imaUer ; the Skin is 
very fmooth and green; the Flefli 
is very buttery ; the Juice is fugar*d, 
and of an agreeable Flavour ; but it 
is fometimes fobjed to be llony in 
the Middle, efpedally if grafted on 
a Quince-flock. 

43. '?YtV9fativa,fniSm attitm^ 
nab tutiffo feffilu ' wriH jUmnfcen* 
//, macuUt uigrii con/firfo^ came ttng^ 
ra Jdechmratm, Tourn, Lai Marquife» 
f. g. The Marquis's Pear. This 
b often of two different Shapes, ac- 
cording to die Nature of the Soil 
Hrhere they ane planted ; for when 
the Soil is dry, the Fruit very much 
refembles a fiine Blanquet ; but when 
the Soil is very ridi and . moift, it 
grows much larger : it is a well-flia- 
ped Pear, flat at theTop ; the Eye is 
finall, and hollow*d ; the Skin is of 
a greeniib Yelbw, a little inclining 
to Red on the Side next the Sun : if 
this Pear does not change yellow in 
ripening, it is ieldom good ; but if 
it does, the Flefli will be tender and 
delicate, very full of Juice, which ia 
fttgar'd. It ripens the End of 0<?«« 

44. FrtLVs/atiKfa^ /ru^ autumn 
nali M^0t partim aUfuto^ partem ru* 
fefcemte, ^he Cbat-brul^, i. e. The 

finrnt Cat. It is alfo called Pucelle 
de Xaintottge^ i, #. The Virgin of 
Xmnienge, This is a fmall oblong 
Pear, fluip*d mndi like the Martia 
Sec ; but differs from it in Colour : 
this being of a pale Colour on one 
Side, but of a dark-brown on the 


P Y 

Atlier ; the Skin i$ fmooth ; tbe 
FJdh is tender, but dry; and, if 
kept a ihorc time, is apt to grow 
mealy. It is in eating the Latter- 
end of OSober. 

45 . P Y R u s faivoa^ fruSu atUmm' 
wait ghbofifgffili^9X aihidojiavefcente, 
Le Beiideri. It is fo called from 
Hm, which is a Foreft in Bretagm, 
between Rtmus and Nantes, where 
this Pear was foand. This is a 
middie-fiz'd round Pear, of a pale 
Green, indining to a yellowifh Co- 
Ipuf i ihe Stalk is very long and 
Sender ; die Flefh is dry, ami but 
very indifferent for eating ; but it 
bakes well. It ripens the End of 

46. Ty^vs /ativa^/ru^m bruma*' 
lijtffili, € *viridi flavi/c^nti, macu' 
lafOf utrinque umbilieato, im ore liqtU" 
/eente, Tottrti. The Craiane, or 
fergasnot Crafane. It is aUb called 
BeurrePlat^ i.e. The Flat fiutter- 
scar. This is a middle-£z^d Pear» 
noUowM at the Crown like an Ap*> 
pie: the Stalk is very long and 
crooked ; the Skin is rough, of a 
greeniOi-ycIlow Colour w£en ripe» 
covered over with a ruffist Coat; 
the Flefh is extremely tender) and 
buttery^ and is full of a rich fugarM 
Juice ; and is the very beft Pear of 
theSofon. This is in eating the 
Beginning of VovewAer. 

47. FYRVsfrtiva,/rMffu bruma^ 
U turbinato fiffiU JUn/efcente facebu" 
ran odoratOt in 9rg liquifeente. Taum. 
Laniac on la Dauphine^ i- /• The 
Laniac or Danphine Pear. This 
Pear is commonly about die Size of 
a Bergam$t^ of a roundiih Figure, 
flat toward the Heafi s but a iitde 
producM toward the Stalk ; the Skia 
is fmooth, ^nd of a yellowifli-green 
Colour; the Flefli is yellow* t^er, 
and melting 1 the Juice is fogar'd, 
and a little perfumM; the £fe is 
Tary large, as is «lfo (beFlQwer ; and 

P Y 

the Stalk is long and firait. WIick 
this Pear is upon a Free-ftock, and 
planted on a good Soil, it is one of 
the beft Fruits of the Seafon; bat 
when it is on a Quince-ftock, or 
upon a very dry Soil, the Frdit will 
be iinall, ibny, and worth little. U 
ripens the Beginning of November. 

48. VYKVsfaiiVM^fruSu bruma^ 
a obUngOf fartim intemfe, fariim di* 
hite ferrugineo^ fmecharat^, •dormi^* 
Toum. Martin Sec, i.e. The Dry 
Mardo. This i« fomedmes called 
the Dry Mardn of Cb^mpeipie, to 
diftinguifli it from another DryMar* 
dn otBwrgundy. This Pearis almoft 
like the IU>nffelet in Shape and Co- 
lour, which has occafioned fome. 
Perfons to give it the Name of Win- 
ter Ruflelet. It is an obtong Pcmr, 
whofe Skin is of a deep-ruflet Co« 
lour on one Side ; but the otherSide 
it inclining to a Red ; the Flefti ia 
breaking and fine ; the Juioe is fu^ 
gar'd, with a iitde Perfume ; and if 

Eftedona Free-ftock» is an excel- 
t Pear ; but if it be on a Qoince- 
ftock,it is ver^apt to be ftofiy Jt is in 
' cadng (he Middle of November 1 but 
if they were permitted to hang theiv 
full t jme on the Trer> will keep 
good two Months. 

49. ?Y^v%/athua^/ru3mbrwmm' 
ii wuigno feffilip e eitureo flame fcente. 
Touni. La Villaine d'Anjon, «'. /. 

^ The Villain of Anjou. It is alfp 
called Poire Tulipee, i.e. The Tu- 
lip-pear ; and Bigarrade, r . #. The 
Great Orange, This is a large round 
Pear, with a very long (lender Stalk ; 
the Skin is of a pale-yellow Colour 1 
(he Fleih as breaking, but not very 
full of Juice. This is in eadng the 
Middle of November.. 

50. VY^V^fativa^frnBu brmma- 
Ii fiavefceute odoratijjimo^ feiindo 
&affieri. Tonm, Poire de gros qneiie, 
I. #. TheLarge<ftalk'd Pear. This 
it a large rouAdi/h Vt^t, with a yeit 


P Y 

kw Skin ; the Stalk is rtry thicks 
from whence It had the Name; the 
Fk&k is breaking and dry, and has 
a very muiky Flavour ; but it is apt 
to be Aony, efpecially if it be plant- 
ed in a dry Soil, or grafted on a 
Qoince ftock, as are mo A of the per- 
fam*d Pears. 

5 f . P Y a V s fati'vm^ fruQu hrumali 
twrhinato rufefctntt oJorato. L'Ama- 
doce, i. #. The Amadot Pear. 
This is a middle-fiz*d Pear, fome- 
what long, but fiat at the Top ; the 
Skin is generally rough, and of a 
raflet Coloar ; the Fleih is dry, and 
h^-flavoar*d, if grafted on a Free- 
Hock. The Wood of this Tree is 
generally tbomy, and is eileemed the 
heft Sort of Pears for Stocks to 
graft the meltingPears opon^becaufe 
it gives them fome of its fine muiky 
Flavour. It is ineatine the End 
ofNfv^miir; but will keep good 
fix Weeks. 

5 2. P Y Rus fati<oa^ frvQu hruma- 
U^ gkhofo^ diluti 'virenie^ tuberojo^ 
fimffatfff in 9re iique/ctnte, Taum. 
Fecit Oin» i. e. Little Lard Pear. 
It is alfo called Bonvar and Roufette 
d*Anjoa» / . #. The RufTet of Jn- 
JBu ; and Amadont, and Marveille 
d'Hyyer, /. #. The Wonder of the 
Winter. This Pear is of the Siae 
and Shape of theAmbret or Lefchaf- 
ferie ; bat the Skin is of a clear 
green Colonr, and a little fpotted ; 
the Stalk is pretty long and flender ; 
the Eye is large, and deeply hol- 
knv'd ; the Fldb is extremely fine» 
and melting ; the Juice is much fa- 
gar*d, and has an agreeable maiky 
Flavoar. It is in eatmg the End of 
No^emhtr^ and raoft Part of Decern- 
btr ; and is efleemed one of tha belt 
Fruits in that Seafon. This is bet- 
ter on a Free-ftock than upon the 

C3. PyRXJS/2i/w^,/rji<ffic ir«/»tf- 
. a i9ng9 i viriiii alhkawtt, in on it- 


quefcenti. Tpnrn, Louifebonne, r./J 
The Good Lewis Pear. This Peat 
is Oiaped fomewhat like the St. Cer* 
main^ or the Autumn Verte-longue ; 
but is not qnite fo much pointed i 
the Stalk is very fhort, Htfhy, and 
fomewhat bent ; the Eye, and the 
Flower, are fmall ; the Skin is very 
fmooth; the Colour is green, incline- 
ing to a white when ripe i the Flefii 
is extremely tender,and fuU of Juice, 
which is ytry fweet, efpecially whea 
it grows upon a dry Soil ; otherwifc 
it is apt to be very large and ill-* 
tailed. It is in eating the Latter-end 
of November y and the Beginning of 

54. VYKVsfatinfa^/rMSubmma^* 
it, tnbero/b, e wridi Jfave/cente, pun^ 
GatOf faccharato. Town, Poire de 
Colmar, 1. <. The Colmar Pear. It 
is alfo called Poire Manne, The 
Manna Pear ; and Bergamotte tar- 
dive. The lateHBurgamot. This Pear 
is fomewhat like aBoncretien in 
Shape ; but the Head is fiat; the 
Eye is large* and deeply holiow'd ; 
the Middle is larger than the Head, 
and is flopM toward the Stalk,whicb 
is fhort, large, and a little bent ; (he 
Skin is green, with a few yellowilh 
Spots ; but IS fometimes a little co- 
loured on the Side next the Sun ; 
the Flefh is very tender, and the 
Juice is greatly fugar*d. It is in 
eating the Latter-end of November ; 
but will often keep good till Janu- 
ary ; and is efleemed one of the beft 
Fruits of that Seafon. 

55. FYKVs/ativaf/rtiaubruma" 
A", giobo/Of citriformi^ fiavefccnie^ 
fnnSeUo, in on iiquefante, faecbara'^ 
to, odoratij/imo. Toum, L'EfchafTe- 
rie. It is alfo called Vert^longue 
d' Hyvcr, i, e. The Winter long- 
green Pear; and Befideri Landri, 
i. /. The Landry Wilding. This 
Pear is fhaped like a Citron ; the 
Skin is fmooth, and of a green Co- 

tour, witli ibme Spats white it hangi 
on the Tree ; but, as it ripens, it 
becomes of a yellowifli Colour ; the 
Stalk is ftrait and long ; the Eye is 
fmally and not hollowM ; the Flefh 
is melting, and buttery ; the Juice 
IS fugar'd, with a little Perfume. It 
is in eating the Latter-end of Nc^em' 
Ser, and continues good tUl Ci^rtfi* 

c6. VyjlVS fati<va if rMSubruma'^ 
It fongo, i wridi fia^cfcenti^ in on 
Uqutfctntt^ faccbarato. Teurn. Le^ 
Virgoulc, or La Virgoulcufe. It is' 
alfo called Bujaleuf, and Chambret- 
te ; and Poire de GlafTe, /. e. The 
. Ice Pear^ in Gafcoigne ; bat it«is call- 
ed FirgouUf from a Village of that 
Name in the Neighbourhood of St. 
Leonard in Limou/tu^ Where it was 
raifed, and fent toParhp by theMar- 
quis of Chatabret. This Pear is 
large, long, and of a green Cotoar, 
inclining to yellow, as it ripens : the 
Stalk is fliort, flefhy, and a little 
bent ; the Eye is of a middlineSize, 
and a little hollowM ; the Skin is 
^ery fmooth, and fometimes a 
little coloured towards the Sun ; the 
Fle(h is melting, and full of a rich 
Juice. It is in eating the Latter- 
end ofNovembir, and will continue 
good tin yaftaary; and is efteen^ed 
one of the beft Fruits of the Seafon; 
bttt the Tree is very apt to produce 
vigorous Shoots ; and theBiofibms 
being generally prodac*d at the ex- 
treme Fart of the Shoot, where they 
are (horten'd, theFruit will be intirely 
cut away, which is the Rcafon it is 
condemned as a bad Bearer; bat 
when it is grafted on a Free-iiock, it 
ought to be allowed at leafl forty 
Feet to fpread : and, if upon a 
Quinoe-ftock, it (hould b^ allowed 
upward of thirty Fect« and the 
Branches trained in againil the Efpa- 
lier or Wall, at full Length, in an 
horizontal Poiition, as they are pro- 

Juced. Where this Tree Is thitf 
treated/ it will bear very plentiful- 

57. 'Pruvs /aiiva^no/a^/rmaM 
glooofo^ftffili^ ferugineo^ in §re iique- 
fcente/fotcharato^ odoratijfimoi Taurm, 
Poire d*Ambrette. This is fo call- 
ed from its mufky Flavour^ which, 
refembles the Smell of the Sweet 
Sultan Flower, which is called Am- 
brette in France. This Pear is like 
the Lefchaflerie in Shape, but is of a 
ruffet Colour ; the Eye is larger, 
and more hollovt'd ; the Flefli ii 
melting, and the Juice is richly fa- 
gar*d and perfum'd 1 the Seeds are 
large and blacky and the Cells in 
which they are lodged are very 
large ; the Wood is very thorny^ 
efpecially when grafted on Free- 
Hocks. The Fruit is in eating the 
Latter-end of November^ and conti- 
nues good till the Latter-end of ^tf- 
nuary ; and is efteemcd a vtrf good 
Fruit by moft People. 

58. ?YfLV%fatin}a^fntBubrmm^' 
li, magno, fyramidafo, albiJo^ in ore 
liquefcente^faccbaratOy odoratoSToum. 
Epine d'Hyvcr, /. e. Winter-thorn 
Pear. This is a large fine Pear, 
nearly of a pyramidal Figure ; the 
Skin is fmooth, and of a pale-green 
Colour, inclining to yellow as it ri- 
pens ; the Stalk is (hort and {lender; 
the Flefh is melting and buttery; the 
Juice is very fwect ; and, in a dry 
Seafon, is highly perfumed ; but 
when it is planted on a moift Soil, 
or the Seafon proves wet, it is very 
iniipid ; fo that it fhould never be 
planted on a (Irong Soil. It ripens 
the End of November ^ and will con- 
tinue good two Months. 

59. Fykvs /ativa, fm8u bruma- 
ii ioHgo, e *viridi Jla^e/cerrte, in erg 
liquej'cente. Toum. La Saint Ger- 
main, /. e. The St. Germain Pear. 
It is alfo called L'Inconniie de la 
Pare, 1. #. The Unknown of LaFarg : 


p y p Y 

it bdng firft difcovered upon the thu is a rtry good Fruit for bake* 

BanJcs of a River which is called by ing. 

that Name, in the Parifli of St. Ger- 62. ?YKVs/ativa,/ruait bruma^ 

msM. This is a large long Pear, of Ji magfn ^hiango turbinat9 ferrugi- 

a yellowiih-grcen Colour when ripe; m^^ mtrinqiu umhilUaf, Toum. Poiro 

the f Icfli is melting, and ytty full oi de Livrc, /. e. The Pound Pear. It 

Juice ; which in a dry Seafon, or if is alfo called Grofs Ratteau Gris, 

planted on a warm dry Soil, is very 1. 1. The Grey-rak'd Pear ; and Poire 

fwect ; bat when it is planted on a d' Amour, /. e. The lovely Pear. In 

moiftSoil, thejuiceisveryapttobc England t\i\% is called Parkinfm"^ 

harlh and auftere ; which renders it Warden, or the Black Pear of ^ar- 

kis efteemed by fome Perfons ; tho* cefter. This is a very large Pear^ 

in general it is greatly valued. This each of which commonly weighs a 

is !■ eating the End of Novemier ; Pound or more ; the Skin is rough, 

bot will many times continue good and of an obfcure red Colour on the 

mCbrifimas. Side next the Sun ; but fomewhac 

60. Yy%v% fatwm^fruau hruma- paler on the other Side ; the Stalk is 
UiAiT9lofmbacidofiavefcent$funaa' very flxort, and the Eye is greatly 
U. ToMm. Saint Auftin. This is hoUow'd. This is not fit for eating, 
ahoot the Size of a middling ^/;^w- but bakes or ftews exceeding well; 
le?aa ; but is fome what fhorter, and is in Seafon from Ntvembtr to 
a&dflenderer near the Stalk;theSkin Cbriftmas. 

is of a fine citron Colour, fpotted. 63. '?^%v$ fati^a^fnOiu brumm^ 

widi red on the Side next the Sun 1 // parwo flavt/ante, mac^ii ruhrit 

the Flclh is tender, but not buttfry; cohJ^/o. Tourn. fiefi de Cafioy, 

and b pretty full of Juice, which is /. e. The Wilding of Gj^^, a Forcft 

often a little iharp j which to fome inBrHagmg, where it was difcovered, 

Perfons is difagrccablc, but others andpalfles under the Name of Roof- 

valne it on that Account. This is fet d'Anjou. It is alfo called Petit 

in eating in Decemhir ; and will Beone d'Hyver, 1. #. Small Winter 

continue good two Months. Batter-pear. This is a (mall oblong 

6 1 . P Y R V s fati'va, frudu brama" Pear, of a y ellowiih Colour, fpotted 
Ufjramdato,pariimpurpurto,punai$ with red: the Fleih is melting, and 
mgris cmfperfi^ Jlavtfctnti, Toum. the Juice is irery rich. It is in cat- 
Bpn-cretien d'Efpagpe, /. i. The ijig'mDeamberzxid January. This 
^pmdfif Bon<retien. This is a large is a prodigious Bearer, and common- 
Pcar> of a pyramidal Form, of a fine ly produces its Fruit in large Cluf- 
led or purple Colour on the Side ters, provided it be not too much 
next the Sun, and full of fmaU black pruned ; for it generally produces 
Spots; the otherSide is of a pale-yel- hs Bloffom-buds at the Extremity of 
low Colour ; the Flefli is breaking ; its Shoots; which if ihortened, the 
and, when it is ona light richSoil, Fruit would be cut away. There 
and grafted on a Free-ftock, it. Juice was a Tree of this Kind in the Gar- 
is very fwect. It ripens in the Be- dens of Carndtn-Houfe, near Ktnfing^ 
ginning of December, and will con- ton ; which generally produced a 
tinae good a Month, or fix Weeks, great Quantity of Fruit. 

If this be grafted on a Quince-flock, 64. P y ru s fativa^fruBu bruma- 

it is very apt to be dry and ftony : ;,* tnrbinato ina^uali. <ventre tumiJo^ 


P Y 

ptwtm purpuric, partitH Jlavefiente. 
Tourn. Ronville. It is alfo called 
Hocrenaille andMartinrire, /. /.The 
Lord Martin Pear. This Pear is 
mboiit the Size and Shape of a large 
Roufielet ; the Eye is of a middling 
Size, and bollow*d a little i the Mid- 
dle of the Pear ii generally fwelPd 
more on one Side than on the other; 
but is equally extended toWard the 
Stalk ; the Skin is very fmooth and 
ibfc, and is of a lively-red Colour 
next the San ; but on the other Side 
it changes yellow as it ripens : the 
Flefli is breakings and full of Juice, 
which is very fweet, and a little per- 
fam^d ; bat if grafted on a Quince- 
ftockyisvery apt to be final! and 

6 J . Py RU s fiui*vtt^frti3n hruma' 
ii citriformi flawefeenti duro rnQfcha- 
f 9ihratiJlimo> Tourn. Citron d'Hy^ 
▼er, /. #. The Winter Citron 
Pear. It is alfo called the Muik 
Orange Pear, in fome Places. This 
is a pretty large Pear, in Shape and 
Colour very like an Orange or Ci- 
tron» from whence it had its Name : 
the Fleih is hard and dry, and very 
fubjed to be ftony ; for which Rea* 
fons it is not valued as an eating 
Pear ; but will bake very well. It 
is in Seafon itovBkDtambtr toMarcb. 
66. FYKVs/afivap/ruStubruma' 
is obhngPf i nnriiiflavifiinti^faccba' 
rato, faporis aufttri. ioum, Rouf- 
felet d* Hyvcr, /. r. The Winter 
RuiTelet.This is by fome fuppofed to 
be the fame Pear as is called the 
Dry Martin ; but it is very different 
from that in feveral Particulars : the 
Colour of this is a greenifh Yellow, 
inclining to brown ; the Sulk is long 
and (lender, and the Flelh is buttery 
and melting, and generally full of 
Juice, which is very fweec ; but the 
Skin is apt to contain an auftere 
Juice ; fo that if it be not pared, it 
is apt to be diiagrceable to many 

Perfons Palates. It is ift catiftg tt 
Jdnmary zpAFtbntdry. 

6y. Pyrus fatinfa Piaavifnfin 
fruBn hrumali ghhofi feffiH fdcclfa 
rata cJoraio, Tcum, Poire Portail,- 
/. r. The Gatfe Pear. This Pear was 
difcovered in the Province ofPoiaom; 
where it was fo much efleemed, that 
they preferred it to moft other Fruit; 
tho*, in the Opinion of moft curious 
Judges, it does not dcferve the great 
Charader which is given to it ; for 
it rarely happens, that it proved 
good for eating, being generally dry^ 
ftony, and haid, anlefs in extraordi- 
nary Scafons, and upon a very good 
SoiL This muft always be grafted 
on a Free • ftock, and (hould be 
planted on a light rich Soil; and in 
rery dry Seafons the Trees fhould be 
watered, otherwife the Ffnit will be 
ftony. It is in Seafon from Jmnua* 
ty to March, and bakes well. 

68. '?Y%vsfati'oa,yruSuhfama' 
ii magna giohojh JUtuifcente, pnnSii 
rufii conjptrf; Tourn. Fratic-real. 
It is alfo called Fin-or d'Hyver^ 
i. e. The Golden - end of Winter. 
Th's is a very large Pear, almoft of 
a giobular Figure ; the Skin is yeN 
low, fpotted with red ; the Stalk i^ 
ftiort, and the Wood of the Ttve 
pith : the Fle(b of this Pear is diy^ 
and very apt to be ftony | but it 
bakes exceeding well, and continue! 
good from January till Marclf. 

69. Vy^m% fatwa^fruBuhrnma' 
ii turbinato ffffiii/mhacldojlanjefentif 
punQis afptrioribus confperfo. Tonm, 
Bergamotte Bugi. It is alfo called 
Bergamotte de Pafque, i. #. The 
Eafter Bergamot. It is a large Pear, 
almoft round ; but is a little produ- 
ced inLength towards theStalk ] the 
Eye is ftat, and the Skin is green, 
having many rough Protoberaaoes 
like Spots difperfed all over ; but« 
as it ripens, becomes yeHowiih 1 the 
Flclh is breaking, and in a good 


Py p y 

IfeijiM the jaice Is (weat ; bot it bretking^ tnd is vcr/ fall of rich 

indt have a Free-flock, and South- fagar*d Jaice. This is efleemed in 

oft Wall, and have a good Soils Fr«rr# one of the beft Winter Pears; 

isdkerwtfe it is apt to be ibny and but in Engiand it is feldom fo good i 

luftere. It is in eating from Fibm* tho* I am fallf fatisfied, if it were 

«7 till Jifni. grafted on a Free-flock, and planted 

70. .Lb Muscat d' Allbman, magoodSoil, againfta Wall expo- 
l ^ The German Mnlcat. This is fed to the South-eafl, and the Bran« 
an tadlent Fear^ more long than ches trainM at full Length, it might 
TOQttd, of the Shape of the Winter- be rendered more accepubie than it 
royal ; but is lefs toward the Eye, is at prefenc in England. 

and is more ruflet, and of a red Co- 74. I^ykv^ fmti'va^ fruSu bruma" 

bur next the Sun ; it is buttery^ U magm^ cyd»ni^ faciei par tim fia*vo^ 

neititt^ and a little mulkjr. This partim purfarto, Toarn, Caiillacor 

bin eating in March^ Aprils and Cadillac. This is a large Pear, (ha- 

fMnctimes in Mt^^ when it keeps fo ped fomewhat like a Quince ; the 

Ibog. Skin isyfor the moflpart,of a yellow 

71. Lift BfeR<SAMOTtB D^ HoL* Colour, but changes to a deep Red 
uiiDE,f . r.The HoUand Bergamot: on the Side next the Sun ; the Flefli 
it is' large and roand, of the Shape is hard, and the Juice auftere ; but 
of the ordinary Bergamot, but a lit- it is a vtry good Fruit for bakins ; 
tie Bore produced coward the Stalk, and being a plentiful Bearer, de- 
TheCoiour is greenifli ; the Flefh ferves a Place in every good Col- 
ts half4Mittery and tender; thejuice ledion. of Fruit. It will be good 
it hkhly ibvoored. This is a very from Chriftmas to Jprii^ or longer. 
|0od P^y and will keep iiWApril. 7c. ^raui/atwa^fruSu bruata* 

72. Lb PoiRB DB Naples, /. r. li wUng** flmvtfctnU^ punAis ruhris 
th6?cu of Naples, Thisisapret- ejmj^erfa. La Paflorelle. ThisPeac 
ty large, long, greenifli Pear ; the if of the Siae and Shape of a fine 
Fleih is half-bteaking s the Juice is Itouflelet; the Stafk is fliort and 
ftreet, and It little vinous. It is in crooked ; the Skin, is fomewhat 
titing in March, I am in doubt rough, of a yellowifli Colour, fpot« 
vhcthier this Pear is not in fome ted with Red ; the Flefli is tender 
Haces taken for a Saint Germain i and buttery ; and when it grows oa 
for diefe is a Pear in fome Gar'^ a dry Soil, the Juice is .very fweet 1 
<dens rcry like the Saint Germain, but on a wet Soil, or in moifl Vears« 
Which will keep till April ; and this it is fubje£l to have an auftereTafle. 
ftu agrees with the Cha^adlers of Thia Pear is in eating in Februeuj 
ttat It ia called in England The and March. 

EMfer Si. Germain, 76. Fr%V9 fativa^/raau bnma* 

7$, fYKVa /ativaf/ruSa brama' U feffili, par tim fiantef cent e^ partim 

^ ^M pyramdat9, e fianjn nonnihil purpurafeente, Tenrn, La Double 

mitnte, Twm. Bon-cretien d' Hy- Fleur, ii e. The double -flowering 

^v, f. f . The Winter Bon-cr^tien Pear. This is (o called, becaufe the 

^<ear» This Pear is very large and Flowers have a double Range of Pe- 

loog, of a pyramidal Figure; the taU or Leaves. It is a large fliort 

^ia is of a yeliowifli Colour ; but Pear ; the Stalk is long and flrait 1 

the Side next the Sun inclines to a the Skin ia very (mooth, and of a 

faft Red ; the JFlefli is tender and yeliowifli Colour^ but ihe Side next 

Voi. UL 4 D the 

V Y 

tbe Son it commonly of a line red 
or fmrple Colour* This is by fome 
cfteemed for eating s bnt it is gene^' 
rally too aaftere in tb'is Country for 
that Pnrpofe. It is tbe beft Pear in 
the World for Baking or Compofts. 
It is good from February to Mity. 

77. Py RU s fativaj fruQu iruma* 
It ohlongo^ fartiu flomefeenU^ fartim 
fmrpur^cente. Saint Martial. It is 
alfo called in fome Places Poire An- 
gclique, 1. #. The Angelic Pear. 
This Pear is oblong, in Shape like 
the Bon-cretien ; but not fo large, 
and a little flatterat the Crown; it 
has a very long Stalk ; the Skin is 
fmooth and yellowilh t but on the 
Side next the Sun it turns to a pur- 
plifh Colour; the Fle(h is tender 
and buttery, and the Juice is very 
fweet. This is in eating in Ftbrua* 
ry and March, and will keep very 

78. Praus fati*va^fruBu bruma' 
U oblo9g9f parfim alhUo, partim pur* 
puTio HoratQ^/accharato. La Poire 
de Chaumoctelle> or Befi de Chau- 
montelle, 1. #.The >y,ilding of Cbau^ 
mantiili. This Pear is in Shape 
Ibmewhat like the Autumn Benrre, 
but is flatter at the Crown : the Skin 
is a little rough, of a pale-grten Co- 
lour ; bnt turns to a purplifti Colour 
next the Sun ; the Flefli is melting4 
the Juice is ^try rich, and a little 
perfumU It is in eating from N^^, 
member to January ;^d is efteemed 
by fome as the beft IUte Pear yet 

79. Pyxus fativa^fiuSu brmma' 
iiglobo/»/effiU einereOf maculit amplu 
•bfcnrioribus comfpn/p, Toum* Car- 
melite. This is a middle-fiz'd Pear, 
of a rododifh Form ; the Skin is of 
a grey Colour on one Side ; but is 
inclining to a red on the other, hav- 
ing fome broad Spots of a dark Co- 
lour all over ; the Fleih is common* 
ly hard and dry, fo that it is not ve* 


P Y 

Tj moch cfteemed : it is hi SeafiA 
in March. 

80. ?YKVi/ativa, /ruSmimmm* 
It maxima pyrOmdata, dilutt virenti^ 
The Union Pear ; otherwife called 
Dr. U*uedale\ St. Germain. This 
is a very large long Pear, of a 4jeep- 
green Colour ; but the Side next the 
Sun doth fometiues change to a red 
as it ripens. This is not fit for eat- 
ing, but bakes very well ; and being 
a great Bearer, and a very large 
Fruit, defervef a Place in every 
(ood CoUedion. It is in Seafon 
from Cbriftmas to jfpriL 

Ther^ are many other Sorts of 
Pears, which are Uill continued in 
fome old Gardens ; but as thofe hoe 
mentioned are the beft Sorts known 
at prefent, it would be needlefs to 
enumerate a great Quantity of ordi* 
nary Fruit ; fince tytry one who 
intends to plant Fruits, will rather 
choofe thoie which are the moft va- 
lued, the Expence and Trouble be* 
ing the fame for a bad Sort of Fruit 
as a good one. Indeed I have in- 
ferted many more than are really 
worth planting, in order to pleafii 
fuch who are fond of a great Vaiie- 
ty ; bnt whoever hath a mind to 
make choice of fuch only as are 
good, may eafily diftinguilh them, by 
attending to the Account given of 
each Sort ; and hereby every Peribo 
is at Liberty to pleafe himfelf ; for 
it is nof tvtry one who prefbis a 
Beurr^ Pear, tho' that is generally 
efteemed the very beft in its proper 
Seafon: there are fome who admift 
the Meffire Jean for the Firmnefs 
of iu Fleih, which to others is % 
great Objedtion againU it ; fo thue 
as fomeefteem the breakiogp and 
others the melting Pears, I havcdif' 
tinguiflied them by theirDefcriptiont 
in fuch a manner, that every one 
may make choice of the Khids of 
Fruit which are agreeable to their 


P Y 

KJttes ; and the difiereat Seafont 
IB which each Kind ts in eatins;, be- 
ng exhibited (allowing a little for 
the Diference of Seaibns, which are 
ttdier (bme Yean than others }, it 
is not very difficnk for a tNerfon to 
nalce a Qilkdion of good Pears to 
fecceed each other throughout the 
Seafon of thefe Fruiu, both for eat- 
ing and baking. 

The Time of each Frait ripening, 
•sherefetdown» is taken at aMc- 
diuai ht feven Years, and in the 
Neighbourhood QlLmdom^ where all 
Sorts of Fruit generally ripen aFort« 
night or three Weeks earlier than in 
auDoft any Part o^ England ; and it 
is very obvious to every Perfon, who 
will attend to the Culture o£ Fruit* 
trees, that their Time of ripening is 
accelerated by long Cultivation s 
|br many of the Sorts of Pears, which 
jbme Years paft rarely became ripe 
i& Englmij unlefs they grew againft 
the Uft-afpeaed Walls, are now 
iband to ripen extremely well on 
IfpaHers and Dwarfs ; and thofe 
Pctts which feldom were in eating 
tillTnaory, are ripe two Montiis 
earlier: there is alfo a very grea( 
pifoence in their time of ripening 
in different Seafons ; for I have 
known the Fruit of a Pear-jtree in 
one Year all ripe and gone by the 
Middle of Odoher i and the very 
next Year the Fruit of the fameXree 
has not been fit to eat till the £nd 
^f Dtcmtiri fo that Allowance 
ftoold be made for thefe Accidents. 
The Befi de Chanmontelle Pear, 
about thirty Years paft, was feldom 
it to eat before Feimary ; and has 
eontmied good till the Middle of 
4'^^: hut now this Pear is com* 
nionly ripe in N^vemisr ; and when 
tt is plttited on a warm Soil, and 
agunft a good-afpeOed Wall, it is 
in eadng the Middle of Oaoher. 
This forwarding of the fevcral kinda 

p Y 

of Pears may be in ibme meafuce 
owing to the Shocks upon which 
they are grafted ; for if they are 
grafted upon early Summer Pear- 
ftocks, they will ripen much earlier 
than when they are upon hard Win- 
ter Pear- (locks : and if feme of the 
very foft melting Pears w^e grafted 
upon fuch Stocks as are raifed from 
toe moft auftere Fruit, fu^h as are 
Bever fit to eat, and of which the bell 
.Perry is made,- it would improve 
thofe Fruits, and continue thena 
mnch longer good ; or if the com- 
mon Free- Qocks were firft grafted 
with any of thefe hardWinter Pears, 
and when they have grown a Year» 
then to graft or bud. thefe foft melt- 
ing Pears upon them, it would have 
the lame E^Dd ; but the Pears fo 
raifed will require a Yearns more 
Growth in the Nurfery; andconfe- 
quently cannot be fold at • the fame 
Price as thofe which are raifed in the 
common Method, thefe requiring to 
be twice budded or grafted ; fo chat 
there is double Labour, befide Hand- 
ing a full Year longer : but this 
Difference in the firfl&cpenceof the 
Trees is not worth regardlgg by any 
Perfon who is defiroos to have good 
Fruit : for the fetting out in a right 
way is that which every one fliould 
be the moft careful of ; fince by 
ffijilaking at firlt, much time is loft ; 
and an After-expcnce of new Trfees 
often attends it. 

Another Caufe of Fruits ripening 
earlier now, than (bey formerly did^ 
may be from the Length of time 
they have been cult^vaced |for it it 
very certain, that moft Skuh of 
Plants have been greatly forwarded 
and improved by Culture, within 
the Space of thirty or forty Years, as 
may be known from the feveral Sorts 
of efculent Plants, which are culti- 
vated in the Kitchen-gardens $ and of 
which Sorts there are many which 

4D a are 

a?e aoAttalty improving: ahd tf we 
look back to die bell French Aa- 
thors^ who have written on the Sab- 
jt€t of Frait'trees, we fhftU find, that 
the times of ripening of many Sorts 
of Pears are pot down a Month or 
fix Weeks later aboat fifty Yeftrs 
ago, than they are now found to 
tipen about Paris : and here about 
London it is much the fame; for I 
cannot find they are the leaft for- 
warder in the times of their ripening 
at Parht than at London. 

The ripening of diefe FrtBts aMy^ 

P Y 

of Pears indifferently^ there are very 

great Obje^ions : ift, Becaufe fome 

Sorts of Pears will not thrive upoa 

thefe Stocks, bet in two or three Years 

will decay, or at moft ^U but juft 

keep alive. 2dly, Moft of the Sorts 

of hard breaking Pears are rencfered 

flony, and good for little s fa that 

whenever any of thefe Sorts are thus 

kijndicioufly ratfed, the Fruit, altho* 

the Kmd* be ever fo good, is con* 

demn*d as good for nothing, by fiidi 

as are not well acqnainted with it, 

^ „ , when the Fault is intirdy owine to 

dfo be accelerated by die Method of the Stock oa which k was gratted. 

proning and managing thefe Trees, On the cont r ary, moft melting but- 

which are greatly improved within 
the Space c? a few Years paft ; fo^ 
if we look into the Diredlions which 
are giyen by the beft Writers on this 
Sutjed, we ftiall foon difcover how 

tery Pears are greatly improved by 
beung upon Qumce-ftocks, provided 
they are planted on a ihong Soil : 
but if the Ground be very dry and 
gravelly, no Sort of Pear wfll do 

little they knew forty Years ago, of well upon Qjiince- flocks in fuck 
the true Method oiF pruning and Places 

managing all Sorts of Fruit-trees, 
fcarce one of them making any Dif- 
ference in the Management of the 
different Kinds of Fruit. 

Pears are propagated by budding 

Thefe generalDireftions being gr* 
ven, there is no Occafionto repeat any* 
Fart of the Method in which thefe 
Stocks are raifed, and tiic Fraits 
budded or giafted thereon; which 

or grafting them upon Stocks of has been already mentioned under 
their o««%i Kind, which are com- the Article of ^«r/«ri#/. 

monly called Free-ftocks, or upon 
^ince-ftodcs, or White- diom ; up- 
on all which thefe Fhiits wiU take ; 
but the latter Sort of Stock is now 
feldomufed, becaufe they never keep 
Pace in their Growth with the Fruit 
budded or grafted upon them ; as 
alfo becaufe the Fruit upon ^ch 
'Stocks are conunonly drier, and more 
apt to be ftony, than when they are ' 
'upon Pear-ftocks. Quince -ftocks 
are jpeady nfed in the Nurferies for 
all Soru. of Pears which are defigned 
for Dwarfs or Walls, in order to 
check the Luxuriancy of their 
Growth, fo that they may be kept 
within Compafs better than upon 
Free-ftocks. But againft the gene- 
ral Uffr of thefe Stocks^ for all Sorts 

The Diftance which diefe Tre^ 
Ihold be planted either againft WaHs 
or Eipaliers, nraft not be lefs than 
thirty Feet : but if they are phuited 
forty Feet, it will be better ; for if 
they have not room to fpread Oft 
each Side, it will be tmpofiUe tt> 
preferve them in good Order, efpe- 
cially thole on Free-ftocks ; for the 
more thefe Trees are pninedv the 
more they will flioot ; and, as I be> 
lore faid, many Sorts of Pears pro* 
duce their Bloftbiti-buds fisft at the 
Extremity of the former YearV 
Shoots, fo that when they are flioit- 
ttCdt the Fruit will be cut away^ 
and this cannot be avoided, wbefe 
the Trees have not room allowM ift 
their firft pfamting^ 

^ ^ This 

P Y P Y 

TUs Diftaace, I doabc not, will findl Tree of tbii Sort ofPear wUcii« 
be objeded to, bj many who have I ever have feen» was a large Staa* 
not fttlly attended to the Growth of dard • tree, in mjr' own Pofleffion, 
tfaefe Trees ; efpecialJy as it hAtJi wbofe Stem was not more than ten 
been the general Pradice of moft Feet Ugh, where the Branches 
Gardeners, to plant thefe Trees at came out regalarly on every Side, 
le& than half the Dillance which is and extended near thirty Feet 
here mention^ : but whoever will from the Trunk, many 0/ which 
hf at the Trouble to view any of were by the Weight of the Fruit in 
the& Trees which have been feme Summer brought down to the 
Years fbnding, will always find, Ground ; 'fo were obliged to be fup- 
where by Accident one of thefe ported with Poles all around the 
Trees has been planted agabft n Tree toward the Extremity of the 
Building, where the Branches have Branches, to prevent their lying up- 
had room to fpread, diat this Tree on the Ground ; and this Tree had 
has product nu>re Fruit than twelve its Branches fo difpos'd as to form a 
Trees which have been crouded natural Parabola of forty Feet in 
cIo&, and have not had room for Height, bearing from the loweft tp 
their Branches to extend. There the higheft Branches : fo that in a 
are feme Pear-trees now growing kindly Seafoii, when the Bloflbms 
which fpread more than hity Feet eicaped the Froft, it hath produced 
in Length, and are upward of twenty upward of two thoufand Pears; 
Feet high, which produce a much which were much better flavoured 
greater Quantity of Fruit than, if than any of the fame Sort, which t 
there had been three Trees they wolud have yet tailed. This Inftance I 
have done, in the dune room, as* mention, only to ihew how much 
there are Examples enough to prove, one of thefe Trees will fpread, if 
where Trees are planted againft proper room is allowed it ; and iUo 
Houfes, and the Ends of Buildings, to obferve, that as the Branches of 
at about twelve Feet, or much lefs this Tree had never been ihorten*d, 
DiiUnce; becaufe there is Height fo they were fruitful to their Extre* 
of Walling for them to grow : which mities. This ibews the Abfurdity of 
is the Reafon commonly given by the French Gardeners, who do not 
- thofe who plant thefe Trees fo cloie allow more than ten or twelve Feet 
together. But one Tree will bear Dillance to thefe Trees ; and fome 
more Fruit, when the Branches are of their moil approved Writers on 
trained horizontally, than three or this Subje£l have advifed the plant* 
four Trees, whofe Branches are led ing an Apple- tree between the Pear- 
npright : and there never can be any trees, where they are allowed twelve 
Danger of the upper Part of the Wall Feet ; and yet thefe Authors after- 
being left naked or unfumiihM; for ward fay, that a good Pear-tree will 
I have feen a Pear-tree which has (hoot three Feet each Way in one 
fpread more than fifty Feet in Width, Vear : therefore, according to their 
uid covered the Wall upward of own Accoant, the Trees fo planted 
thirty-fix Feet in Height. Thfs was mail have their Branches meet to* 
a Summer Bon-tritien Pear, and was gether in two or three Vears at mod | 
extremely fruitful, which rarely hap- and what mull be the Cafe with fuch 
pens to this Sort when they are not Trees, in five or fix Years, is not 
allowed a large Share of room. The diificult to know. But this Method 

4 I> 3 of 

P Y 

of Planting has not befn pecufiar to 
the French i for tnoft of the Gardens 
sn England have been little better 
planted . Indeed, t hofe Ferfons who 
were intmiled with the making and 
}>lanting mod of the EnffUJb Gar- 
densy had Kttle Skill of their own ; 
ib were obliged to follow the Diie- 
ffions of the Frenth Gardeners 5 of 
whom they had fo great an Opinion, 
as to get their Books tranflated ; and 
to thefe have added fome trifling 
Notes, which rather betrays tbeir 
Wcaknefs : for where they have ob- 
jedted to the little room which their 
Authors had allowed to thefe Trees, 
they have, at the moft, allowed them 
but three Ftet more : from which it 
38 plain, they had not coniiderM the 
natural Growth of the Trees s and 
whoever departs from Nature, may 
be juftly pronouncM an unfkilfal 

As moft of the Engirfi^ Gardens 
have been made and planted by 
perfons of little Judgment, it is very 
rare to find any of them which pro- 
duce much Fruit; for although many 
of thefe Gardens have been totally 
altered, and new-planted, yet they 
have feldom been much altered for 
the better ; and the PofiefTors have 
been put to theExpence of removing 
the old Trees, alfo the Earth of their 
Borders, and to purchafe new Trees, 
which have been planted perhaps a 
Foot or two farther afunder, than 
the old Trees, which wereremovM: 
fo that when the young Trees have 

Erown a few Years, they were in the 
ime Condition as the old, and it 
has been the Lofs of fo many Years 
to the Owner. But this will con- 
fhintly be the Cafe, when it is the 
Intereft of the Perfons employed, 
who can frf! fo many young Trees; 
and the planting of three times the 
Number of Trees in a Garden, 
more than is proper, may in fome 

P Y 

meafore be afcribM to the (anae^ 
though, in many Inftances, I fhoold 
be inclinable to think it has proceed- 
ed from Ignorance, rather dian Dte* 

But where Fruit-trees have been 
thus injndicioufly planted, if the 
Stocks art healthy and good, the 
beft way to recover this Lofs is, to 
dig up two or three, and leave every 
third or fourth Tree, according to 
the Diftanee which they were plant- 
ad r and fpread down the Branchea 
of thofe which are left horizontally, 
I mean, all fuch as are capable of 
being fo brought down ; but ihofe 
which are too ftubborn for this, 
fhould be cut ofF near* the Stem^ 
where there will be new Shoots 
enough produced to fumifli the Wal! 
or Eipalier : and if the Sort of Frait 
is not the fame as defired, the young 
Branches may be budded the fame 
Summer, or grafted the following 
Spring, with any other Sort of Pear; 
and hereby many Years may be 
faved ; for one of thefe old Trees 
will fpread to a moeh greater 
Length, and produce moro Fruit, 
when thus managed, in three Years, 
than a new Tree will in ten or 
twelves efpecialty if the Ground is 
mended. This is a Method which 
I have prafiifed with great Succefs, 
where I have been employed to 
amend the Blunders of thefe great 
Gardeners, as they are ftilcd ; and 
hereby the Walls and Efpatiers have 
been well fumi(h*d in a few Years. 

But the next thing to be done, af« 
ter being furnifliM with proper 
Trees, is the preparing of the 
Ground to receive them ; in doing 
which, there fhould be great Resard 
had to the Nature of the Soil wbere 
the Trees are to grow : fpr if it is a 
ftrong fliff Land, and fubjed to Wet 
in the Winter, the Borders fhould be 
raifed as mnch above the Levtl ef 

P Y 

the Grcmnd ts you convenieady 
tan. And if ander the goqd Soil 
there M a Taffident Qaantity of 
lirne^ Rabbifh, or Stones, laid, to 
prevent the Roots of the Trees from 
ronniog downward, it will be of 
great Service to the Trees. The 
Sofders for chefe (hould not be left 
than ^ght Feet broad; but if they 
are twdve, it will be ftill better. 
And as thefe Borders may be plant- 
ed with fuch Sorts of efculent Plants 
IS do not grow large, or whofe 
Roots do not grow deep, or mat to- 
gether on the Surface, thefe will* do 
no Harm to the Pear-trees $ for 
thefe are not fo nice in their Coltare 
as Peach and Nedarioe-trees ; fo 
the taming of the Ground, and 
meading of it, for thefe Crops, will 
rather improvp, than injure the 
Trees ; provided the Plants do not 
ihade the Trees, or aie not fuffer^d 
to ftand too long upon the Borders. 
Sat all the Cabbage-kind, as alfo 
Beans, (hould be excluded from thefe 
Border^ ; becaufe they root deep in 
the Ground, amd draw muoh Nou- 
rifliment front the Trees. 

But if the Soil is (hallow, and the 
Bottom is either Gravel or Chalk, 
there muft be a fufficient Depth of 
good £arth laid upon the Borders, 
U) as to make them two Feet and an 
half deep ; for if the Ground is not 
of this Depth, the Trees will not 
thrive well. And in doing of this, 
I maft caution every- Perfon not to 
dig out the Gravel in a Trench (as 
IS hy fome pradisM), and fill this 
Trench with good Earth; for by fo 
doiog, when the Rooc» of the Trees 
are extended to the Width of the 
Trench, they will meet with the 
Gravel, which will (lop them; fo 
that they will be confinM, as if they 
were in Tubs of Earth, whereby the 
Trees will be foon fpoiled : therefore 
when the Gravel or Chalk is re* 

p Y 

aaored, it flienld be inditly taken 
away over the whole Garden : other«> 
wife it will be better to raife the 
whole Border above it. 

If the Garden is to be new-made 
from a Field, then all the gooA 
Earth on the Surface Iboold be care- 
fully preferred i and if t)ie good 
Ground is taken out where the 
Walks are deiignM to be made, and 
kid npoB the Borders, or in the 
Quarters, it will add to the Depth 
"of the Soil, and fave Expence in 
bringing in of new Earth. If the 
Ground' can be prepared one Year 
before it is planted, the Trees will 
thrive the better } for by laying the 
Ground in Ridges, and turning it 
over two or three times, it will loofea 
the Soil, and render it much better 
for planting : but in trenching, or 
plowing of the Ground, there fliould 
be great Care takeA not to go deep* 
cr than the Ground is good i other- 
wife all the good Soil will be buried 
below the Roots, and the bad Ground 
will be tuped on the Top i which if 
what I have known done at a great 
Expence, by Perfons who have Men 
at the Top of their Profeffion, and 
have thereby intirely ruio*d the Gar- 

Where there is a Necefliry of 
bringing in any fre(h Earih for the 
Borders, it will be proper to do it aa 
foon as poffible, and to mix this with 
the Surface-earth of the Borders^ 
that it nuy be turned over two or 
three times, that the Pares may be 
well mixed and incorporated, before 
the Trees are planted ; and if fome 
very rotten Dung is added to thisf, it 
will gready improve it. In chooiing 
of the Earth which is to be brought 
into the Garden, there (hould be 
this Care ^ *ukc. that if the natural 
Soil of the Garden is light and dry, 
then the new Earth fhould be loamy 
and ftiflf : but where the natural Soil 

4l>4 ¥ 

P V P Y 

SB ftrong or loamy, thin lU new ttees; w'z. To ptt olF aH A« fSoiiA 

Earth ihoa}d be light and Tandy, Fibres from the Root*, aad to fliorttt^ 

which will loofen the Parts of the fomeofthelongeft Roots, and cot o|^ 

Bataral Soil, and greatly m^d it. alt the bri^ifcd ones, or foch as ihooa 

There are fome Pedons who re- downright; this beine done, 7014 

commend the layi^ the wholeDiq>th fhould plant them in tne Places in^ 

of the {[orders with what tl^ey call tended, at the before-aentio^^d Di- 

Virgin - earth ; " that is, foch as is ft^mce. The beft time to plant tkefe 

taken from ft Paftare where the Trees (if upon a middling- or drf 

Land has not been plowed. Bat if Soil) js in Offoht^^ \tmp^ their 

this is not brought into .the Qarden Heads on till Spring; which ihoni4 

at \t9A one Year before the Trees are be faften*d to the W^ls pr Stakes^ 

planted, that by tiirning it over oU to prevent the Wind from diftiirbing 

ten it may be fweeten*d, it will ^ot their Roots ; and ^n tha Beginning^ 

be fo good as thatwhi^ is (aken pf ^r^^^ tlieir Head' A^ould be cat 

from a Kitchen-garden, or an arable off, in the manner already direded 

fTield, where the Land is good, and for Peaches, and other Fruit-trees s, 

\Sifi been well wrpagfat ; for by often <d>fenring dfo to lay fome Mulch 

turning and breaking of the Soil, it upon the Suffacf of the Groincl 

yniX be the better prepfkr\r to receive abotft their Ropts when they are 

|he Trees. planted ; as hath been feveral timea 

Others recommend the mixing a already direded fo/ other Trees, 

great Qaanticy of rotten Dung with The firft Summer after planting, 

the Earth of the Borders y but this is the Branches fhould be trained to the 

not fo proper | for by making of the Wall or Efpalier (againft which thejf: 

Qround too rich» it will only encou- are planted) in an horitsontal Pofi- 

Vage the luxuriant Growth of the tion, as they are produced, without 

Trees : therefore it is always bettei^ (horteningof the m ; and the MrchMt/- 

to mend the Borders from time to maj following fome of thefe Shoots 

time, as they may require, and not fhould be ihorten^^ down to five or 

10 add fo much Dupg in ^he fyfi fix Eyes/ in order ^ obtain a fufi^ 

making them. dent Quantity of Brai^hes, to fnr- 

Another Care is required, in the aifli the lower Patt of the Wall qk 

making of the Borders on wet Efpalier. But when this is done. 

Ground ; which is to contrive fome the Shoots ought not tp be fliortaiM. 

covered Drains to convey off the Wa- unlefs where there is a want of 

ter in Winter; othex^ife, by this Branches to fill a Vacancy j therdr<m 
being detained about the Roots of the lefs the Knife is ufed to thde 

the Trees, it will greatly prejudice Trees, the better they will fucceed : 

them ; and in the building of the for whenever the Shoots are flopped. 

Walls round a Kitchen - garden, it« occafions the Buds immediately 

where the Ground is inclinable to be below the Cut to fend forth tira or 

wet, there ihonld be fome Arches more Shoots, whereby there will be 

tornM in the Foundations of thofp a Confufion pf Branches ; and rarely 

Walls which are in the loweft Part any Friiit is produced with this Ma- 

of the Garden, to let oiF the W^t. nagement. 

The manner of preparing thefe The Difbnce which the Branches 

Trees for Planting is the fame as of Pears ihould be trained, muft be 

hath been dimmed (pr other Fruicr proportioned to the Size of theirPruit. 



P Y 


9dA&»Ii wbofe FrqiC aic fknatt, of the laft Ynfs Sliooti ; fo thit If 
Ittf be dlow'd five or fix Inches i thefe are ihortcned, the filoffonu are 
-ta the larger Sorts maft not he lefs cat o£P. Bat this is not all the Da* 
ma fevea or eight Inches afander. - aiage t for (as I before faid) this oe- 
K tUs be daly obicrvM, ^d the cafions the Bods inijnediaMjr below 
Inncbcs earefally trained horizon- the Cut to pat forth two or mora 

tsDjr as they are prodocM, there will 
ieaoQccafion for fioi much cuttine 
n it coflnmonly^ praAisM on the(e 
Tten ; which, i'nilead of checking 
'^r Growth^ docs, on the contrary, 
puie them tp ihoot the ftronger. 

It k ?ery forprifing to md the 
(edioas Methods which moft of t)ie 
Wrifm on Frait-trees hate direded 
fbr praoiog of thefe Trees ; for, by 
tbdr prolij^and perplexed Methods, 
one woold imagine they had endea« 
foorM 10 reader tfaemi^l ves as onin* 
feUigible as poffiUe : and this, I am 
fine, may he aArm*d, That it is nea^t 
to hnpofiible for a Learner ever to 
fnire at any tolerable Skill in pf one- 
iBg, h^ the tedions and perplexed 
pindsons which are pnhlifh'd hj 
Monfieor ^inihu^^ and thofe who 
hivt copied from him i for as thefe 
hft all fet out wrong in dif Be- 
|;iaaing9 f>J ^Uowing their Trees 
m than half the Diftance which 
they ihould be planted, fo they hi|ve 
prdbibed Rnles to keep them with* 
hi tfas^Coippais^ which are tti€ 910ft 
fbfard, and contrary to all Reafoai 
therefore foonld not be praAifod t^ 

Shoots, whereby the Nnmber of 
Branches will be utrtafed, and the 
Tree aouded too much with Woodi 
bciides, diofo Buds, which by thia 
M^tnagemeat produce Shoots, woald 
have only prodncM Corfons and 
Spurs, opon which the Bloilbm-bods 
are prodaqpd, if the leading Branch 
had not been ihorten*d| therefore 
thefe flionld nerer be ftoppVi, unlefi 
to fumKh Wood to fill a Vacancy. 

It is not neceflary to provide a new 
Sapply of Wood in Pear - trees, at 
moft be done for Peaches, NcAarinet. 
&r. whidi only produce their Fruit 
9pon young Wood ; for Pears pro- 
duce their Fimt upon Cnrfons or 
Spurs, whidi are emitted froni 
Bnmches which are three or font 
Years old 1 which Cnrfons continoe 
fruitful many Years : fo that wheve 
thefe Trees have been ikilfolly ma* 
nag'd, I have feen Branches whidi 
have been trained horizontally^ 
opwiud of tifenty Feet from, 
the Trunk of the Tree, and 
have been fruitful their whdb 
Length. And if" we do bntvare- 
foliy obferve the Branches of aa, 

thde Perfons who are 4e$roi;is of healthfol Sundard<tree, which hat 

ittTing plenty of Fruit. been permitted to grow withoot 

I &n theiefore only lay down '$, pruning, we ihall &id many that 

km necefiary Dire£Hons for the are ten or twdve Years c^d, or 

pnmng and managing of thefe more, which are vtn full of thefe 

Trees ; which (ha^ be done in as few Curfons ; apon whicb a good Nnm* 

Woids as po^ble, that a Learner 
any the more eafily underft^ it ; 
and which (together with proper 
Qbfervations) will be fnffident to in- 
irad any Perfon in the right Ma» 
aagement of them. 

Pear-trees generally prodace their 
KofDim-buds fir$ ftt the 

ber of Fruit is annually prod«c*d. 

During the Summer-fcafon thefe 
Trees ihould be often look*d over^ 
lo train in the Shoots, as they are 
produced, reeiukrly, to the Wall or 
Efpalier, and to diifolace f ore-righC 
and luxuriant Branches as they ihoot 
out I whemby tbe Fruit will be 


P Y 

tqiuOy expofed to the Air smd 
SttDf which will render (hem more 
beautiful » and better tafted, than 
when they are ihaded by the 
Branches; and by thus managing 
the Trees in Sommer» they will al« 
ways appear beautiful ; and in Win- 
ser they will want, but little prone- 


Where Pear-trees are thus rega* 
larly trainMy without flopping of 
their Shoots, and have full room for 
their Bnmches to extend on each 
Side, there will never be any Occa- 
£on for diibarking of the Branches, 
0r cutting oflF the Roots (as hath 
been dircded by feveral Writers on 
Gardening); which Methods, how- 
ever they may anfwer the Intention 
for the prcfent, yei will certainly 
greatly injure the Trees; as mnftall 
violent Amputations, which (hould 
ever be avoiaed, as much as poffible, 
o;i Froit-trees ; and' this, I am fure, 
can never be wanted, where Trees 
have been rightly [Wanted, and re- 
gularly trained, while young. 

The Seafon for pruning of thefe 
Trees is any time after the Fruits 
are g^hered, until the Beginning of 
March ; but the fooner it is done, 
after the Fruit is gathered, the bet- 
ter, for Reafons already given for 
pruning of Peach-trees; though in- 
deed, the deferring of thefe until 
.Spring, where there are large Quan- 
tities of Trees to prpne, is not fo in- 
jurious to them, as to fome more 
tender Fruits : but if the Branches 
.are regularly trained in the Sommer, 
jmd the luxuriant Shoots rubb*d off, 
tbexe will be little left to do to them 
in Winter. 

All the Softs of Summer Pearii 
will ripen very well, either on Stan- 
dards, Dwarfs, or Efpaliers'; as will 
all the Autumn Pears, upon Dwarfs 
or Efpalien; but where a Perfon it 
very curious in his Fruit, I would al- 

ways edvife the planting themagainE 
Efpalien; in which Method they 
take up but little room in a Garden, 
and, if they are well managM, ap- 
pear very beautiful ; and the Fruit it 
larger and better-tafted than thofe 
produced on Dwarft, as hath ben 
already obferv'd : but fome of the 
Winter Pears muft be planted againft 
Eaft, South -eaft, 'or South -weft 
Walls ; otherwife they will hot ripen 
well in Emgland, in bad Seafont. 

But altho* this may be the Cde 
with fome of the late Winter Pears, 
in very bad Seafons ; yet, in gene- 
ral, moft Soru of them will ripen 
extremely well in all warm Sitna- 
tions, when they are planted in Ef« 
palier ; and the Fruit will be better 
flavoured than that which grows 
againft Walls, and will keep moch 
longer good : for as theHeat againft 
Wi& which are extofed^o the Son, 
will be very great at fome Hmes, 
and at others there will be little 
Warmth; fo all Fruits which grow 
near them, will be haften*d nneqoal* 
ly ; and therefore is never fo wcll- 
fiavour^d as the fame Sorts are which 
ripen well in the open Air : and all 
the Fruit which is ripenM thus nn- 
equtlly^ will decay much fooner 
than thofe which ripen gradually in 
the open Air : therefore thofe Wia« 
ter Pears which grow in Efpalierg 
may be kept fix Weeks longer than 
thofe which grow againft Walls r 
which is a very defirable thing.* For 
to have plenty of thefe Fruit, at a 
Seafon when it is very rare to find 
any other Fruit to fupply the Table 
but Apples, is what ail Lovert of 
Fruit muft be greatly pleas'd to en- 
joy : which is what may be efiUled, 
by planting many of the late Sorts in 
Efpalier ; where, although the Fmie 
will not be fo well colour'd as thofit 
frotn the Walls, yet they will be 
found exceeding good. When the 

P Y 

Biji iu OMumMielle came firft to 
Ei^kHdy the Trees were planted in 
Sfpdier ; and Tome of them not on 
t very good Sot}, or in a warm Si- 
toation ; and yet from thefe Trees I 
IftTe eaten this Pear in great Per- 
fedion in JfriU and fometimes it 
bas kept till May ; whereas all thofe 
which have been fince planted againft 
Walls, ripen their Frait by the fie* 
ginning of November^ and are gene- 
rally gone by the Middle of Dteim- 
htr; nor are thefe latter fo well 
tailed as thofe of the Efpaliers. 

The Virgwlem/e and St, Germain^ 
is alfo the Calmar, are efteemM the 
moft difficult Sorts to ripen their 
Frait! yet thefe I have eaten in 
great Ferfe£tion from Efpaliers, and 
often from Standard- trees, where 
they grew upon a warm Soil ; but 
the Fruit was much fmaller on the 
Standard - trees, than thofe of the 
fame Sorts which grew againfl Walls 
orEfpalierssbuttheywerefttllas well- 
Ihvour'd. And fome of thefe Sorts 
I have eaten good in Jfnl, which is 
two Months later than thefe Sorta 
ufually keep. But yet I would not 
adyKethe planting of thefe late Pears 
in Standards, becaufe they fhoold 
bang very late on the Trees in the 
Atttumn; at which Seafon, the 
Winds are generally very high, and 
thefe Standard-trees being much ex- 
posed, the Fruit is often blown oflT 
the Trees before they are ripe ; and 
thofe of them which may hang on 
the Trees, are frequently bruifed by 
being forc*d againft the Branches by 
the Winds, fo that they feldom keep 
well. What I mentioned this for^ is 
to prove, that thefe Pears will ripefi 
▼ery well without the Affiftance of a 
Wall ; fo that if they are planted In 
Efpaliers, where the Trees are kept 
low, the Froic will not be fo much 
ezpos*d to the ftrong Winds in the 
Autumn, as thofcf on the Standards; 

P Y 

therefore can be in no Danger of tiho 
Fruit coming to Perfedtion. And as 
the Trees in Efpalier wHl be con- 
ftantly pruned, and managed in the 
fiune manner as thofe agamft Walla , 
fo the Fruit will be as large on thofe 
Trees : therefore where a Perfon haa 
a warm Sitnatioo, and a kindly Soil^ 
I would not advife the being at an 
Expence to build Walls on purpofe 
for Pears, but to plant them againft 
Eijpaliers ; and where there is any 
one who ts very curious in having 
plenty of thefe Fruit, and will be at 
fome Expence to procure them, I 
ihould advife the having a fuffidenc 
Quantity of Reed Mats made, to £x 
op againft the Back of the Efpalier 
in the Spring, when the Trees are in 
Bloflbm; which will fcreen them 
from cold Winds, and freC^rve the 
tender Fruit until they are paft Dan- 
ger 2 when the Reeds may be taken 
down, and pnt under a Shed to pre- 
ferve them from the Weather. And 
if the Autumn ihould prove bad, 
thefe Reeds may be fix*a np again, 
which will forward the ripening of 
the Fruit, and alfo prevent the 
Winds from blowing down, and 
bruifmg of it. Thefe Reeds may be 
purchased for one Shilling per Yard, 
running Meafure, at fix Feet and an 
half high i and if they are carefully 
laid up, and kept from the Wea- 
ther, thefe Reeds will laft feven or 
eight Yean; fo that the Expence 
will not be very mat : and when 
the Advantages which thefe are of 
to the Fruit are confider*d, I believe 
no Perfon will objed to the Ufe of 

But after the Fruit is fet, and 
growing, there will be farther Care 
neceflary in order to have the Frnit 
good ; for it is not enoueh to have 
preferved a good Crop of Fruit on 
the Trees, and then to leave them 
intirdy to Nature, daring the Sea* 


Cm ct tbdr Growdi ; hut there wlH 
rcqaiie ibme Skill ami Atfieiubiice 
pa the Trees* to hdp Nature, or 
(iipply the Deficieocy of the Sea- 
£ms : for befide the priwixig and 
trainiog theTrees, in the maimer. 
Iiefoxe dieedted, there will alfo be 
vaadng fome Management of their 
fjootiy aocDcding to ihe Nature of 
the Soil, and the Difference of Sea*- 
jfons. In aU ftrong Land, where the 
Ground ii apt to bind very hard in 
dxy Weather, the Sor&ce of tht 
Borders ihoold be now -and -then 
forked over, to loofen the Earth ; 
whtdi will admit the Showers, and 
large Dews, to penetrate and moiften 
die Ground, and be of great Service 
to the Trees and Fmit, and alfo 
iirevent the Growth of Weeds. And 
, if the Soil is light and dry, and the 
Seaien ibould prove hot and dry, 
Ihere ihould be laJ^ Hollows qiade 
round the Stems of the Trees, to 
hold Water; and into each of theft 
there (hould be poured ei^t or nine 
l^otsofWateri which Ihould be re* 

Gated once a Week during the 
onths of Jwu and July, U the 
Seafon ihould continae dry. There 
(hould alfo be fome Mulch laid over 
the Surface of thefe HoUows, to pre- 
vent the Sun and Air from drying 
the Ground. Whese this is pradtisM, 
the Fruit will he kept conftantly 
growing, and prove large and plump; 
IKhereas, if this is omitted* the Fruit 
lirill often be imall, grow crooked, 
crack, and fall off from the Trees^ 
For if the Prnit is once ftinted in 
their Growth, and Rain ihould fiJl 
plentifully after, it will occafion ^ 
gceat Quantity of the Fruit to fall 
off the Trees; and tfaoie which re- 
main to ripen, will not keep fo 
img, as thofe which never receive 
any .Check m their Growth ; and it 
is from this Caufe, that fome Years 
the Fruit in general decays before 

P Y 

the nfoal time. For after it hat beei| 
for fome time ftinted in its Growth, 
and then the Seafon proves favour- 
able, whereby it receives a. fuddes 
Growth, it becomes {6 replete with 
Juices as to dillend the VeffelSf 
whereby a Mortification often en- 
fees : therefore it is always beft t9 
keep the Fruit conilantly in a grow- 
ii^ State, whereby it will acquire a 
pix>per Size, and he rendered better 

There will 9U6 require fomeDreff- 
ittg to the Ground near the Fruity 
trees ; but this fliould be laid on in 
Autumn, after the Trees are pnuied. 
This Dreffing ihouU be different, ac- 
cording to the Nature of the Soil : 
if the Land is warm and diy, dien 
die Dreiling ihould be of very rotten 
Dung, miiced with Loami and if 
this is mixed fix or eight Months be- 
fore it is laid upon the Borders, and 
three or four times turned over, it 
will be the better : as will alfo the 
Mixture, if it is made with Neats- 
dung, or |Iog«dungs both which 
are colder than Horfe<dung» fo more 
proper for an hoc land, wi in cold 
ftitt Land, rotten Horfe-duag, mixed 
with light fandy Earth, or Sea-coal 
Aihes, will be the moft proper, aa 
this will loofen the Ground, smd add 
a Warmth to it. 

Thefe Dreflingi (hould be repeat^ 
ad every other Year, otherwiie the 
Trees will not thrive fo well, nor 
Will the Fruit be fo good. For, not« 
withftanding what 'many Peribw 
have advanced to the contrary, yet 
Experience is againft them ; for the 
findl Fruit in EmglanJ^ both as to 
Siae and Flavour, is producd on 
Land which is the moft dunged and 
worked. Therefore I would advifo 
the trenching of the Ground about 
the Fruit-trees Ycry well every Win- 
ter ; for I am fare they wtU find it 
anfwer their Expedations, who will 


P Y 

jnBak this Metliod. And where 
tJie GrooBd ia the Qoarters is well . 
dftfled 2nd trenched, the Fruit-trees 
will pertake ef the Senefit ; for ts 
the Trees advance in their Growth, 
{• didr Roots are extended to a great 
Diflance from their Stems ; and it ti 
chiefly from the difiant Roots that 
tile Trees are fupplied widi their 
NoorifluBent ; therefore the dreffing 
tif die Borders only, will not be ruf- 
ficient for fruit-trees which are oM. 

In tke gathering of th« Pears, 
rat Regard ihould be had to the 
Bod which is fbrmM at the Bottom 
of die Poot-Mk, for thcrnext Yearns 
BUfaffls i which, by forcing off the 
Pear before it be mattire, is» many 
tunei, fpoilM ; for while the Fruit 
it glowing, there is always a Bud 
fenn'd by the 8ide of the Footftalk, 
•poa the iame Spur, for the next 
Yen's Fnut ; fo that whoi the Pears 
aie ripe, if they are gently tom*d 
■pivkrd, the Footftalk will readily 
part from the Spar, without injure- 
iog the Bud. 

The Seafon for gathering all 
Soauncr Pears is joft as they ripen ; 
fcr aoae of thefe will remain good 
Above a Day or two after they are 
l>kenfW>m the Tree: nor willmany 
ti the Autumn Pears keep good 
>bove ten Days, or a Fortnight, af- 
ter they are gathered. But the Win* 
ter^froits fhould hang as long upon 
the Trees as the Seafon will permit ; 
for they mull not receive the Froft, 
which will caufe them to rot, and 
tender their Jnioes flat, and ill-taft* 
cd: but if the Weather continues 
aild until the Middle of 0^#^, it 
win then be a good Seaibn for ga* 
thering them in ; which muft always 
he done in diy Weather, and when 
the Trees are peilefily ixy. 

Tn the dosog ^ tlds. voo 0U|^ 
carefully to avoid bruimiig them ; 

ill Baflcet to lay them in as thiy aM 
|;ather'd ; and when they are carried 
into the Store-room, they ihould be 
uken out fingly, and each Sort bii4 
up in a clofe Heap, on a dry PJ«ce» 
in order to fweat, where they may 
remain for ten Days.or a Fortnight i 
darine which time the Window* 
ihould be open, to admit thd Air, in 
order to carry off all the MoitM 
which b perfpired fixMU tiie Fruit i 
after this, the Pean flioold be taken 
fingly, and wiped dry with a woollen 
Cloth, and then pack'd up in dofe 
BaJkets ; obferving to pot fome fw«et 
Wfaeat-(fa«w in the Bottoms, inl 
round the Sides of the Baskets, t» 
wevtmt their bruifing againil the 
Basketa. And if fome thick feft 
Paper is laid double or treble aH 
lOund the Basket, between the Straw 
and the Pears, this will prevent die 
Pears firom imbibing the mufty TaAo 

Shich is communicated to them by 
le Straw, when they are contigo*' 
ous; which Tafte often penetrates, 
thro* the Skin fo ftrongly, that when 
the Fruit is pared, the Tade will re- 
main. Yon ihoold alfe ob(me an 
put but one Sort of F^uit into a 
Basket, left, by their different Fer^ 
mentations, they ihould rot each 
other t but if you hare enough of 
one Sort to fill a Basket which holds 
two or three Bulhels, it will be ftiH 
better. After you have fill*d the 
Baskets, you moft cover them Cftet 
with IVheat-ftraw very dofo ; iirft 
laying a Covering of Paper two or 
three times douHeoYer the Frai^ 
and fatten them down ; then place 
thefe Baskets in a clofe Room, where 
they may be kept dry, and fi-om 
Froft ; but the lels Air is let int«> 
the Room, the better the Fruit wilt 
keep, k wHJ be wry neceftary 0» 
fix • Labd t» each Basket, denotii^ 
At Sort df Ftuit therein ^ontainM s 

therefore yon Aodd katc a broad iriiiehwiliikTe the Troublrof open- 

tog Aem, whenever yon want tb 
know the Sorts of Fruit: befides^ they 
ought not to be openM before their 
Seafon to be eaten ; for the oftener 
they are opened, and exposed to the 
Air» the worfe they will keep. I 
don^t doabt but this will be objected 
to by many, who imagine Fruit 
can't be laid too thin ; for which 
JReafoOy they make Shelves to dif- 
pofe them fingly upon, and are very 
£ond of admitting frelh Air» when- 
ever the Weather is mild, fuppofing 
it very neceflary to preferve the 
Fruit : bat the contrary of this is 
found true, by tbofe Perfons who 
have large Stocks of Fruit Uud up in 
their Scorehoufes in Z^m^h, which 
remun dofely (hut up for feveral 
Months, in the manner before re- 
lated ; and when thefe are open'd, 
the Fruit is always found plumper 
and founder than any of thofe Fruits 
which were prefervU fingly upon 
Shelves, whofe Skins are always 
jhciveird and dry. For (as Mr. So^is 
obferves the Air tsthe Caufe ofPu- 
trefadion ; and, in order to prove 
this, that honourable Perfon put 
Fruits of feveral Kinds into GlaiTcs 
where the Air was exhaufted, in 
which Places they remained found 
fer feveral Months ; but, upon be? 
ing expos*d to the Air, rotted jn a 
very (hort time } whkh plainly (hews 
the Abfurdity of the common Me- 
thod Qow uied to preferve Fruit. 

Ui(MOCLIT, Bind' 

The CharAMirs are; 

Jb^d liki a Fmmui, and thnAi ^ 
the T^ into fpotral Segmmts : /ram 
the FUnvetT'tup rs/es tie Patteiml^ 
nMthicb e^emnetrd bee§mi$ a rnmMJb 
Fruity inclofing feveral abki^ Seeds. 

We have but one Speeiee of this 
Plant in Englandi which is, 

Qv hMOK^LiT filiis temmteriucifis^ 
^ pennatis, 7oum> QtiamocUt with 
very fine-cut winged Leaves^ com- 
monly eaird, in Barbades, Sweet 

This Plant b very common in 
Jamaica^ Barbados^ and the Carib^ 
bee IJiands^ where it climbs upon 
Bufiies, Hedges, or whatever grows 
near it, and produces grea^ Quanti- 
ties of beautiful fcarlct Flowers, al- 
mod of the Figure of a fmall Con- 
volvulus-flower j but the Tube be- 
ing much longer, and the Seeds be* 
ing of a diflnerent Figure from thofe 
of the Convolvulus, Monfieur 7ip«r- 
nefort hath feparated it from that 
Grenus. The Seeds of this Plant are 

Senerally brought into England every 
pring, from the Wefilndies : they 
ihoula be fown on an Hot-bed in 
Marcb } and when the Plants are 
come up, they muft be planted each 
into a fmall Pot fiird with light 
fandy Earth, and plong^ into a 
frefh Hot-bed, to bring the Plants 
forward. As the Plants advance in 
Height, fo they (hould be removed 
into larger Pots, and Sticks placed 
down by them, for them to climb 
upon. They muft alfo be removed 
to a frefh Hot-bed, when the old 
one has loft iu Heat ; and when the 
Plants are too high to be contain*d 
under Frames, they flioold be re- 
moved into the Stove, where, if they 
plunged into a moderate Hot-bed of 
Tanners Bark, and not too muck 
drawn, they will produce a great 
Quantity of beautiful fearlet low- 
ers, and ripen their Seeds very welU 
bat if they are ejcpofed to the open 



Air, they feldom flower in thii Conn- 
try, lliU Plant continues bat one 
Year, the Root periihing foon after 
(he Seeds are ripe. 

QUERCUSI, The Oak-tree. 
The CbaraBers are i 

It bath Mali Flowers (or Kat' 
iimj, nvbicb confifi of a gnat Nam* 
her of Jmall flimdtr Threads : the 
Emhyoes, 'which are frodac'i at re* 
mne JHfiemcii from tbefe^ on the Jams 
TreOf do aftemumrd become Acorns^ 
which are produced in hardfcaly Cups: 
to which may be added^ the Leagues 

The Species are ; 

1. Q^JERCVs latifoUa. Park. 
Theat. The common Oak. 

2. QuERCUS latifolia mas, qiuf 
bnvipedicalo eft. C. B, ?. Oak wiih 
the Acorns on (hort Footllalks. 

3. Que ROUS latifolia^ foliis ex 
alho iliganter 'variegatis. The Hii- 
pcd Oak. 

4. QuERCVs latifolia perpetitaw' 
rens. C.B.P. The broad -lea? 'd 
ever-green Oak. 

$. Que ROUS calyce echinato^glan' 
de majore. C. B. P. Oak with large 
Acorns, having prickly Cups. 

6. Que ROUS htamlis, gaUis hints ^ 
terms, ant plsiribus fimml jsas^is. 
C, B. P. Dwarf Oak, tmlgo. 

7. QlJBRCUS parva^ fpve Phagus 
Qrarconim, ifT EfcnlsuPlinii.C.B.P. 
The Sweet Oak. 

5. QuBRCVS caljce bij^do, glande 
tmnore. C. Si P. Oak with fmall 
AconiSy having a prickly Cap. 

o. Qvercvs BMrgmndiaca, cafyee 
bi^do. a B. P. The Burgundy Oak, 
whole Acorns have prickly Cups. 

ID. QuBRCVS pedem nnscfuptre^. 
C. B. P. Dwarf Oak. 

11. QpRUCVt foliis suoUi lasmgine 
pubefcesstibus. C. B. P. Oak with 
foft woolly Leaves. 

1 2 . Qu s RCU s gallam exigu^ nucit 
magnitstdisu /trim. CB.P. Qak 

Q U 

which bears fmall Galls not largar 
than Nuu. 

13. QvEKCVs foliis muHcatis, nom 
lanuginofis, galla fuperiori fimiU, C, 
B, P. Oak with prickly Leaves, 
which arc not woolly, bearing Galla 
like the former. 

14. QvZ9,cvsfo/iis muricatis, ml* 
nor. C JB. P. Smaller Oak, witt 
prickly Leaves. 

15* QvBi^cus latifolia^ ^agn^ 

fruau, calyce tuherculis ohfUo, Toune. 

Cor. Broad-leav*d Oak, with larg^ 

Acorns, whofe Cups are bcfct with 


16. QifERCUS Orientalis, glan^ 
cylittdriformi, longo pediculo infidente^ 
Toum. Cor. Eaftcrn Oak, with cy- 
lindrical Acorns growing on lone 
Footftalks. * 

17. Quercus Orientcli^ caflane^ 
folio, glanderecondita in cupula craffis 

tsf fquamofa. Toum, Cor. Eaftera 
Oak, with a Cheftnut - leaf, whofe 
Acoriis are doiely ihut up in a thick 
fcaly Cup. 

18. Quercus OrientaUs anguftU 
folia^ glande minori^ cupula crinita. 

Tourn, Cor. Eaftern Oak, with k 
narrow Leaf, and a fmaller Acora^ 
whofe Cup is hairy. 

19. Quercus OrientaUs latifojta, 
glastdi maxima^ cupula criuita. Toum. 
Cor. Eaftern' Oak, with a broad 
Leaf, and the largeft Acorn, whofir 

^ Cup is haiiy. 

20. Qv B ROUS OrientaUs latifolia, 
fbliis adcoftam pulcbre incifis, glande 

snascima, cupula crinita, Toum. Cor, 
Eaftern broad -leav'd Oak, whpft 
Leaves are finely cat to the Stalks, 
and a very large Acorn, whofe Cup 
is hairy. 

21. Quercus Orientalis, foUo 
fubrotundo minoriyglandema^aftria* 
ta. Toum. Cor. Eaftern Oak, with 
a fmaller roundiih Leaf, and a large 
ftriated Acorn. 

22. QuBRCUS OrientaUs f folio 


fuintmtdOf leviier incifiy frudu hi- 
nori cylindriformi. Toum, Cor. Eaft- 
cm Oaky with a roundifh Leaf, 
l^hdy cot in, and a. fmaller cylin- 
drical Froic. 

23. QyERCUS Firginiana, rubris 
wenis mwricata. Pluk. thyt. The 
Ftrgiman fcarlet Oak. 

24. QytaciTs caftMte^folih^prt' 
€tra arbor Virginitma. Pluk, Pbyt. 
Virgiman Oak> with Cheftnut-Ieaves. 

2e. Que ROUS alba Firgtniami, 
fork, fbtat. The white or iron 
Oak of. Firgtnia. 

16. QuERC^S Firginiana^ falicis 
tongiort foUo^ fru^u minimo, Fluk. 
jfmaiib. FirgintoH willow - leaved 


27. QuERCVS pgmi/iti eaftane^ 
fiU^y Firpmtnfis, PUk. Almag. The 
Chinquepin Qdc. 

28. QyERCUS femptmnrinf^ fiUis 
Mwgit nn Jkuatsj. Banifi. Live 

29. QuBRCUs (forte) Martian* 
Sca^ filio trifido^ aid fajfafrat acee- 

diuti. RmH Hift. The Uack Oak of 

30. Q^z\Q.y3^ filio nonfirrato^ in 
fummiiaii triangu/o. Catijb. Hift, 
JNmt. Car$iiM. The Water Oak. 

31. QuBRCUS Carclinienfis, vtriM" 
HbtiJ vents 9 marieaia, Caieji, Htfi, 
Nat. Car$litt. The white Oak of 

3a. Que ECUS hamlm'ffalidsfiHQ 
trewore. Catejb, Niji. Nat. CaroHa. 
Dwarf I^gbJaad Willow Oak. 

33. Que Reus e/cMH dtw/ura^fi" 
Uis amfUoribus aciUeatu. Plmk. Pbyt* 
Ited Oak of Maryland. 

34. QuERCUS Mariana^ olaefi- 
Uo^ glaadeparva fmfrejf^^ adapicnr 
lam ileganter radiatt. Pink. Mantif. 
Swamp Zfantfi) Oak. 

3 J. QuERCUS Marimt^t muricath 
iafianea Jolih fubtus willefis. Plmk. 
Mont. Champion - cheftnat Oak of 

-¥he two firft Sorts are coBimdn U 
England; but the Sort whole AcomS 
grow on (hort Footftalks^ u lefs fre- 

J pent than the other.. I hare feeii 
everai Trees of that Kind near Dai^ 
nvicb in Surry j bat whedier the 
Acorns of this Soft will produce 
Trees of the fame Kind, I cannot 
determinei There are many large 
Trees of this Kind in Saffex^ where 
the Timber of this Sort is eftennM 

f referable to the firft Sort ; tho\ as 
have already mendonM^ t do not 
know if it is fpecifically different 
from it, having had no Opportunity 
to raife any of thefe Trees from the 
Acorns. Bat the late Doke ofRicb^ 
mond had fowed a large Clump with 
thefe Acorns, a Year before his 
Death) at his ^t at OoUumd in 
SiMx ; where his Grate iiad fowed 
Clumps of all the'dif^erent Kinds of 
Oaks which he could procure, not 
only in Earopep but alfo from Amg- 
rica, and the Levant t but thefe 
Plants are at prefent too fmall to be 
diftingttiflied by their Leaves, tho\ 
in a few Years, it will not be difEcult 
to determine whedier the Acorns wiH 
always produce the fame Kind as the 
Trees from whence they were taken. 
The Sort with ftrip'd Leaves was 
obtained bv Accident ; but may be 
popagated by budding or graniog 
It upon the common Oak. The 
Leaves of this are generdly varie* 
gated with White in a moft beaud'* 
ful manner s and the Tree is efteemM 
a great Curiofity, by fuch as defight 
in variegated Plants. 

The fourth Sand deferves a Place 
in Wildemefles, amongft oUier Sons 
of evcr^green Trees, where it will 
make a beautiful Appearance ; but 
the Timber is not near fo good as 
that of the common Sort, and it Is 
very rare in England. 

The fifth Ximi was' originally 
brought into England from Spain i 


•Q U Q U 

W is aifo Found in Frama aad Ttalj, tbey make bat little Progrefs ; there* 

Tiiis is hMx6y enough to endure the fore the/ are not worth the Trouble 

Cold of oar Winters very well, and of cuitivatlDg, except one or two 

ii preferv'd bj fach as are curioot Plants of each Sort, for the fake of 

in colleAing the feveral Kinds of Variety. For whatever may have 

Tnes. been aiTerted in relation to the 

The eight Sorts which are next Growth of theCe American Oaks, or 

acDtionM, are Natives oi Europe i of the Good nefs of the Timber; yet! 

ibnie of them grow in the Middle of hope noPerfons will be To weak as to 

Fma ; others in Spain^ PcrttigiUi cultivate thefe Trees, in Preference 

A^fy, and Girmtmf^ The eleventh to the native Oak of this Country, 

Son grows plenufuHy zJbo^tAuhigT^ which is more valuable than any 

in frojut^ horn whence his Grace other Sort yet known. But as the 

tbehiieDuke oi Ri<hmond brought prefent Spirit of introducing all the 

maoy of -the Acorns, which were Sorts of foreign Trees and Shrubs 

fown at Gis^ivw^ in the Year 1 749. into England^ prevails with moil 

Thde Sorts are full as hardy as the carious Pcrfons, therefore I have 

fommoQ Oak, fo m^ be treated in mentioned moft of the Sorts at pre- 

tke fame manner. fent known, more to fatisfy the 

The next eight Sorts were difco- Curioiity of a few, than for ge- 

nr*d by Dr. T^mmefifrt in the Ir- neral Ufe. 

vf, and have fince been obferv^d Ail the Sorts of Oaks are propa« 

h/fomecHnoos Travellers who have gated from Acorns, which ihouid be 

goae that Way> fome of whom have iown as foon as pofiible after they 

iroiight their Acoros to EngUndi are ripe; for if they are kept too 

bit as diefe are fubje^ to periih long out of the Ground, they feldom 

ivhea they are kept long out of the grow. 

Ground,, there have not been more The Manner .of fowing thefe 
llutti three of thefe Sorts raifed in Acorns (if defigned for a fm^l Plan- 
EngUndt fo far as I can learn. The tation, or to be removed) is, to pre- 
Plants of thofe Sorts which have been pare fome Beds of frefii Earth, nei« 
nifed here, feem to be full as hardy ther too flrong and heavy, nor too 
as our common Oak S for I have ex«- light and dry ; in thefe Beds you 
pofed them the firft Year from Seed, ihouid place the Acorns in Rows one 
^ ail the Inclemency of Weather, Foot afunder, and about two Incbes 
^en in fmall Pots, which ftood in the Diilance in the Rows, covering them 
coldeft Situation of the Garden « about two Inches thick with the 
yet were not the leaft injured by the fame frelh Earth ; obferving to leave 
froft. none of them uncovered, to entice 
The other Sorts are all of them the Vermin, which may, in a (hort 
Natives of the Northern Parts of time, deftroy all the Seeds. 
^AmnUa^ where fome of the Sorts IntheSpring, when thePIantsbe- 
grow to a very large Size; but the gin to appear, you muft carefully 
Timber of them b not valuable, clear them from Weeds; and if toe 
Others of them are but fma!l of Seafon proves dry, yx>u (hould re- 
Gmwth, feldom rifing above twenty frefh them now-andthen with a lit- 
or thirty Feet high ; and many of tie Water, which will greatly pro- 
tbem naturally grow upon moift mote their.Growth. In theiV: deds 
fwampy Land, fo iha( in England the Plants ihouid remain until the 
Vol. IlL 4 £ follow 

fellowiDj Avtomn (obferving con- When diefe Tiees hare renuun*! 

ftantly to keep them clear firom in the Nuriery three or four Ycxn, 

Weede) ; at which time you fhould they will then be large cnoa^ t* 

prepare a Spot of good fre(h Earth tranfplant to the Plaoes where they 

(in $i» proportionable to theQuan- are to remain j lor it ]# not proper 

tity of Plants), whidi fliould be well to let them grow very large bef^ee 

treocbM and levelPd : then, toward th^ are planted out ; becaoie thefe 

the Middlic or Latter-end of Oaoher^ are very hazardous Trees to remofc 

you (hoQi4 carefully take up the when old, or after they have taka 

Plants, fo as not to injure their deep Root. 

Roots, and plant them out in Rows The Seafon for this Work is (at 

three Feet afunder, and eighteen I faid before) in the AutuaiD ; at 

Inches Didance Plant from Plant ; which time, if they are carefully 

obierving never to fuffer the Plants taken up, there will be little Dan- 

to abide long out of the Ground, ger of their fucceediog. When they 

becaufe their Roots would dry, and are planted, the Sinface of the 

cndangerthe Growth of the Plants. Ground (hoald be mulch*d aboot 

^When they are planted^ you their Roofs, to prevent its drying 

Ihould lay a little Mulch upon the too faft : and if the Seafon is very 

Surface of the Ground^ near their dry, they ihould be watered, ta fettle 

Roots, to prevent the Earth from the Earth to their Roots, which 

drying too faft ; and if the Seafon may be repeated two or three thnes 

Ihould prove very dry, you fhould in very dry Weadier : but you mnl 

give them a little Water, to fettle the carefully avoid giving them too much 

£arth to their Roots. Water, which k very injuiions sa 

When the Plants have taken Root thefe Trees, when newly removVL 

in this Nurfery, they will require You fhould alfe ftake them, to 

little more Care than to keep them prevent their being fliaken and di£- 

clear from Weeds, and dig the turbed by the Winds, which woutf 

Ground between the Rows vr^ retard their Rooting. In tranfplaot- 

Spring; in doing of which, you ing of thefeTrees, you fhould by no 

Ihould cut off fuch Roots as extend means Cut thdr Heuls, which is too 

very far from the Trunk of the much pra^^iied : all that ihottid he 

Trees, which will render them bet- done, muft be only to cut off any 

ter for tranfplanting again : yon bruifed or ill-placed Bnnches, which 

ihould alfo prune off fuch Side- Ihould be tami off dofe to the Plntl 

branches as extend themfelves very ivhere they are produced : but thaie 

far, and would retard the upright can be no .greater Injury done to 

Shoots : but you ihould by no means thefe Trees, than to fhorten their 

cut off all the fmall lateral Branches, Shoots ; for when the leading Bod 

fome of which are abfolutely ee- (which is abfblutelynecefbry to draw 

ceffary to be left on, to detain the mndattraft the Nouriihmont) is taken 

Sap for the Augmentation of the off, the Branch often deeays intirely, 

Trunk ; for I have often obferv*d, or at leaft down to the next vigoroas 

where Trees have been thus dofely Bud. 

pruned, that their Heads have over- The Trees, thus raised aad aa- 

grown their Bodies, fo that they nag'd, will (if planted in a proper 

have bent downward, and become SoU] grow to a confiderable Magai- 

trooked. tode, and are vtvy proper for a Wit* 


ddAdb iil laige Gatdensy or tof^ct 
ID Clomps in Parks» iffc. but if they 
woB defign^d for Tiinber^ it m by 
mach the better Method to fow the 
Acorns in the Plaoes where they f re 
to remain; in order to which, yoa 
ihould proFide yoorielf in Aatuma 
widi A fafficient QoAntitjr of Acorn£^ 
Which fhoold be alwa|rs taken from 
ihiir,- apcight, yigocoiu 'growing 
Trees t thcfe ihoiSd be gather'4^ 
from under (he Treeias foonas may ' 
be, after they are hUhsn, and« if pof- 

• fible, in a dry Time, laying them 
ihhDL in fome open Room to dry ; 
»fter which they may be put in dry 
Smd, and pre&ry cl in a dry Place 
aiml the Beginning of hJo-vimber^ 
Whenyouihould prepare the Ground 
tor plaotiitt; them. 

The Diredions hete ^vtn ane 
fcldy for imall Plantations in a Gar- 
den or Park, wfaidi are only deitgn'd 
for Pieafare : but wiiere Cheie TiecB 
are cultivated with a View to Profit 
the Acorns fhould be fown where 
the Trees are deiign^^ to groiw ; for 
^fe which are tranCplanted will ne- 
ver grow to the Size of thofe which 
Aaod where they are Town, nor will 
they laft near fo long found. For 
in bmc Places, where thefe Trees 
have been traafpkinted with the 
£reateft Care> and thq^ have grown 
Very faftfor feverad Years after, yet 
tbey are now decaying, when thofe 
vl^h remain in the Place where 
they came op from the Acorns, are 
^ very thriving, and have not the 

^ leaft Sign of Decay. Therefore, 
Moeyer defigns to cultivate thefe 
Trees for Timber^ ihould never 
think of tranfplaoting them, but 
•few the Acorns on the fame Ground 
.where they are to grow ; for the 
Timber of all thofe Trees which are 
ttaafplanted, is not near fo valuable 
^ that of the Trees from Acorns. I 
iluil therefore add fome plain Di- 

Mttona forxbe fowiog of Aconu* 
and managing of the young Trees* 
during their Minority, until they 
are out of .Danger* and require no 
farther Care. 

The firft Thing to be done is^ that 
of .fencing the Ground very well, to 
keep out Cattk, Har^, and Rab* 
bets ; for if leither of thefe can ^et 
into the Ground, they will (bon de« 
(kroy all the young Trees. Indeed 
they will in a few Years grow to be 
out of Danger from Hares and Rab- 
bets; but it will be many Years before 
they will he paft Injury irom Cattle^ 
if they are permitted to get into the 
Plant;ation ; therefore durable Fences 
ihould be put round che Ground : if 
in the Beginning a Pale-fenoe is made 
about the Land, which may be dcS$ 
sit the Bottom^ and cfpoa above^ and 
within the Paie a Quick- hedge plant- 
ed s this will become a good Fence, 
by the time the Pale decays, againft 
^U Sorts of Cattle ; and then the 
Trees will have got above the Reach 
of Hares and Rabbets> fo that they 
tannot injure them; for the Bark of 
the Trees will be too hard for them 
to gnaw. 

After the Ground is well fenced, 
it ihould be preparM, by plowing of 
ii three or four times, and after each 
.Plowing, harrow it well, to break 
the Clods, and cleanfe the Ground 
from Couch, and the Roots of all 
bad Weeds. Indeed, if the Ground 
is Green-fward, it will be better to 
have one Crop of fieans. Peas, or 
Turneps, off the Ground, before the 
Acorns are fown, provided thefe 
Crops are well hoed to fiir the Sur- 
face, and deftroy the Weeds : for, 
if this is obferv'd, the Crop will 
mend and improve the Lana for 
fowing ; but in this Cafe the Ground 
fliould be plowed as foon as poBible, 
when the Crop is taken off, to pre- 
pare it for the Acorns : which ihoi.14 

4 £ a be 

be fown as foon as may be after the The Reafon of my direding the 
Acorns are ripe : for although thefe Drills to be made at this Diflancr, b 
may be preferv'd ia Sand for fome for the more convenient flirring of 
time, yet they will be apt to fprout ; the Ground between the Rows, to 
and, if fo, the Shoots are in Danger keep the young Plants clean from 
of being broken and fpoiPd : there- Weeds : for if this is not carefully 
fore I (hould advife the fowing early, done, it cannot be expelled, that 
which is certainly the beft Method, the young Plants flioald make much 

In making choice of the Acorns, Progrefs ; and yet this is generally 
lall thofe (hould be preferrM, which neglected by many who pretend to 
are taken from the largefl and mod be great Planters, who are often at 
thriving Trees : and thofe of Pollard- a large Expence to plant, bat fel- 
trees (hould always be rejedled, tho* dom regard them after ; fo that the 
the latter are generally the moft pro- young Plants have the Difficulty to 
dudive of Acorns ; but thofe of the encounter the Weeds, which fire- 
large Trees will commonly pro- quently are four or five times the 
duce the (Irongeft and mod thriving Height of the Plants, and not only 
Plants. (hade and draw them, but alfo ex- 

The Seafon for fowing of the hauftalltheGoodnefsoftheGroandf 
Acorm being come, and the Ground and confequently ftarve the Plants, 
having been pIow*d, and leveird Therefore, whoever hope to have 
fmooth, the next Work is to fow the Soccefs in their Plantations, fhonld 
Acorns, which muft be done by determine to be at the Expence of 
drawing of Drills acrofs the Ground, keeping them clean for eight or ten 
at about four Feet afunder, and two Years after fowing, by which time 
Inches deep, into which the Acorns the Plants will have obtain*d Strength 
fhould be fcatter'd, at two Inches enough to keep down the Weeds : 
Diftance. Thefe Drills may be the negleding of this has occaiion*d 
■drawn either with a Drill-plough, or fo many young Plantations to mif- 
by Hand with an Hoe ; but the for- carry, as are frequently to be met 
tner is the mod expeditious Method, with in divers Parts of England, 
therefore in large Planutiotis (hould About the End of Marcb^ or Be- 
be preferred: in the drawing of the ginning of Aprils the young Plants 
Drills, if the Land has any Slope to will appear above-ground ; bat, be- 
one Side, thefe (hould be made the fore this, if the Ground (hould pro- 
fame Way as the Ground flopes, that duce many young Weeds, it wiU be 
there may be no Stoppage of the Wet good Hufbandry to (cufHe the Sur- 
by the Drills or Rows of Plants croff- fece over with Dutch Hoes, in a diy 
ing the Hanging of the Land . This time, either the Latter end of Merely 
ihould be particularly obferv*d in all or the Beginning of April ^ to defht)y 
ivet Ground, or where the Wet is the Weeds, whereby the Ground 
fubjedl to lie in Winter. When the will be kept clean, until all the Plants 
Acorns are fown, the Drills (hould are come up, fo as to be plainly dif- 
be carefully fiird in, fo as to cover cern*d s by which time it may ba 
the Acorns fccurcly ; for if any of proper t<^ hoc the Ground over 
them arc expot'd, they will entice again ; for by doing it early, while 
the Birds and Mice ; and if either of the Weeds are fmall, a Man will 
thefe once attack them, they will perform more of this Work in one 
make great Havock with them. Day than he can in three or four 



whea the Weeds are growD large ; 
hMc, there will be great Hazard 
of catting off or injuring the young 
Plants, when they are hid by the 
Weedii and fmall Weeds, being 
cat, are foon dried up by the Sun ; 
bat large Weeds often take freOi 
Koot, and grow again, efpecially if 
Kain ihould fall foon after, and then 
the Weeds will grow the fafter for 
being ftirred ; therefore it is not only 
the bed Method, but alfo the cheap* 
eft Halbandry, to begin cleaning 
early in the Spring, and to repeat it 
as often as the Weeds are produced. 
The firft Summer, while the Plants 
are young, it will be the beft Way 
to perform thefe Hoeings by Hand i 
but afterward it may be done with 
the Hoe- plough ; for as the Rows 
are foar Feet afunder, there will be 
room enough for this Plough to* 
work; and this will Hir and loofea 
the Ground, which will be of great 
Service to the Plnnts : but there will 
leqaire a little Hand-labour where 
the Plough is us'd, in order to de- 
ftroy the Weeds, which will come up 
io the Rows between the Plants s for 
thefe will be out of the Reach of the 
Plough i and if they are not deftroy- 
ed, they will foon overgrow and 
bear down the young Planes, 

After the Plants have grown two 
Years, it will be proper to draw out 
foaoe of them, where they grow too 
dofc ; but, in the doing of this, 
great Care, (hould be had not to in- 
jore the Roots of thofe l^ft; for as 
the Plants which are drawn out are 
only fit for Plantations defign'd 
for Pleafure, fq thefe fiiould not be 
& much regarded in their being re- 
moved, as to facrifice any of thofe 
which are defign'd to remain. In 
the Thinning of thefe Plantations, 
the Plants may at the firft time be 
left about one Foot afunder, which 
will give them room enough to grow 

two or three Years longer : by which 
time it may be eafy to judge which 
are likely to m^ the befl Trees. 
Therefore thefe may be then £x'd 
on, as Standards to remain : though 
it will be proper to have a greater 
Number at this time markM than 
can be permitted to grow, becaufe 
fome of them may not anfwer the 
Expedation : and as it will be im- 
proper to thin thefe Trees too much 
at one time, (6 the leaving doubto 
the Number intended at the fecond 
Thinning wii not be amifs. There* 
fore, if they are then left at about 
four Feet Diftance in the Rows, they 
will have room enough to grow three 
or four Vears longer : by which 
time, if the Plants have made good 
Prpgrefs, their Roots will have 
fpread over the Ground ; therefore 
it wilt be proper to take up every 
other Tree in the Rows, fiut by 
this I do not mean to be exa^ in 
the Removing, but to make choice 
of the bed Plants to (land, whichever 
Rows they may be in, or if they 
ihould not be exadtly at the Difbwce 
here aiHgn'd: what is intended 
here, is, to lay down general Rules, 
which ihould be as nearly comply *d 
with as the Plants will peri^it: 
therefore every Perfon (hould be 
guided l^ the Growth of the Trees 
in the Performance of this Work. 

Wtien the Plants have been re* 
duc'd to the Dillance of about eight 
Feet, they will not require any. more 
Thinning, fiut in two or three 
Years time, thofe which are not to 
remain will be fit to cut down, to 
make Stooli for Underwood; and 
thofe which are to remain, will have 
made fuch Progrefs as to become a 
Shelter to each other; for this is 
what (hould be principally atten4ed 
to whenever thelVees are thinn'd': 
therefore in all fpch Places as are 
much expoii^d -co the Win4, t^e Trees 

4 £ 3 ihould 

fioald be fhinaM with great Can- Land, SugenerBllymorepIfaMedicq 

tion, i^d by flow Degree*: for if that which grows on at (hallow oi^ 

the ^\T is let too much at once inc<i( drier Ground ; but the Wood of the 

the PkLx^tauQD, it will give a faddeti latter ia much more co^ipa^ and 

Chi^k- to t^ Trees, and greatly re- hard. Indeed there are few Soib m 

fl^vd tiieur CrTowtb ; but i|i ihelter^d England in which the Oak will no^ 

Sicuat^ons, there need not be fo grei^t grow, provided there is proper Que 

Caotion us'd as in thole Plaices i as taken in their Cu^^sition ; thongh 

|be Pianta will not be in fo much idiis Tree will not thrive eouidly v^ 

]>i^ger of fufferit\g by ^he Cold. all Soils : but yet it might be cold- 

The Diftance which I fiiQu]d vated to % national Aclrantage opoQ 
cjioofe to allow to thofe Trees ^hic^ many large Waftes in fereral ^ffts 
sre defign*d tp remain for Timber, of Sngiand, as alfoto the great Pro- 
14^ from twenty-live to aboot thirty it of the Eflates where thde Trady 
Feet, which will not be too near^ of Land now lie nncnltivatedy and 
where t^e Trees thrive wellj^ in produce nothing to the Owner. And 
which Cafe their Heads will fpread, ihodd the prrfent Temper of de- 
fo as to meet in about thirty or thir- ftroying the Timber of Eagiand 
fy^^fe Years : nor will this Diftance continue in Practice fome Year^ 
lie too great, fo as to impede the up- longer, in (he fame Degree which it 
fieht Growth of the Trees. Tl^jS has for fome Years pail, and as lit- 
JKftance is intended, ;hat the Trees tie Care taken to raife a Supply, diia 
^ould enjoy the whole Benefit of the Country, which has been fo long 
Soil. Theirefore, after one Crop of efteem*d for its Naval Strength,' 
the Underwood, pr, at the mod, two may be obliged to feek for Timber 
f^rops are cut^ I would ^dvife the abroad, or be content with fock a 
ftubbing op the Stools, that the Naval Strength as the poor Remains 
Ground may be intirely cl^r, for of fome frugal Eflates may have left 
the Advantage of the growing Tim- growing : for, as to the large Forefb, 
ber/ which is what fhould be prin- &Qm whence the Navy has been fq 
eipally regarded : but in general mofl long fapplied, a few Years will pot 
People have more |legard for the an End to the Timber there : and 
,}mniediate Profit of the Underwpod how can k be otherwife, when the 
f han the future Goo;^ of the Tim- Perfon^ to wbofe Care thdfe are com- 
ber; and frequently by fo dping fpotl mitted, reap an Advantage from the 
both : for, if the Underwopd is left DeflmdHon of the Timber ? 
^fter the Trees have fpread fo far 9s Before I quit this Subje^, I mnfl 
that their Heads meet, the Un^er- beg Leave to take notice of another 
wood will not be of much Worth ; great Evil, which is of fo much 
and yet; by their Stools ^eing left, Confequen^ to the Public, |is to d^- 
they win draw away a great Share ferve their utino.ft Attention ; wbid^ 
of Nourifiiment from the Timber- is that of cutting down the Oaks in 
trees,' and retard them in their Pro- the Spring of the Year^ at the time 
grefs. when the Sap is flowing. This if 

The Soil in which the Oak nia.kfs done for the fake of the ^it, which 

ihi grcatcll Progrefs, is a deep rich will then cafily peel off : and, ffit 

Xicam, in whicn the Trees grow to the fake of this, I think, there is a 

tiifi largcft Size 5 and the Timber of Law, whereby People are obligM to 

chofe Tr<es which |row upon this cut down their Timber at thisSet- 

s' ffSh 

(m. Bat bjr fo doioj^ the Timber i$ 
BOt half fo durable as that which !s 
fallen in the Winter : fo that thofe 
Ships which have been built of this 
Spring -cut Timber, hare decayM 
more in ieven or eight Years, than 
others, which were built with Tim- 
ber cot in Winter, have' done in 
twenty. And this our Neighbours 
the Frmicb have experienced ; and 
therefore have wirely ordered, that 
the Bark iheuld be taken off the 
Trees, Handing, at the proper Time; 
but the Trees are left till the next, 
and fometimes until the fecond Win- 
ter» before they are cat down : and 
the Timber of thefe is found to be 
more durable, and better for Uie» 
than that of any Trees which have 
not been peel'd. I'herefore I wiih 
we were wife enough to copy after 
them in thofe Things which are for 
public Good, rather than to imitate 
them in their Follies, which has 
been too much the .Fabion of late 

QUICK : By the Word Quick 
are generally uadcrilood all live 
Hedges, of whatever Sort of Plants 
\ they are composed, to didinguifh 
them from dead Hedges! but, in 
the moft ftrid Senfe of this Word, 
it is applied to the Hawthorn, or 
Mi/piluM Jjflveftriti under which 
^ame the young Plants, or Sets, are 
commonly fold by the Nurfery-Gar^* 
dencrs, who raife them for Sale : for 
91 farther Account of planting thefc 
for Hedges, fee He4gfH as al(b Mtf- 
pilus^ for the railing of the Plants. 

OyiCK-BJSAM. Vide Sorbus 

QUINCETREE, Vid$ Cydonia 

Plantation of Trc^, dJfpofcd Qri- 

finally in a Square, confifting of 
ve Trees, one at each Corner, and 
a ^fth in the Middle ; which Dlfpo- 
^cion, repeated agaiq and again. 

R A 

forms a regular Grpve^ Wood, o^ 
Wildernefs ; and when view'd by an 
Angle of the Square or Parallelo- 
gram, prefenu equal or parallel 

OyiNQUEFOUUM, Cinqo*. 
foil. ^/V/ PotentiUa. 


RADISH. TiV/ Raphanos. 

RAMPIONS. Vidi Campannb 
radice efculenta. 


The ChmraSiTi are ; 

// hatb a Flouiter eonfifiing §f cm 
Lioff ivho/e lowir Part is tmoMlom ; 
but the upptrPartis expanded^ tmd^fir 
tbi moftypart dinfidedintpfrviSigmnis: 
tbe Flonuir is fucceedtd hj mh 9val 
Frmt^ baling but one CeU^ Hvbicb is 
JilUd tvitb flat eartilagimtii S^tdt, 
furroundid hy a Pulp, 

There is but one ^enet of this 
Plant at prefent known ; nfix. 

R A N D 1 A fmtifans^ /pints bijngisp 
fifUis fuirotundis^floribus aJbis, fhuft. 
Shrubby Randia, with Spines groW'» 
ing two at a Joint, roundifh Leaves, 
and white Flowers. This Plant is 
figured and defcribed by Sir Hans 
SUane in his Hiftory of Jamaica^ 
under the Title of Lycium/orti,/o//ii 
fubrotundis iittegris^ fpiiii ^ foliis ex 
ad'verfofitis, vol. I. p. 40. 

This Shrub grows plentifully 
about La Vera Crux \ from whence 
the Seeds were Tent by the late Dr. 
IVilllam Houpoun^ who gave this 
Kame to it, in Honour to Mr. Jfaat 
Rantty a curious Botanift. 

This Shrub rifes to the Height of 
fen or twelve Feet in the Country oT 
its Growth, and divides into a great 
Number of Branches, which are al- 

4 E 4 ways 

R A 

ways produced by P^irs oppofite } as 
are alfo the Leaves and Spines. The 
Flowers are fmall, and of a white 
Colour, which are fucceeded by hard 
pval-flmped Fxuit, about the Size of 
a large Spanijb Nut, which is. fail of 
flat Seeds, inclofed in a foft blackifh 

It is propagated by Seedl, which 
ihould be Town early in the Spring, 
in Pots filled with freih light Earth, 
and pUing'd into an Hot- bed of T^* 
ners Bark, obferving to water thje 
Earth frequently, to promote the Vc- 
secatlon of the Seeds. When the 
PFants come up, they Qiuft have freih 
Air admitted to them every Day, 
when the Weather is warm ; and 
they muft" be pften refreflied with 
Water. In about a Month's time 
after the Plants come up, they will 
he fit - tp tranfplant ; when they 
ihould be carefully (haken out of the 
Pots^ and each planted vaf.0 a fepa- 
rate fm^ll Pot filled with freih light 
£arth, and then plunged into the 
tiot-bed again i where they muil be 
fcreened from the Sun until they 
have taken new Root ; after which 
time they mull have Air and Moiil- 
ure in proportion to the Warmth 
of the Stafon. The Plants may re- 
main in the Hot -bed till toward 
JMicbaelmas^ when the Nights begin 
to be cold : at\vhich time they ihould 
be removed into the Scove : and if 
they are plunged into the $ark-bed, 
it will greatly forward their Growth; 
tho' they will live in the dry Stove, 
if they are kept in a moderate Tem- 
perature of Heat, and are frequent- 
ly watered. During the two firil 
Seafons, while the Plants are young, 
it will be proper to keep them con- 
ilantly in the Stove ; but then their 
Leaves muil be wa(hed, whenever' 
they contradl Filth ; which will bring 
them forward : but after the Plants obtained Strength, t)iey may 

R A 

be expofed every Summer to the 
open Air, provided they are place4 
' in a warm Sitoation : bat in Winter 
they muit be confiantly placed in a 
Stove, and kept in a moderate 
Warmth; otherwife they Will not 
live in thjs Country. 

The Leaves of this Plant contittae 
green throughout the Year, which 
renders the Plant valuable, becaufe* 
it makes an agreeable Variety in the 
Winter -Yeafon, when mix^ with 
other tender Plants. Sir Hans^Sloame 
found this Plant in the Ifland of 


RANUNCULUS, Crowfoot. 
The Chara^ers are ; 

The Fhwir confifts ^f fenjeral 
Lea<ves^ luhicb are plated in m ctP" 
cular OrdtTy and expand inform of a 
Rofe ; bavingt for tbt mojl part^ a 
many-Ua'v^d Efripalement or FUtver' 
cup : ' out of tbe Middle of tbe Flower 
rifes tbe Pointal^ <wbicb aftemvard 
becomes a Fruity eitber rounds eylin* 
drical, or /piked} to tbe Axis ofivbicb^ 
as a Placenta, adhere many Seedsyfor 
tbe mpfi part naked. 
The ^ecies arc ; 

i.Rakunculus bortenjh ereSus^ 
fore plena. C, B.P, Common yel- 
low Crowfoot, with a double Flow- 
er. . 

2. Ranunculus repensyftorepli^i 
no, J. B. Coinmon creeping Crow- 
foot, with a doable Flower. 

3. Ranunculus montanus^ atO' 
niti folio, albwyflore minore, C, B. P. 
Mountain Crowfoot, with a white 

4. KAnvncvLVsfoSo acon^tiyforf 
alho multipJici, C. B. P. Crowfoot 
with a Monk's - hood • leaf, and a 
double white Flower; commonly 
called the Fair Maid of France. 

5. Ranunculus bnlbofus, ftr$ 
plen: C, B, P. Common bolboos- 
rooted Crowfoot^ with a doubla 

6. Ra- 


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fans, Jlori fangtamo fUno. y. B. 
Common RanancalaSy with adoubte 
bloody Pbwer. 

7. Ranuncitlvs afphoiltii raSee^ 
frtBfer mmatms. C. B. P. Ranan- 
colas, with an Afphodel-rooty and 
childing carmi ne. Flowers 1 comsnon- 
I7 called Turk^s Turban. 

8. Ranunculus Jfiaiicus pofyrU^ 
Miy ^e gramo/k raiia^ftcuHiui. y, 
B. JJiaiic RanancaluSy with many 
Heads, and a gramofe Root 1 com* 
IBonly called Sfbitricus. 

9. Ranunculus af^iiU raSti^ 
fvrt fcatguinio Maxim$» H. R, Ptir* 
Afphodel -rooted Ranancalus, with a 
very large red Flower; commonly 
called tJie Monfter. 

to. Ranunculus afphodeii rm» 
Sciy JUre Jubflntmcio rmienif. C. B, 
P. Afphodel - rooted Rananculas^ 
with puypli(h-red Flowers; com- 
monly called Mafnfilia, 

11. Ranunculus affhoitli r4- 
^ce,flore tuieo 'variegmio. H. R. Par, 
Afphodel- rooted Ranuncalut, with 
a yellow variegated Flower. 

12. Ranunculus ^/ffi(/,^rjMr#^ 
radict, Jiore Units ruhrii (if lutiis 
friai9. K R. Par, Gramofe-rooted 
Crowfoot, with a Flower ftriped 
with red and yellow Lines ; com- 
monly called Ranancaltts of Altff, 

13. Ranunculus aj^bodtli ra^ 
£ci, JUreflofvo 'uenis rubris HfiinBo \ 
Bahul diams, H. R. Par, Crowfoot 
with an Afphodel-root, and yellow 
Flower with red Veins ; commonly 
called BoTvel. 

1 4. Ra nunculus AUpsUf grmmofa 
ra^C9, Jlori mimati, pir oras iuiio. 
H, R. Far. Aleff Crowfoot, with 
a grumofe Root, and a carmine 
Flower, bordered with yellow. 

1$. Ranunculus fianfltm JUt'^ 
Vijcintij & rubris lineis iiigantiffimi 
variegato. H. R, Par, Crowfoot 
with a doable yellovy Flower, cari- 

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onfly ftriped with red Linei 1 wm" 
monly called Jbsr&nt. 

16. RMfUNCULUS mf^hodiUroAeM^' 
fliTi fksa mibo parv§, rwiris ftriU 
diftinBi. H. R. Mmjp, Crowfoot 
with an Afphodel-root, and a finalt 
double white Flower ftriped witk 

1 7. Ranunculus af^HdiUrmStg^ 
Jlin plan mmgMi la0i$, fiipirimt U^ 
iwris rubris iUgauOr pi&i, Burh^ 
bid. Crowfoot with an Afphodd'* 
root, and a large double white Flow^ 
er, mark*d amve with red. Spots 1 
commonly called the Seraphic. . 

18. Ranunculus eiM/«w/»/^« 
gramnn, C. B, P. Gnft-icav'd 
M onatain Crowfoot. 

19. Ramunculvs mmtoMUyfoUa^ 
fimmtagisdi. C. B, P, Moontain 
Crowfoot, with a Plaataia-leaf. 

30. Ranunculus ioMughufmi ssi^ 
guftifiiius^ grwmfa radsa^ mmj9r. 
C.B.P. Larger gromofe -rooted 
Crowfoot, with narrow downj 

There are a great Number oF 
Species of this Genus, which growr 
in England i fome in Meadows^ 
where they over -run the wholo 
Ground, and are the moft trouble- 
fbme Weeds to Paftures; for as fome 
of diem are very acrid Plants, the 
Cattle never eat them; for they 
would blifter their Tongues and 
Throau : therefore when thefe Pa- 
nares are grazed» the Crowfoot ia 
left in Patches all over the Fields 
untouched. There are other Species 
of this Genus, which fpread over the 
Surface of Standing • waters, and 
flower early in the Spring ; and fome 
grow in ibiady Woods : but as thefe 
are never cultivated in Gardens, 1 
thought it needlefs to enumerate the 
feverai Species here. 

The firft and fecond Sorts here 
mentioned are Varieties of two of 
the wild Kinds : but as thefe produce 


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^Mi^d^aUftFfawen^ they^ are pkbi«> 
•d in the Bordera q§ eke Fb«ref-gw- 
An» wihcm tlMy* nuke a vefji P>^BCty 
Vnieii^, and contiau* long in Plow* 
#rt tfas Arft 9off6 produces apright 
ftaUksr which grow about a Foot 
Iqgk; bat (he^ Aoond ia a creeping 
Plant, with reclined Stalks : the lac- 
^^ piopBgates ideif very §a£t by the 
iniiHagSbooiB». which puC oatRaoCi 
at etry Jotat» a» diey lie epoa the 
Ofoaad, Theft have both yellaw 

The fiMi Sofi » aUb a 
^ tha tewiiiao belboBi- footed 
d^fwfotikf wUdi is caauBon in ihe 
IdbnUM im moftPam ^Magimmdt 
diis prodaoesupiightStalksy whccb 
Mw aigtecr tea ladm h^h; the 
Sftpsren $xt bitt faially. of a pale-7eli» 
low Cobor, aai vmm double : thefe 
•ften praduoa foiaB Ftowcn eom- 
J19 oat of thaMiddiaof aoather, fi» 
jk to hav« feoieftniea three JPfewen 
gpowiag abaae eaeb other, and 
coming out of the Centre ; and it for 
tbat 1^ fime caHcd dm CUtdbg 

The third and fturtk Sertt ana 
Maiives of the Mp^: the third pto* 
daeei ftnalt whita fingla Plowen ia 
ji^ir^growiagiKleq^Baacbei :bttt 
Ml i» only prefeeved ia finaeaoriode 
BoCMic Gai«keae> far die iake al 
Varietyi tbo fi>aeih bcMg MKit 
BMN-e elteemed o» tbe aocanac of 
it! my doable Flowers, wl^idr ave 
af a fnow-w(iittColoor, and ara pro- 
daced alio in ClaOera. Thefe Planta 
delight ia Shade 1 and will thrive 
aMMh better whaa ihqr are planted 
in a loaasy Soil, than on a l«ghe 
warm Ground 1 nor flioold their 
Roots be too often tranfplaated : if 
diey are taltea op 9ftff third Year, 
and their Roots parted* and planted 
again immediately, it will be as often 
as they will require ; the bed time 
for ddag this is in Aatunn, aboot 

% h 

dkeBeiiflaiagof aSfljwv thatdi^ 
may^ get Root again before the Fiol 
aomes on ; and the. Roots ihould not 
be divided too fmall, efpacially if 
they ara de^;ned to flower flroag 
the facceeding Spring. If the£ 
Roots axe planied in a loider which 
is expofed to tfaeEaft, £> as they 
may have only die moffning Sua, 
they will thrive moch better than in 
a warmer Expofurei nor (hould the 
Border be much dunged, for they 
(eldom thrive well ia a rich Soil 1 
therefore in the warm rick Giouads 
XKUK Lmdm it is very rarrfy found 
to thrive: bat in iome needed 
Country Gardtts it grows kixuri* 
aaily, and prbdacea much firangpr, 
and a greater Number of Flowccii 
than in ifae Gavdens near Lmin^ 
where they are cultivated with great 
C^n ; this Plant is Ytry oraamental 
to the Flower-garden* during the 
Continuance of the Flowers^ which 
ia in Mgr. 

The eighteenth, nineteenth, and 
twentieth Sorts are alfo preiarved ia 
the Gardeas of curious Perfons, fei 
,the iake of Variety. The eighteenth 
Sort hath long narrow Leaves, which 
fefemble thoft of foma Sort of Gra(si 
the Flowers 9tt fingle, and of a yd* 
law Colovf , mach like thofe of the 
cimmon Crowfoot, or Batterflowcr, 
which grows ia Patture • grounds ; 
this is a Native of the Alps ; fo is a 
Ytxy hardy Plant ; and if the Roots 
are treated io tlie £tfie way, as be- 
fore direlM, and pfcaoted 10 aa Eaft 
Afped, they will thrive very well. 

TIm nuKteeath Sort hath broad 
Leaves, like thofe of Plantain ; xk^ 
Sulks grow about aFoothig)i, hav^ 
ing fevers^ pretty large ftogla white 
Flowers oa their Tops, growing h^ 
Bunches : thefe appear in the Begin- 
ning of id^7, at which time they 
make a pretty Vari«^ ia the Borden 
of the Fiowergardea : this is alfo a 


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fMii4 Ac faint waf m the A>ft 

bictliii i^ alfoa vviyliardy Pisnt: 
the Rooet of My Sore <re very like 
Me tf the Gftnten Ranuncuhn; 
Iwtaxtvery ftndl: t]lel«eftfes- «rv 
ifelftet&ore of fome of theGardtn- 
kmds ; but are pittcy wooify r die 
Flowers are fingle, and of a pale-7eU 
tovrCdonr, Hke Amuc of tfie Field- 
0ownX)C9 1 tlkefcforett n Kmon pre* 
kmd m ehe Flower-garden: bue 
Aofe who are curious in the Study 
^f FhmCfy preferre it fer the fake 
of Variety. The Roots of ri)»Kin4' 
ftooid be planted m « lighter Soil 
dMifl cither of the ft>rmer; ami if 
they are more expofed to t&e Son, 
AejrwxUthrfTe the better: But diefe 
ftoold not be takeii oat of die 
Ground oftener than every other 
Tear : i^id if they are taken up fboa 
ibxt their Leaves decay, the Rooti 
may be kept out of the Ground till 
lb Beginning of OSeiiir, and may 
be treated in the fame mspiqer as the 
Garden Ranunculus. 

I have beei^ informed^ that in 
feme Gardens in Fratgee there are 
Plants of thefe three Sorts, whji very 
doable Flowers i but I have never 
jet Teen cither of them ; (6 would 
not enumerate them here: tho\ if 
Aey can be obtained, they will be 
worthy of our (pare, as they muft be 
Ycry ornamental Plants, efpecially 
the nineteenth Sort with double 
Ploweri; for that with the fingle 
Flowers is no defpicable Plant in the 
jBoft coripus Garden of Flowers, as 
It comes early in the Spring : and 
the Leaves of the Plant, having a 
(ne glolTy green Colour, fet off the 
foowy white Flowers to great Ad- 

R A 

Tfaeedier Soif» were erigh^ 
hiOQgbt from fariy, and were ffar* 
aaeriy iagreac Elteem in EngkMii 
boi of late Yeafftliere have been in* 
trodnoe^ maay odier bene^Pbw- 
are of a dlietMt Kind, ftomPetfiai 
mumg whkh are many with fenix* 
double Ftowera^ which prtxlacd 
Seed^; from wfaicb there are foch 
prodigMMuVarieties ef new Floweri 
amNmlfVobtaiaed,wKitlraie fobm^ 
aadef Mch Varietv of beaudful Qo^ 
knv#j aa fo axoeedaff other Flowers 
Of that Seafon*, and eteir viewnth the 
moftbeattdfalCamatioin: thefe are. 
many of Aeifr, finely fcented; and 
the Roeey, when ft-oeg, generally 
produce twenty or thirty Flowers 
apoB each ; which, facceeding each 
aihcr, coittinne in Beauty a full 
hleoidi or longer, according to the 
Heae ef the Seafon, or the Que 
trieen te defend them from the la- 
jttries of the Weather : ^ which ex- 
cellent Qualities have rendered them 
ib valuable, that the old Sc^s here 
ikamed are almoft difregarded, ex- 
cept in feme old Gardens : butiiowT 
ever, as they are flill prefervM by 
feme PeHbtts, I fliall briefly fet d<svn 
dieir Management, befere I proceed 
so that of the new Kmds, which 
pifift he treate^f in a different man- 
ner from thefe. 

All thefe very double Ffowen ne-' 
ver ptedoce Seeds ; fo that they are 
only multiplied by Off-fets from 
(hdr Roots, which they genenflly 
produce m great Plenty, if phmted 
in a good Soil, and duly attended in 
Winter.The Seafon for planting their 
Roots is any time in Oaobgr ; for if 
they are planted fooner, they are apt 
to come up in a fhort rime, and grow 
pretty rank before Winter, whereby 
they will be in greater Danger of 
fttffermg by Froft j and if they are 
planted much later, they will be in 


R A 

Duger of psriflung onder-gfoond ; 
h that yoa (hould not keep them 
ont of the Ground any longer than 
the fieginning or Middle of OS^er, 
, Aft diefe Sorts are pretty hardy, fo 
they are generally planted in the 
common Borders of the Fk>wer-gar- 
den» where, if they are properly in< 
ttrmized with other Flowers of the 
fame Growth* they will make a 
pretty Variety : indeed, fome Years 
ago, before we had any of the more 
valuable Kinds in EngUnJ, thefe 
were nnrfed up with great Care; 
but fince the others have been intra- 
doced, and of late Years £;> much 
unproved, by fowing their Seeds, 
whereby new Flowers have been 
coniinually obtained, the old Sorts^ 
have been almoft rejcftedi fothat 
fhey are rarely to be found in the 
Gardens of Florifts; however, fome 
of them may be allowM to have room 
in the common Borders of the Plea* 
fure-garden, as they are feldom in- 
jured by the Froft » whereas the Per^ 
JUtn Kinds are more tender ; fo muft 
be planted in Beds, that they may 
be covered in Winter. 

The Beds in which xhtPerfian Ra- 
nunculus Roots are planted, (hould 
be made with frefh light fandy Earth, 
at leaft three Feet deep: the befit 
Soil for them may be compofed in 
this manner ; nnz. Take a Quantity 
pf frelh Earth from a rich upland 
Pafture, about fix Inches deep, to- 
gether with the Green-fward : this 
fliould be laid in an Heap to rot for 
twelve Months before it is mixed, 
obferving to turn it over very often^ 
tofweetenit, and break the Clods: 
to this you (hould add a fourth Part 
of very rotten Neats-dung, and a 
proportionable Quantity of Sea or 
Drift-fand, according as the Earth is 
lighter or ftiffer : if it be light, and 
inclining to a Sand, there (bould be 
no Sand added ; but if it be an haze^* 

R A 

Loam, one Load of Sand wilt ht 
fufficient for eight Loads of Earth: 
but if the Earth is ftrong and heavy, 
the Sand (hould be added in a great- 
er Proportion : this (hould be mixed 
fix or eight Months before it is ufed j 
and you (hould often turn it over, \^ 
' order to unite their Parts well toge- 
ther, before it is put into the Beds. 

The Depth which this (hould be 
laid in the Beds, muft be about three 
Feet : this (hould be bek>w the Sur- 
face, in proportion to the Drine(s 
or Moifture of the Place where they 
are fituated ; which in dry Ground 
(hould be two Feec eight Inches be- 
low theSurfiKe, and the Beds rab'd 
fi>ur Inches above ; but in a moift 
Place they (hould be two Feet four 
Inches below, and eight above the 
Ground ; and in this Cafe, it will 
be very proper to lay fome Rubbilh 
and Scones in the Bottom of each 
Bed, to drain off the Moifture ; and 
if, upon this, at the Bottom of the 
Bedi, fome very rotten Neats dung 
is laid two or three Inches thick, the 
Roots will reach this in the Spring, 
and the Flowers will be the fairer. 
Thi^ Earth I would by no means ad* 
vife to be fcreen'd very fine i only, 
in turning it over each time, yoa 
(hould be careful to break the Clods. 
and throw out all Stones, which will 
be fufEcient ; for if it is made very 
fine, when the great Rains in Win- 
ter come en, it will caufe the Earth 
to bind into one folid Lump, where- 
by the Moifture will be detained, and 
the Roots, not being able to extend 
their tender Fibres, will rot. Of 
this I have many Examples, but one 
particularly to my Colh When I had 
procured a fine Parcel of thefe Roots 
from Abroad, and being defirous 
of having them thrive very well. I 
took great Pains to fcreen the Earth 
of my Beds very fine, which 1 laid 
above two Feet deep, and planted a 


k A 

pni Part of my Roots therein ; but 
the SeafoQ advancing, and having a 
great deal of other Baiinefs upon my 
Hands, I did not fcreen the Earth 
of all my Beds, bat planted fome of 
titem without doing any thing more 
than rakiog them ; and the Succefs 
vas, that the Roots, in thofe Beds 
which were fcreen^d, did, great Part 
of them, intirely rot ; and the re- 
fikaining Part were fo weak, as not 
to produce any good Ftowers: 
whereas thofe which were planted in 
Che Beds which were not fcreenM, 
did thrive and flower very well, and 
fcarce any of the Roots faiPd, tho* 
the Earth of all the Beds was the 
fame, and were in the fame Situa- 
tion, both with regard to Wind and 
Son; fo that the Damage which 
thofe Roots fuftain*d, was owing in* 
tirely to the Finenefs of the Earth ; 
and this I have feveral times £nce 
obferv*d in other Gardens. 

I am aware, that this Depth of 
three Feet, which I have here di- 
reded to make the Beds for thefe 
Fbwers, will be objected to by many 
Perfons, on account of the Expencc 
and Trouble of preparing them ; as 
alfo fappoftngit unnecefTary to make 
the Beds fo deep, for Flowers whofe 
Roots are fmall; but if they will 
givethemfelves theTrouble of make- 
ing the Experiment, by preparing one 
Bed in this manner, and another in 
the common Way, and plant them 
both with the fame Flowers, they will 
foon be convinced of their Error, by 
the Soccef^ of the Flowers. For in 
the Beds which have been prepared 
of this Depth, I have feen one Root 
produce upward of fifty Flowers, 
each of which grew near a Foot 
high, and were extremely large smd 
^r 3 whereas, in the common Me- 
thod of Culture, they are thought to 
do very wdt, when they produce 
eight or ten Flowers on each Root, 

R A 

and thofe grow fix Inches high : but 
if a Perfon will trace the Length of 
the fmall Fibres of thefe Roots, he 
will find them to extend three or four 
Feet downward. And as it isb/ 
thefe difbmt Fibres that the Nourifh- 
ment is uken in, for the Increafi! 
and Strength of the Flowers ; fo, if 
thefe meet with a poor barren Soil 
below, they flirink, and the Flow- 
ers are fUrved . for want of proper 
Nooriihment in the Spring, when it 
id mofl required. 

The Beds, being thus prepared, 
fhould lie a Fortnight to fettle, be- 
fore the Roots are planted, , that 
the Earth may not fettle nnequaU 
ly, after they are planted ; Which 
would prejudice the Rbots, by havc- 
jng hollow Places in fome Parts of 
the Bed, to which the Wate^ would 
run, and lodge, and fo rot the Roots 
in fuch Places. Then having Ic- 
vell'd the Earth, laying the Surface 
a little rounding, you ihouM marlc 
out the Rows by a Line, at about 
fix Inches Diilance rach Way, fo 
that the Roots may be planted every 
Way in ftrait Lines ; then you fhould 
open the Earth with your Fingers, 
at each Crofs, where the Roots arc 
to be planted, about two Inches 
deep ; placing the Roots exadlly ii» 
the Middle, with their Crowns up- 
right ; then with the Head of a Rake 
you fhould draw the Earth upon the 
Surface of the Bed level, whereby 
the Top of the Roots will be about 
an Inch covered with Earth, which 
will befufficient at firft. This Work 
fhould be done in dry Weather, be- 
canfe the Earth will then work bet- 
ter than if it were wet; but the 
fooner after Planting there happen* 
tO' be Rain, the better it will be for 
the Roots ; for if it fhould prove dry 
Weather long after, and the Earth 
of the Beds be very dry, the Roots 
will be fubjeft to mould and decay ; 


tWefore in fuck a Cafe it wiU-W 
proper to £ive a litUc Water to the 
Beds, if there (hoald Jio Aain hap* 
pen in a Fortnight*8 time, which is 
very xare at that Seafon of theYear i 
lb that they will feldom he in JDan- 
ger of fuffedAfi; that way. 

When the Roou are thasplanted> 
Aete will no more be requited until 
toward the End of N^emitr^ hy 
which time they will b^m to hcas^ 
the Ground^ and their£idf appear,; 
when you ihoald hiy a little of the 
fame freih Earth, of which the Beds 
were CQmpofed, about half an Inch 
thick all over the Beds, which will 

geatly defend the Crown of the 
oot fromFioft : and when yon 
perceive the I^eaves to break thro* 
this fecond Covering, if it rihould 
prove very hard Froft, it will be 
very proper to arch theBeds over 
withHoopsy and cover them with 
Mats, cTpecially in the Spring,whea 
the Flower-buds will b^gin xo ap- 
pear I for if they are expo&d to too 
much Froft, or blightii^ Winds, ^ 
^t Seafon, their Fbwers fekbm 
open fairly, and many times their 
Roots are deftray*d : but this hkp* 
pens more frequently to the Ferfiam 
ICinds, which are tenderer, than to 
thofe Sorts which are pret^ hardy i 
for which Rea&n they ar^ common- 
ly planted in open Borders^ inter- 
mix^ with other Flowers, as is be- 
fore-mentionM ; thoughin i^ery hard 
Winters thefe are apt to fuffier, where 
the FroJI is not guarded zgfAxSL 

In the Begintning of mMrth the 
Flower-Aems will begin to rife » at 
which time yon Ihouki carefully 
ckarthe Beds, from Weeds, and ftir 
the Earth with your Fingers be- 
tween the Roots, being ytxy care£i4 
not to injure them ; this will not 
only make the Bedsa{q[>ear hand- 
fome, but alfo greatly iirengthen 
their Flowers. When the Flo weri 

ixt*pS^ and the Leaves axt i^ldierM^ 
you ihould take up the Roots, and 
carefully clear them from the Earthy 
then fpread them upon a Mat to dry^ 
in a mad|^ Place ; after which thef 
may be pot up in Bags or Boxes, ill 
a dry Room* until the OS^ber f(ri- 
lowing, which is the Seafon for 
plantiqg thom agaioi 

yhtFirfian Soi-ts are not only 
prqp^ated by OfF-fets from the old 
Roots^ as the former, but are alfo 
multiplied by Seeds^ which the fend- 
double Kinds produce in Plenty i 
therefore whoever is deftrous to have 
thefe in .Perfedtion, ihould annually 
low their Seeds, from which new Va- 
rieties will be every Year prodnc*d i 
but in order hereto, you Ihould be 
careful in iaving your Seed^ pr in 
procuring; it .from fueh PerJbns at 
uoderfland haw to (ave it ; that is» 
who will be careful not to leave any 
Flowers for Seeds, but fudi ils Jutve 
five nr iix Rows of Petals ax leaft« 
and are well coloured ; .for finoe 
thefe Flowers iocKaie plentifully, ii 
is not worth (he Trouble to fow ai^ 
indifferent Seeds ; becaule there can 
be but little Hopes of obtaining any 
good Flowers from fuch Seeds^ 

Being prepared with Seeds, about 
theMid<Ue of ilv^v^, which is thd 
proper Seafon /or mwing of them^ 
you fhottld get (ome lar^e Pots, fiat 
Seed-pans, or Boxes (of cither bb ma^ 
ny as you have Seods to ibw). Thcie 
mould he filPd with light ricb 
Earth, levelling the Surface ver/ 
even ; then fow the Seeds thcreoo 
pretty thick, and cover it about a 
Quarter of an Inch thick with the 
fame light Earth ; after whkh, yoa 
ihoald remove thefe Pots into a Iha- 
dy Situation, where they may have 
the morning Sua nntil Ten of the 
Clock ; and if the. Seaibn ihoald 
prove dry, you mult often jcfreGi 
them with Water « being very care- 

& A 

id ia doiqg^ thii^ fo M notfe wolli 
the Seeds out of the Ground. In 
tiiit Situation the Pots ihoold r«inain 
UQtil the Bcginnii^ of OBobtr, by 
wUch time the Plants wiU begin to 
coffle op (though (bmetimes the 
Seeds will remain in the Earth until 
fUvimbef, before the Plants appear)i 
bat then yottfliould remove the Pots 
into a m9re o|)en Expofurc^ where 
tfacxmajr have full Sun ; which, at 
that time, is neceiHury to exhale the 
Moidure of xhe Earth ; bat toward 
the Middle of iVi9<vMii^, when you 
are appsebenfive jof Proft, the Pots 
ikoald be removed under a common 
Hot-bed'fnune .; where they may 
be covered /with theGlafles in ih» 
Night-time, and in bad Weather.; 
but in the D^y^ when the Wcatberis 
aUd, they ihould beimdre^y £^)en'd» 
odierwiie the Plants will draw np 
too weak. The only Danger they 
aie in, is.Crom violent .Rains and 
Frofis { the firft often rotting the 
tender Planti, and the Froft will oft- 
en tax* them out of the Gronmi ; 
therefore they Jhould be .cavef ally 
goacded ag^nft both theiie. 

In the Spring, as the SeaCon.grows 
waim, tbefe Pots Qiould be e^tpos'd 
to the open Air ; placing them at 
firft near the Shelter of an Hedge, to 
noted them from the cold Winds.; 
bat toward tbeliatter*end pf March, 
or tbe Beginning of Jprilg t^ey 
Aaold be remov*a again inco a more 
ihady Situation, according to tb^ 
WstfSith of the Seafon; And if it 
ibould prave dry, they maft be 
fefr^*d with Water; but you (houki 
be careful not to give it to them in 
^icat Qsuntitirs, which is ytry apt 
to sot theie tender Roots , and in 
the Middle or Latter-end of Jprit, 
ihcy ibould be plac'd where they 
may have.oaly the morning Sun ; in 
whicb Pbce they may remain tiQ 
their LcaTCi decay ; when they majr 

A A 

be taken ont of th^ Easth, and tbi 
Roots dry*d in a (hady Place; itft^ 
which they may be pat in Bag^ and 
ptefenr'd in a dry Place ontil the 
0^^^ following i when they psk^t 
be planted in the manner be^re 4i« 
reeled for the old ^oou. 

The Sprii^g following, tb^feKoota 

will flower j at which time yon 

Aould carefully mark fuch of .tb^m 

as are worthy to be preTerv^d; and thc^ 

fingle or bad-colour^ Flowers n^ 

be pull'd ujp, and thrown a«v^^ 

which is the turellMethod of xtmm€^ 

ing them from the jgood Sorts,; foe 

if they are permitted to remain tP- 

gether until .dneir Leaves dcc^ 

there may be fome O^-fets of thc^ 

bad Sorts mixM with the gopdFJow* 

ers. Yoii ^ihould not f^r ibofe 

Pl^wers, which you intend lo rUoir 

fine the jQicoeediqg Ye%r« vto bear 

Seeds, biiccut off the Flowers whoa 

thqy^ begin 10 decay ; for thofe "Room 

which have produced Seeds, feldooi 

flower well afterwards; .norwiH thff 

priacipal old. Root, which has ilow* 

cr'd Arogg, •evjct; blow fo fair B9 wiD 

the Off-fets ; which is what QxonlA 

be principally obfervV, when a Fer- 

{bn puPcWes any of (hefe.ftoots^ 

and a great ?%ii of the Complaian 

made by thoie who have bonghs 

thefe Roots at a dear Ra4e, is nrind- 

pally o;wii|g;talihw.. For tbc.mJiana 

who leli them, facing apprised of ihil 

Matter, generally part with ibiiit 

old Roots to their Purchafers, an4 

referve the OiSF-iets for their Qvm 

Ufe ; which old Roots will ofte4 

(b much d^ganerate from what ibqr 

were xhe pc/^neding Yea4r, as to cai>4t 

a Sufpicio^ whether the Pedbof 

they wore purchased from ,had naf 

changed the Roots; and this D^jbt 

naracy always attends thcfeFlowiPcs» 

after having flowerM extremely laigie 

and fair, or that jthey ha^ been perr 

matted to feed: fo that itisabtb- 


k A 

lately ^eeeflkr, to fow Se«l, crery 
',e»t, in order to prefervc a Succcf- 
ion of good Flowers. 

The Manner of j^repariDg the 
Beds, and the Diftance and Method 
of plantiDg the Roots, having been 
already directed, I fhall not repeat 
it here ; but will only obferve, that 
thdie Flowers, being tender, raaft 
be protected from hard FrOfts, and 
cutting (harp Winds, efpecially after 
Qn-tfimas, \^hen their Flower-buds 
are forming ; for if they are neg- 
lected at that Seafon, their Flowers 
will rarely prove fair ; nor fhoald 
you fufFer them to receive too much 
Wet in Winter or Spring, which is 
equally as injurious to them as Froft. 
In planting of thefe Roots you 
ihould obferve to place thefemi- 
double Kinds, from which you in- 
tend to fave Seeds, in feparate Beds 
by themfdves, and not intermix 
them with the double Flowers, be- 
caufe they will require to be treated 
}n a different manner s for when the 
Flowers of the femidouble Kinds be- 
l^n to fade, you (hould carefully 
guaxtl tbem from Wet ; for if they 
are permitted to receive hard Rains, 
or are watered at thatSeafon, the 
Seeds rarely come to Maturity ; or 
are fo weak, that fcarce one in fifty 
of them will grow. 
' When the Seed begins to ripen 
(which may be eaiily known, by fe* 
parating from theAxis, and ^ling), 
you fiiould look it over every Day, 
gathering it as it ripens ; for there 
will be a coniiderable Diftance in 
th6 Seeds of the fame Bed coming to 
Maturity^ at leaft a Fortnight, and 
fometimes three Weeks, or a Month. 
When you gather the Seed, it (hould 
tiot be exposed to the Sun, butfpread 
to dry in a (hady Place ; after which, 
you mufl put it up where the Ver- 
taiin cannot come to ir, until the time 
oflbwing it. 

R A 

By this Method of fowing tetii 
^^CTv Year, you will not only in* 
creafe your Stock of Roots, but alio 
nife hew Varieties, which may b^ 
greatly mended by changing the 
Seeds into frelh Ground ; for if i 
Perfon continually fdws his Seed iii 
the fame Garden many Years, they 
Will not produce near fo fine Flow- 
ers, as if he procurM his Seeds at 
fome Diftance ; which is alfo xht 
Cafe with moft other Plants. 

It will alfo be necefTaly to tak€ 
away all the Earth out of the Beds 
in which the Roots were blown the 
preceding Year, and put in new, if 
you intend to plant Ranunculus's 
there again ; otherwlfe they win not 
thrive near fo well, notwithflanding 
you may add fome new Compoft to 
the Beds : and this is what all ca- 
rious Florifts continually obferve. 

RAPA, Turnep. 
The CharaSers arc ; 

The Flower confifis effour Leneu 
njubich an placed infirm of a Crofs i 
out of the Flonuer-cup rifcs thfPoiniMlp 
*ivbicb afieriuard turns to a Pod^ £*> 
*vided into tivo Cells hy an interme£^ 
atiPartition, to njobick the Values ad- 
here on both Sides ^ and are fuU tf 
rounMJb Seeds : to thefe Marks mstft 
he added, A eameous and tstherofi 

The Species are;' 

1. Rap A fati'ua rotunda , reuSce 
Candida. C. B. P, Round Garden- 
turnep, with a white Root. 

2. Rap A fativa rotunda , raditt 
fupra terram nnridi. Soerh. Iud» 
Round Garderi-tumep, whofe Root 
is green above ground. 

3. RaPa fati*va rotunda^ radite 
funicea. C. B, P. Round Gardet- 
turnep, with a purple Root. 

4. Rap A fatin/a rotunda^ radict 
ohfoleta nigricante, C. B. P. Round 
Garden turnep, with a rufty-black 

5. Rapa 

R A 

J. RaFa fativa ftmUa^ radta 
Jmi fcf htus fla*vefcenU. C. B. P, 
J^ound Garden-tarnep, with a yeU 
lowRoot both within and without. 

6., R A P A roiiice ehlonga, fen feemi" 

90. C. B, P, Oblong, or female 

There are fome other Varieties of 
thb Plant, which differ in the Shape 
or Coloar of their Roots ; but as 
they are only feminal Variations, it 
woaid be needlefs co enumerate them 
in this Place, fince it is the firft and 
third Sorts here mentioned, which 
are chieHy cultivated for the Table 
in England. The yellow Sort, and 
that with long Roots, were formerly 
more cultivated than at prefent s for 
it is DOW very rare to fee either of 
thefe brought to theMarkets,though 
fome Years fince they were fold in 
as great Plenty as the conunon round 

, Tumeps delight in a light fandy 
Soil, which mull not be rich ; for in 
a rich Soil they grow rank, and are 
Hicky ; but if it be moid, they will 
thrive the better, efpecialiy in a 
^(h Land, where they are always 
fweeter than upon an old worn-out, 
or a rich Soil. 

The common Seafon for fowing 
of Tumeps is any time from the Be- 
ginning of June to the Middle of 
^ujl, or a little later ; tho' it is 
aotadvifeable to fow them much af- 
ter, becaufe, if the Autumn (hoold 
not prove very mild, they will not 
have time to apple before Winter. 
Bat,nocwith{tanding this is the gene- 
ral Seafon in which the greateft Part 
of Tumeps are fown in the Coun- 
try, yet aboat London they are fown 
focceffively from March to ^tLgufty 
^y thofe who propagate them to 
fapply the Markets with theirRoots; 
bat there is a great Hazard of lofing 
thofe which are fown early in the 
Year, if the Seafon fhould prove dryt 

Vol. ni. 

R A 

by the Ply, which will devour whole 
Fields of this Plant while young ; fo 
that where a fmall Quantity for the 
Supply of a Family is wanted, it wilt 
be abfolutely neceflary to water 
them in dry Weather : and where a 
Perfon fows thofe Seeds in AfrilzxA 
May^ it ihould always be upon a 
moill Soil, otherwife they feldom 
come to good, the Heat of the Wea- 
ther at that Seafon beine too great 
for them upon a dry Soil: but thofe 
which are fown toward the Middle 
or Latter -end oi Jum^ commonly 
receive fome refrettiing Showers to 
bring them forward ; without whiclu 
it is very common to have them all 

Thefe Seeds fliould always be 
fown upon an open Spot of Ground; 
for if they are near Hedgcf, Walls, 
Buildings, oV Trees, they will draw 
up, and be very long- topped ; but 
their Roots wiU not grow to any 

They are fown in great Plenty in 
the Fields near London ; not only 
for the U(e of the Kitchen, but 
for Food for Cattle in Winter, 
when other Food fails ; and this 
Way is become a great Improvement 
to barren fandy Lands, particularly 
in Norfolk^ where, by the Culture of 
Turneps, many Perfons have doubled 
the yearly Value of their Ground. 

The Land upon which this Seed 
is fown, (hould be plowed in Afril, 
twy'fallow*d in May^ and made very 
fine ; then the Seed fhoold be fown 
pretty thin (for it being fmall, a lit- 
tle will fow a large Piece of Ground: 
two Pounds of this Seed is fnfficient 
for an Acre of Land ; but one Pound 
is the common Allowance). The 
Seed muft be harrowed in, and the 
Ground roUM with a wooden 
Roll, to break the Clods, and make 
the Snr^e even. In a Week or 
ten Days after fowing, the Plants 
4 F wUl 

R A 

Will come up ; at which time, if the 
Seafon (hoald prove dry^ they will be 
in great Danger of being defbroyed 
by the Fly ; but if it fo happen, the 
Ground mdft be fown again ; for 
the Seed being cheap, the chief Ex- 
pence is the Labour. 

When the Plants have got four or 
five Leaves, they fliould be hoed to 
deilroy the Weeds, and to cut up 
the Plants where they are too thick ; 
leavingche remaining ones about fix 
or eight Inches afunder each Way, 
which will be room enough for the 
Plants to (land for the firil Hoeing : 
but in the fecond Hoeing, which 
muft be perform'd about three Weeks 
or a Month after the £rft, theyfhould 
be cut up» fo as that the remaining 
Plants may ftand fourteen or fixteen 
Inches Difiance, or more, efpecially 
if they arc dcfign'd for feeding of 
Cattle ; for where the Plants are 
allowed a good Diftance, the Roots 
will be proportionably large ; fo that 
what is loftinNumber, wUl beover- 
gain'd by their Bulk ; which is what 
1 have often obfervM. But in fuch 
Places where they are fown for the 
Ufe of ^ Kitchen, they need not 
be left at a greater Diftance than 
ten Inches, or a Foot ; becaufe large 
Roots are not fo generally eileei9 d 
for the Table. 

It is not many Years fince the 
Pra£ticeof fowing Turneps, for feed- 
ing of Cattle, has been of general 
Ule : how it happened that this Im- 
provement fhould have been fo long 
negleded in every Part o( Eu/ofe, 
is not eafy to determine ; iince it is 
very plain, that this Piece of Huf- 
bandry was known to the Antients. 
For Colutiulla^ in treating of the 
feveral Kinds of Vegetables which 
aw proper for the Fidd, recom- 
mends the cultivating of the Rapa 
in plenty i becaufe (fays he) thofe 
Roots which are not wanted for the 

' R A 

Table, will be eaten by the Cattle; 
And yet this Plant was not much 
cultivated in the Fields till of late 
Years ; nor is the true Method of 
cultivating Turneps yet known, or, 
at leafl, not pra6iisM, in fome of the 
diilant Counties of Englaml^ at this 
time. For in many Places the Seed 
is fown with Barley, in the Spring ; 
and thofe Plants which come up, 
and live till the Barley is cut, pro- 
duce a little Green for the Sheep to 
pick up, but never have any Roots. 
In other Places, where the Turnep- 
feed is fown by itfelf, the Method 
of hoeing them is not underftood ; 
fo that Weeds and Turneps are per* 
mitted to grow together : and where 
the Turneps come np thick in 
Patches, thev are never thinned ; fi> 
that they draw up to have long 
Leaves, but never can have good 
Roots ; which is the principal Pait 
of the Plant ; therefore ihould be 
chiefly attended to. 

The general Method now praAI- 
fed in England, for cultivating tlus 
Plant in the Fields, is the fame u 
is praflifed by the Farm ii\g- garden- 
ers, who fupply the LvntUn Markets 
with thefe Roots» and is the fame as 
before directed. But it is only with- 
in the Coropafs of a few Yean, that 
the Country people have "been ac- 
qu.iinted with the Method of hoeing 
them ; fo that the Farmers ufually 
em ploy M Gardeners, who had been 
bred up in the Kitchen -gardens, to 
perform this Work. And the ufu- 
al Price given fer Acre, for twice 
hoeing, and leaving the Crop clear, 
and the Plants fet out property, was 
feven Shillings ; at which Price the 
Gardeners could get fo much 
per Week, as to make it worth their 
while to leave their Habitations, aid 
pra^ife this in different Countie?, 
during the Seafon for this Work i 
which always happens, after die 


R A 

fvftteft Hurry of Bufinefs in the 
itchen-gardens is over : fo that 
the/ afually formed themfelves in 
fjnail Gangs of fix or feven Perfoos^ 
ltd kt oat oa their diiFerent Routes; 
each Gang fixing at a Diftance 
from the reft, and andertaking the 
Work of as many Farmers in the 
Neighbourhood, as they could ma* 
■age in the Seafon : bat as this 
Work is oow performed by many 
Country Labourers, that Pradice 10 
loJl to the Kitchen-gardeners, the 
Labourers doing it much cheaper. 

There has alio been another Me* 
tkod pra6U&*d very lately, by fome 
vay curioos Farmers, in cultivating 
oiTomeps; which is, by fowing 
the Seed in Rows, with the DrilU 
ploogh. In fome Places, the Rows 
are (own three Feet afunder, in 
others four, in fome five, and fome 
fix. The latter has been recommend- 
ed by fome, as the moQ. proper Di« 
fiance : and ahhoqgb the Intervals 
are fo large, yet the Crop produced 
en an Acre ias been much greater, 
than upon the (ame Quantity of 
Land where the Rows have been 
bot half this Diftance; and uppn all 
the Fields which have been drilled, 
the Crops have greatly exceeded 
thofe which have been hand-hoed. 
The late Lord Vifcount 7tnjjnjh(ni 
was at the Expence of making the 
Trial of thefe two diiFerent Methods 
,of Hulbandry, with the greateft 
Care, by equally dividing the fame 
Fields into different Lands, which 
were alcernatdy fown in Drills, and 
the intermediate Lands in broad 
Caft. The latter were hoed by 
Hand, in the common Method, and 
the other cuitivared by the Hoeing- 
plough ; and when the Roots were 
fully grown, his Lord(h p had an 
equal Qiiancity of Land, which had 
been fowo in different Methods, 
meafured, and the Root& drawn up 

R A 

and weighed ; and thofe Roots 
which had been colcivated by the 
Plough, were fo much larger than 
the other, that the Crop of one Acre 
weighed a Ton and an half more than 
thacof an Acrein theotherHu/bandry. 
But when the Turneps are fown 
in Drills, they will require to be 
hoed by Hand, to feparate and cut 
out the Plants, where they are too 
near together in theRows ; as alfo to 
cut up the Weeds between tJie Plants 
where the Plough cannot reach them. 
If this is carefully performed, the 
plowing of the Intervals, which en- 
courage the Growth of the Roots, 
by thus flirring of the Ground, will 
make it much better prepared for 
the Crop of Barley, or whatever 
elfe is {own the following Spring, 
This Method of Culture may be fup- 
pos'd to be more expenfive than 
that commonly pra£iis*d, by thofe 
unacquainted with it ; but tbofe who 
have made Trials of both, find the 
tiorfe - plowing to be much the 
cheapeft, and by far the bell. For 
the Country - people who are cm- 
ployed in Hand-hoeing of Turneps, 
are very apt to hurry over their 
Work, fo that half the Weeds are 
left growing, and the Plants are fel- 
dom fingled out fo well as they 
Ihould be ; nor are thty curious 
enough to diilinguiOi the Charlock 
(which is one ot the mod common 
Weeds in arable Land] from the 
Turneps ; fo that about the Middle 
oS September it is very common to fee 
the Fields of Turneps fall of the 
yellow Flowers of the Charlock. 
Now, in the Horfe-plowing, all the 
Weeds in the Intervals will be in* 
tirely deftroyed ; fo that if a few 
Plants in the Rows of Turneps 
fhould be overlooked, they may be 
eafily drawn out when they appear 

The greateft Evil which attends a 
4F 2 Crop 

^ A 

. Crop ofTurneps, is that of their be- 
ing dtflroyed by the Fly ; which 
ulually happens ibon after the Plants 
come above-ground, or while they 
are in the Seed-leaf ; for after they 
have put out their rough Leaves 
pretty (trong, they will be paft this 
jDanger. This is always in dry 
Weather ; fo that if there happens 
Rain when the Turneps come up, 
thty will grow fo faft, as to be foon 
out of Danger from the Fly. And 
it has been found, that thofe which 
have been fown in Drills have efcap*d 
the Fly much better than thofe which 
are I'own in the broad Caft : but 
if Soot is fown along the Surface of 
each Drill, it will be of great Ser- 
vice to keep off the Fly ; and a fmall 
Quantity ot it will be fufficient for 
a large Field, where the drills only 
are to be cover'd. 

Another Danger of the Crops be- 
ing dedroyed, is from theCaterpil- 
]ers, which very often attack them, 
when tbey are grown fo large as to 
have fix or eight Leaves on a Plant. 
The fureft Method of deftroying 
thefe Infefts is, to turn a large Par- 
cel of Poultry into theField ; which 
ihould be kept hungry, and turnM 
early in the Morning into the Field. 
Thefe Fowls will foon devour the 
Infe6b, and clear the Turneps. To 
this Evil theTurneps which are (own 
in Drills are not lo much exposed ; 
for as the Ground between the Rows 
will be kept Hirred^ the Plants will 
be kept growing; fo will not be in 
Danger offufFering from tl^efe In- 
fects ; for the Plrent-infcfts never 
depofit their Eggs upon any Plants 
which are in Health ; but as foon 
as they are flfnted, they are immedi- 
ately cover'd with the Eggs of thefe 
Infers. And this holds in general 
with Vegetables as with Animals, 
which are feldom attacked by 
\' ermine when they arc in perfc^ 

R A 

Health ; fo that it is the Dt 
feafe which occafiotls the Vermin, 
and not the Vermin the Difeafe, 
whereas, when they become un- 
healthy, they are foon overfpread 
as is commonly imagined. Now as 
the Plants will always be in greater 
Health when the Ground is well 
ftirr'd about them, fo there will be 
lefs Danger of tbeir fufFering from 
thefe Enemies, when they are culti- 
vated by the Horfchoe, than in the 
common way. 

When theTurneps are fown ia 
Drills, it will be the befl way to hoe 
between every other Row at firft, 
and, fome time after, to hoe the al- 
ternate Intervals ; by which Method, 
the Plants will receive more Benefit 
from the often ftirring of theGround, 
than they would do, if all the Inter- 
vals were hoed at one time ; and the 
Plants will be in lefs Danger of fuf- 
fering from the Earth being thrown 
up too high on fome Rows, while 
others may be left too bare of Earth: 
but when the Earth has been thrown 
tip on one Side of the Drill, it may 
be turned down again before the 
next Interval is hoed. And this al- 
ternate moving of the Earth will 
prepare theGround very well for 
the fucceeding Crop, as well as 
greatly improve the Turneps. fiut 
as this Plough caonot well be drawn 
nearer to theDrilis than two or three 
lnche8,the remainingGronnd fhould ^ 
be forked to loofen the Parts, and 
make way for the Fibres of the 
Roots (o ftrike out into the Inter- 
vals; otherwife, if the Land is ftrong, 
it will become fo hard in thofe 
Places which are not ftirred, as to 
Hint the Growth of the Torneps. 
And this may be done at a fmall 
Expence ; a good Hand will per- 
form a great deal of this Work in a ' 
Dzy ; and whoever will makeTrial, 
will find their Account in pradlifmg 


R A 

it ; efpedally on all ftrong Land, 

wiiere the Tarneps are much more 
IttUeto fufferfrom the binding of 
theGroandy than they will be on a 
loofe Soil ; but yet, in all Sorts of 
Ground, it will be ofgfcat Service 
Id pradiife this. 

When the Ground is thus (lirr'd 
u every Part, one Plowing will be 
ib£cient, after the Tumeps are eat- 
en, for the fowing of Barley, or any 
other Crop ; fo that there will be an 
Advantage in this, when theTur-r 
neps are kept late on the Ground, as 
will be often the Cafe, efpecially 
when they are cultivated for feeding 
of Ewes, becaufe it is often the Mid- 
dle of April before the Ground will 
be cleared : for the late Feed in the 
Spring, before the natural Grafs 
comes up, is the moft wanted, where 
Namben of Sheep or £wes arc 
maintain*d; and one Acre ofTumeps 
willafbrd moreFeed, than fifty Acres 
of the beft Paftare, at that Seafon. 

In Hvrfolk^ and fome other Coun- 
ties, they cultivate great Quantities 
of Tomeps for feeding of Black 
Cattle, which turns to great Advan- 
uge to their Farms ; for hereby they 
procure a good Dreffing for their 
Land : fo that they have extraordi- 
nary good Crops of Barley upon 
thoie Lands, which would nqt have 
been worth the plowing, if it had 
not been thas hafbanded. 

When the Tumeps are fed off the 
Ground, the Cattle ihould not be 
fufferM to run over tpo much of 
the Ground ; for if they are not con- 
fined by Hurdles to as much as is 
fttfficient for them one; Day ( and 
thefe (hottld be every Day removed 
forward), the Cattle will fpoil three 
times the Quantity qf Turoepf they 
can eat; fo that it is stxy bad Huf-^ 
baodry to give them too much room* 

I cannot omit taking notice o( a 
<QOuiKMi Miftake, whic)| has gene- 

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rally prevailed with Perfoqs who 
have not ' een well informed to the 
contrary ; which is, iu relation to 
the Mutton which is fatted with 
Turneps, mofl People believing it to 
be rank and ill-ufted ; whereas it is 
a known Fad, that the beft Muttoi\ 
this Country affords, is all fatted 
on Tumeps; and that rank Mut* 
too, whofe Fat is yellow, is what the 
low marfliy Lands of Lineohfiirtt 
imd other rank Failures, produce. 

In order to favc good Turnep* 
feeds, you (hould tranlplant fome of 
the faireft Roots in Feirnnry, place- 
ing them at leail two Feet afunder 
each Way, obferving to keep the 
Ground clear from Weeds, until the 
Tumeps have fpread fo as to cover 
the Ground, when they will prevent 
the Weeds from growing; and when 
the Pods are formed^ you (hould 
carefully, guard them againft the 
Birds, otherwife they will devour 
it, efpecially when it is near ripe; 
at which time you (hould either 
(hoot the Birds as they alight up- 
on the Seed, or lay fome birdlim*4 
Twigs upon it, whereby fome of 
them will be caught ; and if they 
are permitted to remain fome time, 
and afterward turn'd loofe, they 
will prevent the Birds from coming 
thither again fome time, as I have 
experimented. When the Seed is ripe« 
it (hould be cut up, and fpread to dry 
in the Sun; after which it may be 
threih'd out, and preferved for Ufe. 


This differs from theRadilh, ia 
having a JQinted Pod, containing t)n^ 
roundi(h Seed in each Joint. 

There are feveral Varieties of thfs 
Plant, two of which grow wild io 
England ; the others are Natives of 
Francs^ Stain^ and Italji but as thejf 
are Weeds which grow frequently . 
on arable Land, I (hajil Apt eanme^ 
rate the Varieties* 

4 F 3 ^.P6^. 

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RAPHANUS, Radifh. 

The Chara£iers arc ; 
Tbe Flo-tver conji/is of four Lea*veSf 
nxjbich are placed inform of a Crofs : 
out of the Fl'<wer'Cup rifts the Poin- 
t a If 'which afterguard turns tO'a Fod 
in form of an Horn^ that is thick^ 
fpongy^ and fuTniJ}?*d ivith a douhh 
Ko-wofrouttdiJhSteds^'whicb are fe^ 
faratfd by a thin Meiribrant. 
The k' pedes arc ; 

1. Raphanus minor oblongus. C . 
B, P. Small oblong or common 

2. Raphanus niger major ro fun- 
dus, Mor, Hift. Great round black 
Kadifh, commonly callM The5'/a- 
nijh Radifh. 

3. Raphanus major orbicularis^ 
foribus candidis, C. B. P. Great 

round - rooted Radiih, with white 

4. Raphanus minor oblongus py" 
riforaisy *vulgo RashurasoM. Hort, 
Catb. The lefTer Radifli, with an 
oblong pear-(hap*d Root. 

5. Raphanus major orbicularis^ 
*vil rotundas. C. B. P, Greater 
Radifh, with a roand Root, com- 
monly calPd White Spanijh Radifh. 

The firft Sort here mentioned is 
that which is commonly cultivated 
in Kitchen-gardens for its Root ; 
of which there are feveral Varieties, 
as the Small -topp'd, the Deep-red, 
dnd the Longtopp'dftripMRadifh ; 
all which are Varieties ariiing firom 
Culture, The fmall- topped Sort is 
mod commonly preferred by the 
Gardeners near London ; becaufe 
ihey require muth lefs room than 
thofe with large Tops, and may be 
left much doffr together s and as 
the forward Radilhes are what pro- 
duce the grcateft Profit to the Gar- 
dener, ifo thefe being commonly fowb 
jipOn Borders near Hedge?, Walls, 
or Pales, if they arc of the large- top- 
ped Sort, they will be apt to grow 

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molUy at Top, and not fwell lb 
much in the Root as the other,erpe- 
cially if they are left pretty clofe. 

The Seaibns for fowing this Seed 
are various, according to the time 
when they are defired for Ufe ; but 
the earlied Seafon is commonly to- 
ward the Latter-end oiO^ober, when 
the Gardeners near London fow them 
to fupply the Market ; and thefe, if 
they do not mifcarry, will be fit for 
Ufe in March following, which is 
full as foon as moft People care to 
eat them. Thefe (as I faid before) 
are commonly fown on warm Bor- 
ders, near Walls, Pales, or Hedges, 
where they may be defended from 
the cold Winds. 

The fecond Sowing is commonly 
about Cbriflmas^ provided the Seafon 
be mild, and the Ground in a fit 
Condition to work : thefe are fown 
near Shelter, but not fo near Pales 
and Hedges as the firft Sowing, 
Thefe, if they are not deflroy'd by 
Froil, will be fit for Ufe the Begin- 
ning of April: but in order to have 
a Succefiion of thefe Roots for the 
Table through the Seafon, yoa 
fhoold repeat fowing of their Seeds 
once a Fortnight, from the Middle 
of January till the Beginning of 
April ; always obferving to fow the 
latter Crops upon a moifl Soil, and 
an open Situation ; otherwife they 
run up, and grow fUcky, before they 
are fit for Ufe. 

Many of the Gardeners near Lm" 
don (bw Carrot-feed with their early 
Radifhcs; fo that when their Ra- 
difhes are kilPd, the Carrots will ic» 
main : for the Seeds of Carrots com- 
monly lie in the Ground h:^^ or ii 
Weeks before chey owne up, and 
the Radifhes feldom lie above i 
Fortnight under ground ; fo that 
thefe are often up, and kiird, whca 
the Carrot-feed remains fafe in the 
Ground : bat when both Cropt foe- 


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ceed, the RadiHies mail be drawn 
oSvtry young ; otherwife the Car- 
rocs will be drawn up fo weak, as 
not to be able to fupport themfelves 
wkcn the Radifhes are gone. 

It is alfo a conftant Pradice with 
tbefe Gardeners, to mix Spinach- 
feed with their latter Crop of Ra- 
dices ; fo that when the Radifhes 
are drawn oW, and the Ground 
dean'd between the Spinach, it will 
grow prodigioufly, and in a Fort- 
sight's time will as completely cover 
the Ground, as though there had 
been no other Crop. ' And this Spi- 
nach, if it be of the broad-leavM 
Kind, will be larger and fairer than 
it cotnnionly is when by itfelf ; 
faecaufe where People have no other 
Crop mixM with it, they commonly 
fow it too thick, whereby it is drawn 
up weak ; but here the Roots (bnd 
pretty far apart, fo that after the Ra- 
difhes are gone, they have full room 
to fpread ; and if the Soil be good, it 
is a prodigious Size this Spinach will 
grow to, before it runs up for Seed : 
hat thisHufbandry is chieny pradis*d 
by fach Gardeners as pay very dear 
^r their Land, and are oblig*d to 
hare as many Crops in a Year as 
poffible, otherwife they could not 
afford to pay fuch large Rents. 

When the Radifhes are come up, 
and have got five or ^x Leaves, they 
xnaft be pulled up where they are too 
ciofe ; otherwife they will draw up 
to top, but the Roots will not in- 
creafe their Bulk. In doing of this, 
foxDe only draw them out by Hand : 
but the bed Method is, to hoe them 
i^ith a fmail Hoe, which will ftir the 
Ground, and deflroy the young 
Weeds, and alfo promote theGrowth 
of the Plants. The Diftance which 
thcfc (hould be left, if for drawing 
«P fmall, may be three Inches ; but 
tf they arc to ftaad until they are 

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pretty large, fix Inches are full near 
enough ; and a fmall Spot of Groctnd 
will afford as many Radifhes at each 
fowing, as can be fpent in a Family 
while they are good. 

If you intend to fave Seeds of 
your Radifhes, you ihould, at the 
Beginning of May, prepare a Spot of 
Ground in proportion to the Quan- 
tity of Seeds intended ( but yoa 
fliould always make Allowance for 
badScafons; becaufe it often hap- 
pens, in a ytry 'dry Seafon, that 
there will not be a fourth Part of 
the Quantity of Seeds qpon the fame 
Proportion of Ground as there will 
be in a moifl Seafon). This Ground 
ihould be well dug and levelled; then 
you ihould draw up fome of the 
ilraitefl and beft-colour'd Radifhes 
(throwing away all fuch as are fhort, 
and that branch out in their Roots): 
thefe ihould be planted in Rows three 
Feet Diflance, and two Feet afunder 
in the Rows ; obferving, if the Sea- 
fon be dry, to water them until they 
have taken Root ; after which they 
will require no forther Care, but 
only to hoe down the Weeds be* 
tween them, until they are advanced 
fo high, as to fpread over the 
Ground, when they will prevent the 
Growth of Weeds. 

When the Seed begins to ripeo^ 
you fhoold carefully guard it againft 
the Birds, whiclv will otherwife de« 
ftroy it. When it is ripe (which yott 
may know by the Pods changing 
brown), you ihould cut it, and fpread 
it in the Sun to dry ; after which yoa 
ihould threfh it out, and lay it up 
forUfe, where the Mice cannot come 
'to it, otherwife they will eat it up. 

The fmall round-rooted Radiih 
is not very common in England \ but 
in many Parts of Italy it h the only 
Sort cultivated. The Roots of this 
Kind are many times as large as a 

4 F 4 fmaU 


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fmall Tomep, ind are very fweet. 
This may be propagated in the fame 
manner a9 the common Sort; bat 
only with this Difference ; <v/«. That 
this mnft not be Town till the Be- 
ginning of March, and the Plants 
allowM a greater Diilance. The 
Seeds of, this Kind are very fubjed 
to degenerate when favM in Englaudi 
to tliat it b proper to have them from 
Abroad every Year. 

The other round-rooted Radiihes 
are rarely cultivated in England ; but 
thofe who have a mind to have 
them, may fow tl.em in the fame 
manner as the laft. 

The Black and White Spanijh Ra- 
difhes are commonly cultivated for 
medicinal Ufe; though there are 
fome who are very fond of them for 
the Table. Thefe are commonly 
fown about the Middle of July, or a 
little earlier; and they are fit for the 
Table by the End of ^A^»/?, or the 
Beginning of Sepfemifr i and they 
ivill continue good till the Froit 
fpoils them. Thefe mufl be thinned 
to a greater Diilance than the com- 
mon Sort ; for the Roots of thefe 
grow as large as Turneps ; there- 
^re ihottld not be left nearer toge- 
ther than fix Inches. 

Some Perfon^ who are very cari- 
ous to have thefe Roots in Winter* 
draw them out of the Ground before 
the hard Froft comes on, and lay 
them up in dry Sand, in the fame 
manner as is praAis'd for Carrots ; 
being careful to guard them from 
Wet and Froft ; and by this Method 
ihcy preferve them till the Spring. 

RAPISTRUM. Charlock, or 
Wild Muftard. 

There are two or three SficUt of 
this PUuty pne of which grows wild- 
in England i the other two are 
Weeds in t)ie South ofFrmnee, Italj^ 
icpd Sfain. Thtfi? |^ tfini pr«* 


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ferv'd, except by BotaniAs for Va- 

RAFUNCULUS, Rampiont. 
The Cbara^ert are ; 

7 be Flonvgr confifii of out Leaf^ in 
its Form approaching to a Bill-fiape ; 
hut is fo expanded and cut, that it 
almofi rtprefonts tbo Figurt of a Star: 
the Point al is commonfyfplit iuto tnua 
homed Divijions, and the Flfwer^uf 
becomes a Fruit, nuhich is diniidedin^ 
to throe Cells^ iuclofiug uumy fmaU 

The Species are ; 

1. Rapunculvs;^V«/«/« C.i?.?. 
Spiked Rampion. 

2. Rapvnculus fpscatui alhus. 
C. B, P, Spiked Rampion, with a 
white Flower. 

3. Rapuncui.V8 Alpinut tormoh 
latus. C, B, P, Horned Rampion of 
the Jlps. 

4 . R AP u N cu L V s /cahiofie eapituk 
iceruleo, C. B, P. Rampion with 
blue icabioas-like Heads. 

5. Kavvvcvlvs fcahio/it capittth 
alto, C. B, P. Rampion with white 
fcabiqus-Iike Heads. 

6. RAPUNpVLVS /picatus, fore 
Jiave/ceute. In}. R, H. Spiked Ram- 
pion, with a yellowifh Flower. 

7. Rapuncvlus Creticus, feu 
pyramida lis altera. C.B,J^. Pym- 
midal Rampion of Crete, 


Jnft, f,. H. Grafs-leav'd Rampion. 

9. Rapumculus Creticus petf 
marula,fyre ^Iho. Toum, Cor, Ram* 
pion of Crete, with a white Flower, 

(p. Rapuncvlvs QriemtaHj, fi^ 
Hit angujiis dentatit. Touru, Get. 

Eafiem R!ampion» with narrow is- 
dented Leaves. 

1 1. Rapv vcuLUS Orieutedis mh 

fufiifoUu^ m^lticauUt tottu fimius% 
oum. Cor. Eaftem narrow - leavVi 
Jlampion, with many Stalks^ (llQd 
with Flowers. 


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ilRapuvculvs OrientaRsf tarn" 
faatU fmftMfis folio. Tourn, Cor, 
£afien Raxnpton, with a Meadow- 
bell-flower- leaf. 

I J. Rapuhculus OHiBta/ijf fi- 
Im hngioribut^ afptris V rigidu. 
ftitrn. Cor, EaAcrn Rampion, with 
looker roagh (liflF Leaves. 

14. Rapunculus Oriifttalis al^ 
tifimu3, Jolits glahrii U rigiJis, 
fun. Cor. The tallcft Eaftern Ram- 
pion, with fmootb (liiF Leaves. 

ijRapunculus OriitUaltif hi* 
fftrUit foK9. Tourn, Cor, Eaftem 
RampioBy with a Dames- violet- 

Thefe are all of them hardyPlants^ 
which will thrive in the open Air. 
They are propagated by Seed, which 
Ihould be Town, in Autamn ; for if 
they are kept out of the Ground till 
the Spriog, t»iey frequently fail. 
Tude Seeds Ihould be fown on a Bed 
of frefh andunged Earth, where they 
^re deiigned to remain ; for they do 
not thrive fo well when they are 
traafpaDted. Therefore the beft 
Method IS, to make fmall Drills 
ftoit the Bed, about eighteen Inches 
afunder, and fow the Seeds therein : 
then cover them lightly over with 
£arth; for if they are buried too 
deep, they will rot in the Ground. 
Id about a Month after the Seeds are 
fimn, the Plants will come up, 
when they (hould be diligently weed- 
ed ; which is all the Care they will 
requTe till Spring ; at which time 
^e Plants (hould be thinned where 
they ^e too clofe, fo as to leave them 
fix or feven Inches apart in the Rows ; 
9hd j^terward they require no far- 
ther Attention but to keep them clear 
ifrom Wiceds. 1(1 Jum the Plants 
will flower, and if the Summer prove 
favourable, ^hpy will produce ripe 

As thefe Plants do not continue 
Ibore two or thre^ Ye^rs, there 


ihould be Seeds fown every other 
Year, to continue the Sorts; for 
they are Plants which require little 
Trouble to cultivate them, and their 
Flowers make a pretty Variety in 
krge Gardens ; therefore they (hould 
be allowed a Place amongft other 
hardy Flowen. 

RAPUNTIUM, Rampions, or 

Cardinal's Flower. 


Thi FUwiT c$Hfifi$ of oHi Ltaf^ 

nubicb is of an amunalous Figurg, bolr 

lowed liki a Pipg, and furrowed mr 

cbanelPdi divided^ as it wen, into 

many Parti, in the Shape of a Tongnf, 

defintded hy a Vagina or Coverings 

which enfolds the Pointal: when thg 

Flowers decay, the Flower^cup turns 

to a Fruit, diwded into three Cells 

full of fmall Seeds, which adhere to 

a Placenta, which is diwdedinto threo 


The Species are ; 
I. Ri 

lAPUNTiUM maximum, co€H» 
neo fpicatoflore. Col. in Rech. Great- 
er Rampions, with a crimfon fpiked 
Flower, commonly caird The fear- 
let Cardinal's Flower. 

2. Rapuntium Americanum,fori 
£kte cceruUo. H. R, Par, The blue 
Cardinal's Flower. 

3. Rapuntium Americanum, *vir* 
gig anreit foliii, par^ofUre catruleo, 
Tourn. Cardinal's Flower with 
Golden-rod-leaves, and a fmall blue 

4. Rapuntium Americttnum,flo» 
ribus albi^, Jnft. R. H. American 
Cardinal Flower, with white Flow- 

5. Rapuntium Amerieanum,coc* 
cineo fieri, lineis alhis eleganter piSo, 
Injl. R. H. American Cardinal Flow- 
er, with a fcarlet Flower, elegantly 
firiped with White. 

6. Rapuntium Americanum aU 
tij/lmum, foliie cirfii, flare wrefceute, 
plum. Cat. The uUcfi American Car- 

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dinat Flower, with Leaves like the 
Melancholy • thiiUe, and greenlQi 

7. Rapuntium Amirieanum^ f9' 
liu cirfii iucidts^ flor$ multipiiei coc 
cineo congloBat: Plum, Cat, Ameri" 
can Cardinal Flower, with fhining 
Melancholy- thiftle-leaves, and many 
fcarkt Flowers growing, in Clu- 

* fttrs. 

8. Rapuntium Americanum^ira-' 
ehilii folio fflore purpurafcente. Plum. 
Cat, ^/nV^ffCardinal Flower, with 
a Throatwort-leaf, and a purpliih 

9.RAPUNTIUM Americanum^ fo- 
iiis pblongis^ fioribm farvis cetruleis^ 
fiica longijpma, Amirican Cardinal 
Flower, with oblong Leaves^ and 
fmall blue Flowers, growing in a 
long Spike. 

10. Kafontium unas Stlonitn/e. 
Mor, H, R, BUJf, Burning Car- 
dinal Flower of Bins. 

11. Rapuntium wrens^ JUrtput' 
fureo-cerruUo. Inft, R, H, Burning 
Cardinal Flower, with a bluilh-pur- 
ple Flower. 

12. Rapuntium Africmnum mi' 
nus angufiifolium^ flore vioUuto, Inft, 
R. H, Leffcr narrow-leav*d African 
Cardinal Flower, with a riolet-co^. 
lour'd Flower. 

13. Rapuntium JS/hiopicum, 
^iolaceo galealo fl*re^ fotiis pinafiri, 
Brgyn, Qsnt, Ethiopian Cardinal 
Flower, with a violet galeated 
Flower, and Leaves like the Pi- 

14. Rapuntium ABtHopicnm, 
cctruleo galeaio flore^ foliis coronopi, 
Brepi. Cent. Ethiopian Cardinal 
Flower, with a blue galeated Flow- 
er, and Leaves like Bucks-horn- 

15. Rapuntium JEthiopicum, 
catruleo galeato flore ^ foliis dtntatis^ 

^ Briyn. Cent. Ethiopian Cardinal 

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Flower, with a blue galeated Flow- 
er, and indented Leaves. 

16. Rapuntium Canaienfi pu* 
milum, linarite folio. Sarrac. Low 
Canadp Cardinal Flower, with a 

17. Rapuntium Creticum mini' 
fnum^ bellidis folio, fore macnlatt. 
Tourn, Cor. The icaft Cardinal 
Flower of Cnte, with a Daify-leaf, 
and a fpotted Flower. 

The firft Sort is greatly prized by 
the Curious for the Beauty of its rich 
crimlbn Flowers, which exceed all 
the Flowers I have yet feen, in the 
Deepnefs of its Colour: and thefe 
commonly, when their Roots are 
ftrong, produce large Spikes of thefe 
Flowers, which continue a long 
time in Beauty, and make a moS 
magnificent Shew amongft other 
Flowcn. The time of their Flow- 
ering is commonly in yulf and Au' 
guft \ and if the Autumn proves very 
favourable, they will fometimes pro- 
duce good Seeds in England. Thefe 
Plants are Natives of Firginia and 
Carolina, where they grow by the 
Sides of Rivulets, and make a moft 
beautiful Appearance j from whence 
the Seeds are often fent into England. 
Thefe' Seeds commonly arrive here 
in the Spring ; at which time they 
fhould be fown in Pots filPd widi 
light Earth, abd but juft covered 
over; for if the Seeds are buried 
deep, they will not grow. Thefe 
Pots fhould be placed under a Frame, 
to defend them from Cold, until the 
Seafon is a little advanced ; but they 
ftiould not be placM on an Hot-bed, 
which will injure the Seeds. 

When the Weather is warm, to- 
ward the Middle of ^j^r/A thefe Pott 
fhould be placed in the open Air, in 
a Situation where they may have the 
morning Sun till Twelve of the 
Clock, cbferving to water chem con* 


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ftintlj in dry Weather ; and v/hett 
the Plants are come up, and are 
grown pivtty ftroog, they ihould be 
tranfplanted each into a fmall Pot 
fiPd with frefli light Earth, and 
placed in the fame Situation, ob- 
fenring to water them in dry Wea- 
ther ; and in Winter they fhould be 
placed under an Hot - bed - frame, 
where they may be (helter'd from fe- 
vere Frofts ; but in mild Weather 
they (hould be as much expofed to 
the open Air as poflible. 

The March foUowiug thefe Plants 
ihould be put into larger Pots filPd 
with the famefreih Earth, and placed, 
as before, to the morning Sun ; ob- 
serving to water them in dry Wea- 
ther, which wDl caufe them to floW" 
er flrong the Autumn following. 

Theie Plants are alfo propagated 
by partiiig of their Roots: the beft 
Seafon for which is, either foon af- 
ter they arc pad Flower, or inMarcb; 
obferving to water and manage 
them, as hath b^en diredled for the 
feedling Plants, both in Winter and 

The blue Sort confhmtly produces 
ripe Seeds in England^ which (hould 
be ibwn foon after they are ripe : in 
the Spring following the Plants will 
come up, when they fhould be tranf- 
planted and managed as the other 
Sort i with which Culture this will 
alfo agree. This is preferv'd for 
Variety ; but the Flowers are not 
near fo beautiful as thofe of the 
former Sort. 

The thirdSorthath fmall blueFlow-. 
crs, and is an annual Plant, perill- 
ing as foon as the Seeds are ripe. 
This may be raifed in the fame 
manner as the former; but is fcarce- 
\y worthy of a Place in the Flower- 

The fourth Sort is a Variety of the 
fecond, from which it differs only 
in the Colour of th^ Flower ; and 

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the fifth Sort is a Variety of the firfl ; 
but neither of thefe Variations are 
lairing: for from the Seeds which I 
have laved from thefe, and fown, I 
had fcarce one Pknt which provM of 
the fame Colours as the Parent- 

The fixth and feventh Sorts feem 
to be only Varieties of each other. 
The fixth Sort I have propagated fe- 
vera] times, and have had the Plants 
produce Flowers ; but the feventh I 
have not yet feen in Flower. Thefe 
were collected by Mr. lUbtrt Millar 
in Jamaica, 

The eighth Sort is an annual Plant: 
if the Seeds of this are permitted to 
fcatter in the Pots, and are fhelter*d 
in Winter, the Plants will come up 
in plenty, and require little more 
Care than to transplant them into 
Pots, and place them in a warm 

The ninth Sort is a biennial Plant, 
which perifhes foon after the Seeds 
are ripe. This produces vtty fmall 
blue Flowers, growing in long flen* 
der Spikes ; fo makes but an indif- 
ferent Appearance. 

The tenth Sort is an hardy Plants 
fo may be fown in the common 
Ground ; and if the Seafon proves 
favourable, the Plants will flower, 
and perfed their Seeds the fame 
Year ; and, in aWarm Situation, the 
Plants will live through the Winter. 
The eleventh is only a Variety of 

The twelfth, thirteenth, four- 
teenth, and fifteenth Sorts are annual 
Plants, which perifh as foon as their 
Seeds are ripe. The Flowers of 
thefe are fmall i fo are not much 

The fixtcenth and feventeenth 
Sorts are alfo pretty hardy ; but as 
they have little Beauty, are feldoin 
prefer v'd in Gardens. 



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The Chara£!ers are ; 

li hatb a tubuloui Flower confift- 
ing of one Leaf^ ^whofe upper- Part 
fpreads open into ^ piain Surface^ and 
is cut into/fueral Parts ; from ivho/e 
Cup arifes the Pointal, fixed like a 
Nail^ 'which afterguard becomes an 
ahttoft globular foft Fruity full of 
Milif in which are contained one or 
t*uio hard Seeds. 

The Species arc ; 

I.Rauvolfia tetrapbylla angu* 
fiifoUa. Plum. Nov. Gen. Foar-leav*d 
Raavolfia, with narrow Leaves. 

2. Rauvolfia tetrapbylla lati- 
folia. Plum. Nov. Gen. Four-leav'd 
Kauvolfia, with broad Leaves. 

This Name was given to this 
'Genus of Plants by Father Plumier^ 
who was the Perfon that difcover^d 
them in America^ in Honour to Leo- 
nard Rawiolf who was a curious 
Botanifty and flourifii'd about the 
Year 1583. He tr^velFd into the 
Holy Land^ and feveral other Places 
ID the Eaft, and publifli^d his Travels 
in High-Dutch, which were tranf- 
lated intoEnglijSb under thelnrpedlion 
of the great Mr. Ray. 

Thefe Plants grow plentifully at 
din(/#ri&y,fromwhence I receivM their 
Seedsy which were coUeded by Mr. 
Robert MilloTf Surgeon. 

The Seeds of tbefe Plants fliould 
be fown in Pots fiird with fre(h 
Earthy and plungM into an Hot-bed 
of Tanners Bark ; for as they are 
very hard, they frequently remain a 
long time in the Ground : therefore 
when they are in Pots, they may be 
fhifted from one Bed to another, as 
their Heat decays. When the Plants 
come up, they muft be frequently 
refreih'd with Water ; but it muft 
not be given them in large Quanti- 
ties; for the Plants are fucculent, 
and full of a milky Juice ; fo are in 
Danger of rotting with too much 
MoiSure. They fiioald alfo have a 

R A 

large Share of frefh Air admitted to 
them in warm Weather ; and when 
they are about two Inches high, they 
fhould be tranfplanted each into a 
feparate fmall Pot filled with frdh 
light Earth, and then plunged into 
the Hot -bed again; obferving to 
fhade them from the Sun, until they 
have taken new Root ; aifter which 
time they fhoul4 have free Air ad- 
mitted to them every Day, ia pro* 
portion to the Warmth of theSeafon. 
In this Hot-bed the Plants may re- 
main till, toward Micbaehnat, when 
they fhould be removed into the 
Stove, and plunged into the Tan- 
ners Bark, where they muft be kept 
warm, and not have too much Moift- 
ure in cold Weather, left it rot 

As thefe Plants are Natives of 
vtTy hot Countries, fo they will not 
live in the open Air in England; 
therefore they (hoold conftandy re- 
main in the Stove; and if they re- 
main in the Bark-bed, they will 
thrive much &fter, dian when they 
are placed on Stands in a dry Stove. 
But in the Summer -feafon tbey 
fhould have a large Share of freih 
Air admitted to them; and die 
Leaves of the Plants muft be now- 
and-then wafhed with a Sponge, to 
clear them from the Filth they are 
apt to contract ; which, if fufterM to 
remain, will retard the Growth of 
the Plants. Where this Care is taken 
of them, they will thrive very fail, 
and the fecond Year will produce 
Flowers, and continue fb to do for 
many Years ; and will perie^ their 
Seeds in England. They may alfo 
be propagated by Cuttings, which 
ihould be laid to dry for two or 
three Days before they are planted; 
and then fhould be plunged into a 
moderate Hot-bed of Tanners Bark, 
obferving to fhade them until they 
have taken Root ; after which time 


R E 

diejr nay be treated as the feedliag 

A£S£DA, Bafiard- rocket. 
The Charaatrt are; 

It bath a folypetalous ammalout 
flannar^ iomfoftd if ftnjtral MJJmilar 
Petals^ out if ivbofg Cup arifes tbt 
Pmmtaly 'which afterguard becomes a 
mtmbramaceoms Fruity /or the moft 
fart three •r fhur^comered^ oblongs 
emd^ as it vaerey eylindraceous^ P^'i' 
tuaet tvitb reundt/h Seeds. 
The Species iie; 

1. Reseda 'vulgaris. C. B, P, 
Common Baftard-rocket. 

2. Reseda crijpa Galiica, Bccc. 
Rar. PL Curled French fiailard- 

3 . R B s E D A latifolia^ fiere fla*u9 . 
Mer. Hifi. Broad -leav*d BaHard- 
rocket, with a yellow Flower. 

4« Reseda feliis ca/citrap^e, fien 
^Kbs. hhr. H. R. BUf. Bafbrd- 
locket with Star-thifUe- leaves, and 
a white Flower. 

5. Reseda nUsur 'vulgaris, hfi, 
R. H. Smaller common Baftard- 

6. Reseda minor 'vulgaris, folio 
tmnms incifo. Inft, R, H. Smaller 
common Baftard • rocket» with a 
Leaf lefs cut. 

7. Reseda minor vulgaris ^ foUis 
httegris. Lift. R, H. Small common 
Ba&rd-xockct, with whole Leaves. 

8. Reseda Pyrenaica^ linari^ 
fiiio glauco. ScboL Bot. Pyrenean 
^Bafia^ - rocket, with a glaucous 

9. Reseda JEgyptitca minor , fio- 
Ttbus fragrantijjimis. The Mignonette 
-d^Egjpt, orfmall fweet-fcented Re- 

Thefe Plants ^are preferved in the 
Gardens of Tome Perfons, who are 
carious in Botany ; but at prefent 
they are not uied in Medicine. All of 
them, hut the lall, are very hardy 
Plants, which are propagated by Seeds : 

R E 

thefe fhould be fown in theSprii^» 
on an open Bed of frefh undunged 
Earth, in the Place where they are 
deiign*d to remain ; and when the 
Plants come up, they fiiould be hoed 
to feparate them, where they are too 
clofe, as alfo to deftroy the Weeds* 
The four £rft Sorts ihould be allow- 
ed eighteen Inches, or two Feet ; 
but the other Sorts^ being of leis 
Growth, do not require above half 
that room. The Weeds (hould be 
conlkntly hoed down between the 
Plants when they arife, which is atl 
the Culture the Plants require. Somf 
of thefe Plants will fk>wer the fame 
Year they arefown, when they come 
up early in the Spring ; but in gene-, 
ral they do not flower till the fecond 
Year^ when they produce their Seeds, 
and the Plants commonly perilh 
foon after. If the Seeds of thefe 
Plants are permitted to fcatter, the 
Pfants will come up, and Hock the 
Ground, fo as to become Weeds. 

The ninth Sort hath been lately 
introduced into the Englijh Gardens.^ 
The Plants of this Sort are generalfy 
annual, and perifh foon after their 
Seeds are ripe ; though if the Plants 
are placed in a warm Stove in the 
Autumn, they may be prefervM thro* 
the Winter, and the Plants will keep 
coiiftantly in Flower. 

This Sort fhould be fown on a 
moderate Hot-bed in March i and 
when the Plants are Ilrong enough to 
tranfplant, they fhould be pricked 
out upon another moderate Hot- bed 
to bring them forward: but the 
Plants ihould have a large Share of 
Air in warm Weather, othcrwife 
they will draw up very weak. About 
the LatLer-end of May the Plants 
may be planted out, fome into Pots, 
to place near the Apartments ; and 
others into warm fiordt^rs, where 
they may remain to flower and feed. 
For the Plants which grow in the 


R H 

fall Groand, ofCQi produce more 
Seeds than thofe whkh are in Pots : 
but at the time when the Seed-vefTels 
begin to fweU, the Plants are fre- 
queDtly infefted with green Cater- 
pillersy whichy if they are not de- 
iftroyed, will eat off all the Seed- 

The Flowers of this Plaot have a 
firong Scent like frefli Rafpberries, 
which will fpread over a Room in 
which two or three Plants are placM; 
and for this are greatly e(leem*d. 

CHORUM, r/i// Lapathum. 


The CbaraSirs are ; 

// bath the tjubo/i Jppearanci of 
tbe SucAtbom ; but is Male and Fi* 
male in different Trees : tbe Flowers 
of tbe Male ba*ue no Petals : tbe 
Flotver'Cttf eonfifis of tivo J^iaves, in 
tbe Centre ofiubieb are feveral /mall 
Stamina: tbe Female Trees froduce 
roundijb Berries^ eacb rfn»bicb con* 
tains afinglo Seed, 
The Sfe)cies are ; 

U Rhamnoides Jlorifera^ falidt 
Joliis. T, Cor. Male wUlow - leav*d 
Sea Buckthorn. 

2. Rhamsoidbs /rnJifi/era, /oSis 
/alias, baccis le<viter flan/efcentibus, 
T. Cor. Female willow-leav'd Sea 
Buckthorn, with ydlow Berries. 

Thefe Plants grow in great Plenty 

upon the Sea-coafts of Uncolnfiire^ 

and at Sandwich, Deal, and Folkfton, 

'in Kent ; as alfo in divers Parts of 


They arc preferv'd in feveral Gar- 
dens near London for Variety ; where, 
being intermixed with other Shrubs 
of the fame Growth, they afibrd an 
agreeable Profpeft. 

Thefe Shrubs are eafily propa- 
gated from Suckers, which they 
fend forth in great Plenty from the 

R H 

old Plants. Thefe Sackeft may be 
taken oflT any time in Februarj or 
Marcb, and planted in a Nuriery, 
where they may be trained up for 
two or three Years ; after which 
they may be removed to the Placet 
where they are to remain. There 
is no very great Beauty in thefe 
Plants ; but as their Leaves and 
Flowers are very difFerent from moft 
other Trees, they make a pretty 
Variety in fmall Wildemefs- quar- 
ters ; or, when planted in Qumps 
with various Trees, they will grow 
to be ten or twelve Fttt high ; 
but it is very rare to fee them 

RHAMNUS, The Buckthorn. 
The CbaraSers are ; 

It batb a funnel -Jkafd Fhmer, 
eonjtfting of one Leaf, tvbieb is divi' 
did toward tbe Top into four or five 
Segments : out of tbe FUwer-cnf rijts 
tbe Pointal, ivbicb afterweird be* 
comes a /oft ronndifly Berry, ntery/M 
of Juice, inclofng font bard ^ds, 
nffbicb are round and /mootb on tbe 
Outjide, but fatted on tbe otber. 
The Species are ; 

I. Rhamnus catbarticns. CBf. 
Common purging Buckthorn. 

a. Rhamnus catbarticns mimr. 
C. B. P. Lefler purging Buck- 

3. Rhamnus Ht/^emiens, Jobo 
bnxi, minor. Tourn. 
Buckthorn, with a Box-leaf. 

4. Rhamhus catbarticus mimr, 
folio Ungiori. Inft. R. H. Leftr 
purging Buckthorn, with a loikgcr 

5. Rhamnus tertins, fore ber^ 
baceo, baccis nigris. C. B. P. Cbt- 
fns*s third Buckthorn, with an her* 

baceous Flower, and black Berries. 

6. Rhamnus Hi/panicus, buxifi- 
Ho empliore. Inft. R, H. Spani/bBudk- 
thorn, with a larger Box*]af. 

7. Rha- 

R H R H 

y.KHABiNvt Hifpmnieusy oka fa- Variety. Both thcfc Sorts may b« 

Ih. hjl. R, H, Spani/h Backdiom, propagated by laying dowa their 

with an Olive-leaf. tender Branches in Autumn; which, 

S.Rhamnus Hi/panicus, byperici if duly watered in dry Weather t)ve 

fdis. Infi, R. H> ^panijh Buckthorn, fucceeding Summer, will take Root 

with a St. JohnVwort-leaf. in the Compafs of one Year; and 

9. Rhamnus Crtticus^ amjgdedi may then be tranfplanted, either 
f(&% miwori, Teum, Cor. Candy Buck- where they are to remain, or in fomc 
thorn, with a fmaller Atmond-leaf. Kurfery, to be train'd up for a Cew 

10. Khamsv-s Orientalis, alatemi Years, and then removed to their 
firt9. Tnim. Cor. Eaflern Buckthorn, Places of Growth. 
with an Alaternus-leaf. The BrA Sort will grow to the 

u.Rhamws Creficus^ iuxi /a* Height of eighteen or twenty 
b numri. Tourn. Cor. Eaflern Buck* Feet ; but, being a ilraggliog Groins- 
thorn, with a fmaller Box- tree-leaf, er, is {eldoffl much cultivated in 

12. Rhamnus Orientalis^ amyg^ Gardens. 
doiifilio ampUore. Tourn. Cor. Ball- The fecond Sort feldoxa liCm 

ere Buckthorn, with a larger Al- above five Feet high; therefore 

mond-leaf. ihould be planted amongd Shrubs qf 

The iirft of thefe Trees is very the fame Growth ; where it wUl add 

common in the Hedges in divers to the Variety, though it haa liMk 

Parts of England i the. Berries of more Beauty than the former. 
which are order'd by the College of They may alfo be propagated b|r 

Phyfidans for medicinal Ufe; but Seeds, which muil be ibwn on a Birf 

particalarly for making a Syrup, of fieih £arth, foon after they ase - 

which was formerly in great Ufe ; ripe ; the Sptii^ followiog the 

l>Qt of late the Ferfons who fuppLy Plants will appear, wl^en thay nM^ft 

the Markets, have gathered {ever^l be carefuily dean^ from Wceda ; 

other Sorts of Berries, which th^ the Autumn folbwiAg they may J^ 

bare either mixed with thofeofthe tranfplanted out, anj managfd M 

Buckthorn, or have wholly fub(ti- the Layers. 

toted them in their place. Theie The third Sort is alfo pretervVi kx 

^ the Berries of the Frangmla, Cor- feveral curious Gardens for Variety: 

wj/amina, &c. which Mixture hath this produces vail Quantities of piir- 
fpoiled the Syrup, and rendered it pie Flowers moft Part of the ^um- 
leTs efteemM. But whoever purchafes mer« and many times ripens its Seeds 
the Buckthorn -berries, may diftia- m England. Tins may be propagated 
Eoilh whether they are right or not, by laying down the tender Braj^dkes 

hy opening them, and obferving the in the Spring, which will uke Root 
Namber of Seeds in each ; for taefe by the^ Spring following, whan 
We commonly ibur, whereas the they fhouid be planted into Pou; j 

Frangula has but two, and the Cor- and require to be houfed in Winter, I 

*oi famina but one; as alfo by though they need only be ihelter'd 
bruifiog of the Berries on white Pa- from the extreme Froil ; but ihoold I 

per, the Juice giving a green Tm* bave as much free Air as poflible ii^ 
^i^e. miid Weather, and in Summer mad | 

The- fecond Sort is lefs common be often watered. It delights in a 
in Englandy and only to be found in freih light Soil, and. requires to be 
Gardens where it is cultivated for often remov*d ; bec^ufe the Roots ^ 


R H R H 

increafe (o greatly, at to fill the The Specitj are ; 

Pots in afhort time. t. Rhus foiie mlmi, C, B. P. 

The foarthy fifth, fixth, feventh, Elin-leav*d Samach. 

and eighth Sorts grow wild in the 2. Rhus FirginianmH, C. B, ?. 

Woods in Sfaiit, Fortngal^ Itafy^ Virginian Samach, by feme falfly 

and the South of Frana; and, for call*d The Stages -horn- tree. 

Variety, feme of the Sorts have 3. Rhus Jmericanuntf famctk 

been admiued into the Englijh Gar- fparfa ber^eea^ ramit patulis gla- 

dens, though they are Plants of lit- Iris. Hort. Elth. American Sumach, 

tie Beauty. Thefe grow to the with loofe herbaceous Panicles, and 

Height of fix or eight Feet, and are fmooth Branches, commonly callM 

hardy enough to live through the Ne^-England Sxim'Aich. 

Winter in the open Air in England. 4. Rhus Canadenfe^ folio longioii^ 

The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and ntrinqne glabro, Ltft. R. H, Canaif 
twelfth Sorts grow in the Iflands of Sumach, with a longer Leaf, finooth 
the Archipelago^ where Dr. foume- on each Side, 
/tfr/ colle£ted their Seeds, and fent ;. Rhus tenmfoUa Virgimana h- 
them to the Royal Garden at Parij, milis : Rhus anguftifolium. C. B, F. 
Thefe are alio hardy enough to live Pluk. Aim. Dwarf Virginian Sa- 
in the open Air in England^ and are mach, with narrow Leaves, 
all of them Shrubs growing about 6. Rhus Africanum trifoliahm 
the fame Height as the former. «*^tf', foliis fuhtus argmtgis acutiSf 

Thefe may all be propagated by & margine incijis. Pink. Phyt. Great 

. iayii^ down their Branches in the African three-leav*d Sumach, widi 

fame manner, as hath been before narrow Leaves cut on their Edges, 

direded for the other Sorts^ or from and white underneath. 

the Seeds: the latter Method is to 7. Rhus Africanum trifolinm wi* 

be preferrM, where the Seeds can nus glabrumJpUudenttfiHofnhroiunk 

be procured ; becaufe thofe Plants integro i forte Lentifcus Africanus tri' 

which arife from Seeds, will always phjllos quorundam, Pluk, Pfyt. Let 

be ftronger, and grow ered; where- fer thm - leav'd African Sumach, 

as thofe which come from Layers, with a whole roundifh ihiniiig 

are very fubjed to (hoot out lateral fmooth Leaf. 

Branches, whereby they are retarded 8. Rhus Africanum trifoliatum 

in their upright Growth. majus^ folio fubrotundo iniegro, nulB 

RHUS, The Sumach-tree. & incano. Pluk. Phyt. Greater 

The Charaffers are ; three-leav*d African Samach, with 

nt Flowers confift offrue Leaws^ a whole roundifh woolly L^f. 

nuhich are placed in a circular Order, The firft Sort grows plentifully in 

and expand in form of a Roft ; from the warm Parts of Europe^ as alfo ia 

nnhofe Fknaer'cnp rifes the Peintal, Turky, where the Branches are nfed 

nohich afitmuard becomes a roundijb for Tanning of Leather ; and aldio' 

9r eslmoft kidney-fiap^dVeffelt contain^ this is a Native of Europe, yet it is 

ing one Seed of the fame Shape : to more rare in the Englijh Gardens, 

nvhich Marks mepf be added, 7he than any of the American Kindt. 

Flowers growing in Bunches, and the This grows to the Height of fix or 

Lea*ves are either winged, or b»vt eight Feet, and will refill the CoM 

thre$ Lobes. of the ordinary Winten In England i 


R tt R H 

bat in ftyrtfe Froft the Plants afe of* 6f the other. It was broaght firft 

tendeflroyed. from Penfylvania i but fince, the 

The Leaves of this Sort are much Seeds have been brought from Netu^ 

roaader than thofe of the American England^ and other Northern Parts 

Kinds, and each Lobe is (haped f^f America, This produces much 

fomewhat like the Leaves of Elm ; ftronger Slioots> and grows more 

but there are many of thefe Pinnae ere£l, than the others ; but as the 

OQ each Midrib^ fo that it hath as Spikes of Seeds are of an herbaceous 

long pennated Leaves as any of the Colour, they do nor make fo good 

other ; wherefore the Tide of Elm- an Appearance as thofe of the fecond 

leaf is wtry improperly applied to Sort. 

this Plant ; however^ as it has been The fourth Sort hath fmooth 

generally known by that Name, I long-pointed Leaves, which are of 

have chofen to continue it. a glaucous Colour ; the Spikes of 

The fecOad Sort is very common Flowers are of a bright red Colour i 

in many Gardens, where it endures fo that this Sort makes a very beau- 

ihe fevercft Cold of the Winters in ful Appearance when in Flower ; 

the open Air ; and is ofually inter- but is of humbler Growth than ei- 

mixed, in iinall Wildernefs- quarters, ther of the former. This produces 

amongil other Trees oi the like a great Number of Suckers from the 

Growth, 'where it affords an agree- Roots, and grows very irregular in 

^bie Variety. This produces Bunches its Branches. There is another Va- 

of fmall FIo\Y«'s in Jume^ at the riety of this, which differs in the 

Extremities of the Branches, which Spikes of Floivers, being covert 

are facceeded by Seeds, which are in- over with a white Powder, as if 

clofed in red Covers ; fo that the frofted ; but this is not a diitin6l 

whole Spikes appear of a fine red Speciet. 

Colour. Thefe Bunches are fome- The fifth Sort is alfo a Shurb of 

times afcd in Dyeing; and the humble Growth, feldom rifing more 

Branches of the Trees are ufed for . than four Feet high in England. 

Tanning of Leather in America^ This is by fome call'd the Lentifcus* 

wbere thefe Trees grow in plenty. leavM Sumach. The Pimfue of thefe 

This Tree will grow to be eight Leaves are join'd by a Border or 

or ten Feet high ; but is very fub- Wing, which runs along the Mid- 

ycSt to produce crooked unfightly rib : the Flowers of this Sort are not 

Branches ; Co that it canU be re- very beautiful 2 but as the Leave's 

dac^d'to a regular Stem, which ren- of the Shrub are of a fingular Stru- 

ders it unfit to plant fiogly in an dure, they .are admitted into theGar« 

open Situation : but amongft other densofthe Curious for Variety-fake. 

Trees, where the Deformity of the This Sort is hardy enough to endure 

Stem is hid, it looks very well, the Cold ofour ordinary Winters very 

This is by fome called Stags-horn- well in the open Air, if it is planted 

tree* from its having foft. woolly in a ihelter*d Situation. 
Shoots, refembling the young Horns All the Sorts may be propagated 

of a Stag. by Seeds, which fhould be fown 

The Uiird Sort has not been many fooo after they are ripe ; and then 

Years introdoc'd into the* Englijh the Plants will come up the follow- 

Gardens ; yet is now become more ing Spring : but if the Seeds are not 

common in the Nurferiea than cither fown till the Spring, it will b« a 

Vol. IIL 4G Year 

R H 

Year before the Plants will appear. 
The bed Method of raifing theft 
Plants from Seeds is,' to fow them in 
Pots of light Earth, and place them 
under an Hot-bed-fratne in the Win- 
ter, where they may be conftantly 
exposed to the open Air in mild 
Weather ; but ihould be covered in 
hard Froft. And if the Pots are 
plung'd into fome old Tanners Bark» 
which has no Heat, this will pre- 
vent the Earth from drying, as alfo 
keep oat the Froft. When the 
Plants come op, they will require no 
other Care but to water them in dry 
Weather; and if, the following 
Winter, the Pots are plac'd in Shel- 
ter, it mil fecure the Plants from 
being injurM by Froft ; and in the 
Spring, before they begin to fhoot, 
they fliottld be tranfplanted. into 
Nurfery -beds, where they may grow 
a Year or two ; by which time they 
will have obtained Strength enough 
to be planted where they are to re- 

The four firft- mentioned Sorts 
propagate themfelves fo fad by 
Suckers, that their Seeds are feldom 
fown ; but the fifth feldom produces 
any Suckers, which occafions its be- 
ing fcarce in the Gardens ; for the 
Seeds do not ripen in EngianJ. 

The African Sorts are all pre- 
ferv*d in Pots or Tubs, and houfed 
in Winter, bemg too tender to en- 
dure the Cold of this Climate in the 
open Air. Thefe may be propagated 
by laying down their young Branches 
into fre& Earth s obferving to water 
them duly in dry Weather, which 
will greatly forward their Rooting. 
In two Years they will be fit to tranf- 
plant ; when they may be taken from 
the old Plants, and each placed in a 
feparate Pot fill'd with frefh light 
Earth. The befttime for tFanfplant- 
ing of thefe Plants is in Aprii^ ob- 
ferving to water and ihade them ua- 

R I 

til they have taken Root; after 
which they may be .exposM with 
Myrtles, Oleanders, and other hard/ 
Exotics, during the Summer-feafon, 
and in Winter muft be houfed with 
them i being equally as hardy, and 
only require to be fcreened from lis* 
vere Froft. 

Thefe Plants rarely produce Flow- 
ers in England ; but as they retain 
their Leaves all the Winter, and may 
eaiily be reduced to a regular Head, 
they are preferved for the Diverfity 
of their Leaves, which adds to die 
Variety of a Green-houfe. 
RIBES, The Curran-trcc. 

The CharaStrt are ; 

It bath no PrickUs ; the Leavis 

are large ; the Flovoer cmtfifts ettly ef 

five Leaves f ^vbich are ftaeei em a 

circular Order ^ and expand in firm 

of a Rofe : the 0*varj^ nvhicb arijh 

from the Centre of the Fletver-c^^ hi* 

comes a gUfular Emit, ^nhicb is fr^ 

• duc^d in Bmncbes. 

The Species Me i 
l.RiBES imlgarii acidke mit^, 
y. B, Common red Curran. 

2. RzBEs major , fruSa rmbro. H, 
Eyft. The large Dutcb red Cur- 

'y RiBES nmlgaris acidns albas 
baccasferens, J. B. Common white 

4 . R I B B s qn^e grofilularia bortenfet^ 
wuijorefrnSualboM,R.Pesr. Large 
Dutcb whito Curran. 

5. RiBBS major, frstSu cameo. 
Tut Champaign Curran, I'nlgo, 

6. RlBES Alpinue dnlcis, V^. B. 
The Goon)erry-Ieav'd Curran. 

7. KiBKS frn^ parvo. Merr, Piut 
The fmall wild Curran. 

8. RiBJis nigrum 'vu^ A&nm,fo' 
Ito ohnte. J.B, The black Curran. 

9. RlBE5 tiklgariSy foliis ix Utf 
variegatis, I'he yellow ftrip'd* 
leavM Curran. 

to. RiBES tvulgaris, fib'is ex aSo 


R I 

eiigMtir vmriegaiis. The common 
Carran, with Leaves beautifully 
variegated with Green and White. 

11. RlBEs /ru^u alhoffi!ii4 ex 
«dh9 variegatu. The white Curran, 
witirilriped Leaves. 

12. R 1 B ES Aipinus iulcis, foUis 
vmtgatis. The (Iripcd Goofccriy- 
IcaVd Currao. 

13. RiBEsyrjir<?» ntgro^ folHs v«- 
neiatis. The black Curran, with 
llriped Leaves. 

14. RiBES Amerkanus^ fruAn ni' 
ir9. The American black Curran. 

The five firft- mentioned Sorts are 
prderv*d in all curious Gardens, for 
the fake of their Fruits : indeed* of 
Ute Years, the common red and 
white Currans have been negledted, 
fince the Dutch red and white 
• have become plenty in England i 
thefe producing much Urger and 
fairer Fruit to the Sight than the 
common Sorts, .though I think the 
common Sorts are much better fia* 
voar'd ; (b that they fhould not be 
indrely ncgleded by fuch as are can- 
ous in Fruits. 

The fixth Sort is prefervM as a 
Coriofity» by fuch as delight in Va- 
riety i but the Fruit is not valuable. • 

The feventh Sort is found wild in 
EngUnd. The Fruit of this Kind is 
fniaU^ and iil-tafted ; which renders 
it noworthy of being cultivated in 

The eigjith Sort is preferved in 
fome old Gardens; but the Fruit* 
having a difagreeablc ftroog Tafle, 
has occadonM its being but little 
cultivated of late Years, onlefs for 
medicinal Ufe. There is a Rob 
laade of this Fruit, which is in great 
Reqaeft for the Cure of fore Throats 
and Quinfies 1 from whence this 
Frait has been called Squinancy -ber- 

Thofe Sorts with variegated 

Leaves are preferved by foch as 
are fond of ftrip'd PlanU ; but as 
their greateft Beauty is only in the 
Spring, before their Leaves grow 
large, after which they become more 
green, they art fcarcely worth pre- 
ierving in a Garden. 

The fourteenth Sort was obtained 
by Mr. Peter Giiinfin from America. 
in whoft £ne Garden it has produced 
Fruit'; and from thence hath been 
communicated to fevcral other curi- 
ous Gardens. The planner of this 
Plant's Flowering is very different 
from the other Sorts of Cprrans, for 
which Variety it may h^ive a Place 
amongft other Shrubs; buttheFruit, 
being fomewhat like our black Cur* 
ran, is not much eflcem*d. 

All thefe Sorts may be caGIy prO" 
pagated by planting their Cut ings 
any time from Seft^mber to March 
(but the Autumn is the bed), upoa 
a Spot of frefh Earth, which in the 
Spring muft be kept very clear from 
Weeds 5 and in sexy dry. Weather, 
if they are watered, it will greatly 
promote their Growth. Thele may 
remain two Years in this Nurfery r 
during which time they muft be 
pruned up for the Purpofes defign'd, 
f . f. either to clear Stems, if for 
Standards ; or if for Walls, Pales, 
or Efpaliers, they may be trained up 

Then they fliould be planted out 
where they are to remain j the beft 
Seafon for which is foon after the 
Leaves begin to decay, that they 
may take Root before Winter; fo 
that they in^y be in no Danger of 
fuffering from Drougjit in the 

Thefe Plants are generally planted 
in Rows at about ten Feet afunder, 
and four Feet Distance in the Rows ; 
but the bed Method is to train them 
againft low Efpatiers, in which man- 

4 G 2 ner 

tier they will take up much lefs room 
in a Garden, and their Fruit will be 
tnuch fairer. 

The Diftancc they fliould be plac'd 
fdr ^n Efpalicr, ought not to be lefs 
than ten or twelve Fc^t, that their 
Branches may be trained horizon- 
tally ; which is of great Importance 
to their Bearing. 

Thofe that are planted againft 
Pales ot Walls, (hould alfo be allow- 
ed the fame Diftance ; if they are 
planted againft a South call Wall or 
Pale, it will caufe their Fruit to ripeh 
at leaft a Fortnight or three Weeks 
fooner than thoie in the open Air; 
and thofe which are planted againft 
a North Wall or Pale, will be pro- 
portionably later ; fo that by this 
Method the Fruit may be continued 
a long time in Perfedlion, efpccialiy 
if thofe againft the North Pales arc 
matted in the Heat of the Day. 

Thefe Plants produce their Fruit 
upon the former Year's Wood, and 
alfo upon fmall Snags which come 
out of the old Wood ; fo that, in 
pruning them, thefe Snags (hould be 
preferred, and the young Shoots 
ihortenM in proportion to their 
Strength. The Only Method, very 
neceflary to be obferv'd in pruning 
of them, is, not to lay their Shoots 
too clofe, and never to prune their 
Snags to make them fmooth : this, 
with a fmall Care in obferving the 
manner of their Growth, will be 
fuificient to inftrudl any Perfon 
how to manage this Plant, fo as to 
produce great Qo amities of Fruit. 

Thefe Plant: will thrive, and pro- 
duce Fraiti in almoft any Soil Or 
Situation, /?nd are often planted un- 
der the Shade of Trees ; but rhe 
Fruit Is always bcft when ihey are 
planted to the open Air, and upon a 
dry Soil. 

RICINOIDES, Phyfic-nut, W- 

K 1 

The CbaraSers are ; 
Tbt Male F/onvers tonfijl of federal 
Lea*vej^ nvhicb are flaad in a «>«- 
lar Order ^ and exfand in form of a 
Rbfe : thefe are barren : and grew 
at remote Dijiances from the Female 
Flotverj^upon tbefamePlanti in which 
are produced the Embrjors, *wbicb are 
ivrapt up in the Flonuer-c4tpy and ttf 
temnard become tricapfular Fndii, 
containing oite oblongSeedin each Cell* 
The Species arc ; 

1. RictNoiDES Americana^ g9jff* 
pa folio, Tourn, American Phydc-not, 
with a Cotton- leaf. 

2. Ri CI Noi DEs arbor Americana, 
folio mult ifido^Toum, Tree AnuricM 
Phyilc-nut, with a multifid Leaf, 
commonly called in the fFeJl-Lidia, 
French Phyfic-nut. 

^.RiCisoiDES Americana^ f of hjf' 
agrite folio, Tourn, American Pby- 
fic-nut, with a Staves-acre-leaf, call- 
ed in the ^ef- Indies, BcWy-zdiweed, 
and wild CafTada. 

4.R1CINOIDES Americana, el^ag' 
ni folio. Plum. American Phyiic-oat, 
with a Wild-olive-leaf. 

5 . R I CI NOi D E s frutefcens, altbase 
folio. Plum. Cor. Shrubby Phyfic- 
nut, with a Marfti-mallow-leaf. 

6.RICINIODES foliis populi bit- 
futis. Plum. Cat, Phyfic-nut with 
hairy Poplar-leaves. 

7. RrciNOIDEsyrW^/«/, linaria 
foliis ohtufis. Plum. Cat, Shrubby 

Phyfic-nut, with blunt Toad-flax- 

8. RlCiKOlDEsy^/rV citrii, argn^ 
teo folline coffperfo. Plum. Cat. Phy- 
fic nut, with a Citron-leaf, powdered 
over with Silver. 

9. RiciNOiDES 'verbafci fiUi, 
Plum. Cat. Phyfic-nut with a Mul- 
lein leaf. 

10. RictNOiDEs cofane^ foh. 
Plum. C(it. Phyfic-nut with a Cbeft- 

11. RiciNOiDES berbaccum, foliii 



tri/dlf vf/ quinqueJUis Uf fnratis, 
Ho&Ji, Herbaceous Phyfic-nut, with 
three or five-fawed Leaves. 

12. RiciNOiD£S faiio fuhrotundo 
firrato^ fruBu farqjo coftglomerato, 

Haufi. Phylic-nut with a roundiih 
iawed Leaf, and fmall Fruit, grow- 
ing in Cluflers. 

13. RiciNOlDES faluftre^ fruSu 
hi/pi eh^ fhliis fubroiundis, nervojti ^ 
ofperis, Houft, MarQi Phyfic-nut, 
wih a prickly fruit, and roundifn 
ribbed Leaves, which are rough. 

14. RiCiNOlDEsyr»/^/«/, lauri 
f9^0t calyct amfliJjSmo viridi, Houft, 

Shrubby Phyfic-nut, with a Bay- 
leaf, and a large green Flower -cup. 

15. RiciNoiOES, ex qua paratur 
Tourne/ol GaUorum, hft. R. H. Jfp. 
Phyfic-nut, from which the Tournc/ol 
of the Frgnch is made. 

Thefe Plants are very common in 
the warm Parts of America. The iirft 
Sort is planted in Hedges, in mofl 
Parts of Jamaica and Barbados i and 
is {>ropagated by Slips or Cuttings, 
which will take Root very freely, 
and make a good Fence io a Ihort 
time, being very quick of Growth. 
This rifcs to be twenty Feet high, 
and produces a great Quantity of 
Nuts, which are given from three 
to fcven, for a Vomit i but if the 
thia Film be taken off, they may be 
eaten in Quantities without any ill 
£ifed. There is an Oil drawn from 
thefe Seeds, which is ufed for burn- 
ing in Lamps. 

The fecond Sort is cultivated in 
Gardens lujanuiica and Barbados^ for 
the Beauty of its Flowers, which are 
of a fine fcarlet Colour, and produced 
in large Bunches on divers Parts of 
the Plant. The Nuts of this Kind 
arc larger than the other, but have 
much the fame Quality. This is not 
a Native in any of the Englrfi Set- 
tjcments in the Weft-Indies ; but was 
brought thither either from the Spa- 

R I 

nijh Qr. French Settlements, from 
whence it had the Names of Trench 
and Spanijh Phyfic-nut. 

The third Sort is very common in 
the Savannas in Jamaica and Bar- 
bados : the Seed of this Kind is the 
common PhyQc among the poorer 
Sort, for the dry Belly ach. 

The fourth Sort grows plentifully 
upon the Sea-coail in divers Parts of 
the Pf^eft 'Indies, and is fomctimes 
brought into England z& a Curiofity, 
where, in fome very good Garden^ 
it is preferred with the focmer 

The fevcn next-mention'd Sorts 
were difcovcr'd by Father Blunder 
in America : the fir ft and fecond Sorts 
have been found growing plentifully 
in the Ifland of Jamaica : the third, 
fifth, fixtb, feventh, eighth, ninth, 
and tenth Sorts were found in plen- 
ty ab#Ut La Vera Cruz, by the late 
Dr. William Houftoun^ from whence 
he fent their Seeds to England: the 
eleventh Sort was alfo difcover'd by 
the fame Gentleman at Jamaica, 
All thefe Sorts are very tenderPIants,- 
being Natives of very warm Coun- 
tries, and require to be tenderly 
treated, otherwife they will not grow 
in this Country. The fecond, fe- 
venth, eighth, ninth, and tenth Sorts 
are annual ; fo their Seeds muft be 
fown on an Hot bed early in the 
Spring; and when the Plants are 
come up, they ihould be tranfplant- 
ed each into a feparare fmall Pot fill- 
ed with light rich Earth, and then 
plunged into a moderate Hot-bed of. 
Tanners Bark, obferving to fhaide 
them, until they have taken Root ; 
and then they ihould have frefh Air 
admitted to them by raifing the 
Glaffes every Day in warm Wea- 
ther ; and they muft be frequently 
watered. In about a Month's time, 
the Plants will have filled thefe Pots 
with their Roots ; when they (faould 

4G 3 be 

be (hakcn out, and put into larger 
Pots filled with rich EartK, and 
plunged again into the Hot-bed, 
provided there is room for the 
Plants to grow in Height, without 
being preflcd by the Glafles ; in . 
which Cafe it will be proper to put 
them into the Bark -bed in the Stove; 
for they are too tender to thrive in 
the open Air in this Country, in the 
warmell Seafon of the Year. In 
Julj thefe Plants will flower, and 
their Seeds will ripen in Auguft and 
September', foon after which time 
the Plants will decay .> 

The feven firH-mentionM, as alfo 
the fourteenth Sort, are perennial 
Plants, which may be prefcrved in 
a warm Stove feveral Years; but 
the firft is by much the largeft-grow- 
ing Plant of all the Sorts. This will 
grow to the Height of twelve or 
iourteen Feet; but rarely produces 
Flowers in England, The fecond 
Sort. grows about eight or nine Feet, 
ancl" produces its beautiful fcarlet 
Flowers every Year; and fome- 
times will ripen its Frait with us. 

The third Sort feldom rifes more 
than three Feet high ; but divides 
into many Branches, and frequently 
produces its Flowers and Seeds in 

The fourth is a flender-flemmM 
plant, rifing four or hwe, Feet high, 
having iilvery Leaves ; for which it 
is chiefly valued. This grows in the 
Bahama IJlands^ and in moft of the 
warm Parts of America ; and is much 
more nice in its Culture than either 
of the other Sorts. 

The fifth, fixth, feventh, and 
fourteenth Sorts are fhrubby Plants, 
which grow five or fix Feet high 
with us \ but in their native Coun- 
tries they are much larger, and 
branch oat on every Side. As tbefe 
Plants produce Flowers of little 
IBeauty, they are feldom cultivated 

but in Botanic Gardens for the fiike 
of Variety. 

Thefe Plants mu(l be placed in a 
Bark-Hove (with other Plants which 
arc the Produce of the fame Coun- 
tries} ; during which Seafon they 
fhould be often fefre(hed with Wa- 
ter, and the Stove fhould be kept up. 
to Ananas Heat (as marked on the 
Botanical Thermometers) ;''in this 
they Will continue flourifliing all the 
Winter, and early the next Spring 
will produce Flowers, which will be 
fucceeded by Fruit. 

The eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth Sorts are an- 
nual Plants, which are alfo Natives 
of the warm Parts of America \ fo 
thefe muft be fown on a good Hot- 
bed in the Spring ; and if the Plants 
are brought forward early, and 
placed in the Bark-dove, they will 
perfed their Seeds in England, Bat 
thefe fliould have a large Share of 
Air in warm Weather, efpccially at 
the time when they are in Flower ; 
for as the Male Flowers grov^ at re- 
mote Diflances from the Female, oa 
the fame Plants, therq is a Neceflity 
for the Admiflion of Air to affift the 
wafting of ^tTarina for the Im- 
pregnation of the Seeds^ otherwife 
. they will be barren ; which is often 
the Occafion of the Lofs of thefe 
Species in Burefi, 

The twelfth Sort is an annoal 
Plant, and is found wild in die 
South of France^ Spain^ and //«^» 
from which the Toumefol is made, 
that is us'd for colouring Wine and 
Jellies. This is made of the Juice 
which is lodgM between the ooter 
Cover and the Seeds ; and, if robbed 
on Cloth, at firfl appears of a lively 
green Colour, but foon changeth to 
a bluiih - purple Colour : if thefe 
Cloths are put into Water, and af- 
terwards wrung, they will colour 
tbc Water of a Claret-colour. The 


R I 

Rags, thiM dy*d, are brought to 
Ewgltnd^ and fold in the Drtiggifl) 
SliofKy by the Name of Tournerol. 

This Sort may be propagated by 
Seeds, which fhould be fown in the 
Aotamoy foon after they are ripe, 
on a warm Border of fre(h light 
Earth ;and if any of the Plaatscome 
up before Winter (which fometimes 
happens), they ihduld be ihelter'd in 
hard Froft, otherwife ihey will not 
lire through the Winter. But the 
Seeds generally remain in the 
Ground until the Spring, when the 
Plants will appear $ at which time 
they (hould be cleaned fromWeedi ; 
and where the Plants are too dofc, 
they (hould be thia .ed, foasto leave 
them about fix Inches afunder ; and 
in very, dry Weather, if they arc 
now-and-then refreihed with Water, 
it will promote their Growth. 
This is all the Culture they require, 
caccept the keeping them con/lantly 
clear from Weeds ; for the Plants 
do not thrive well, if they are tranf- 
planted ; fo they (hould be fown 
where they are deiigned to remain^ 
In Juiy the Plants will flower, and 
their Seeds will ripen in Auguft or 
September^ and decay foon after. 

RICINUS, Palma Chrifti, vir/f ij. 
The CharaSeri are ; 

^bt Fhtjotrs are apgtMlous { i. e. 
hinft no Leaves) f cmfifiing of many 
Stamina, which arife in the Centre 
rftbe TUwer-cuf : thefe are barren \ 
for the Emhryoes are produced at re» 
mtfte Dt fiances^ ufon the fanu Plants 
tvhich aftemjjard become triangular 
' Fruits, halving three Cells ; in each 
of 'which is contained one oblong Seedp 
ivhich has an hard Shell, 
The Species zrc 5 

I. RiCiNUS vulgaris. C. B. P. 
The common Palma Chnfti, com- 
monly known in the Weft Indies by 
the Name of Oil»nar, or Agnas 

R I 

2. ^icmvs vulgaris minor. C.B. 
P. Caule rutilante, ' The lefTcr Pal- 
ma Chrifti, with redi(h Stalks, com- 
monly caird in Barbados^ red Oil- 

3. Ricivvs vulgaris minor.CB.P, 
Caule virefiente. LeiTer Palma Chri- 
fti, with green Stalks, commonly 
caird white Oil-feeds in Barbados. 

4. RiciNVs Amtricanus major^ 
caule virefcente, /f. R, P. The great- 
er Palma Chrilti, with green Stalks. 

5. RiciNVS Africanus maximus 
caule geniculato rutilante, H, R.Par, 
The greateft African Palma Chrifti, 
with redi(h jointed Stalks. 

6 . R I c I N u s Indicus, fruQu rugofi 
non echinato, Indian Oil-feed, with 
a rough Fruit not echinated. 

7. RiciNUS Americanus, fruSu 
racmojo hifpido, John. Dend. Ame* 
rican Oil-feed, with prickly Fruit 
growing in a Clufter. 

S. RiciNUs Americanus^ fruSu 
racemofo glabro major e, Millar, Ame- 
rican Oil- feed, with larger fmooth 
Fruit growing in a Clufter. 

9. RiciNtJS Americanus minor ^ 
fru3u racemofo glabro. Millar, SmalU 

er American Oil -feed, with fmooth 
Fruit growing in Clufters. 

10. RiciNUS ZejlanicuSf fbliit 
fro/iindius laciniatis. Inft. R, H, 
Oil-feed ofZeylon, with Leaves deep* 
ly cut in. 

11. R1CINU8 humiliSffoliis fub' 
rotutidis ferratij, i^ fubius argentiis^ 
fore f ufiuque conglomeratis. Houfi, 

Dwarf OiM'eed, with roundifh faw- 
ed Leaves, which are filvery under- 
neath, and the Flowers and Fruit 
growing in Bunches. 

The five Sorts firft-mentionM are 
vziy common in divers Parts of 
Africa znd America ; and one of them 
is aifo found in the warm Parts of 
Europe ; but in England they are 
prefer v'd with great Care in fcveral 
curious Gaidcns. 

4G 4 


R I 

The fird Sort has been a long time 
in this Conntry, but was formerly 
treated as an annual Plant; whereas, 
if it be prefer vd in a^ood Green- 
houfe, it will abide two or three . 
Years, and beconie a large Plant. 

The fecond and third Sorts grow 
prDmilcuoufly all oycrjfmencayV/herc 
weir Seeds are gather''d to draw an 
Oil fioin them, for the Ufe of 
Lamps ; thefe Seeds are frequently 
fent into England, intermixed with 
each other. 

The fourth Sort is alfo very com- , 
mon in AmericMy growing promifcu- 
oufly wi:h the common Sort ; the 
Seeds of both being gathered indif- 
ferently to draw an Oil from them. 

The fifth Sort, though mention'd 
to be a Native of Afric.7, yet is alfo 
very common in divers Parts of , 
America , from whence I have fevc- 
ral timej received the Seeds. This 
produces very large Leaves and 
Seeds, and will grow to a large 
Size, if planted in a rich Soil. I have 
tneafur'd one of the Leaves of this 
plant (which was growing nxAxChel- 
Jea\ which was upward of two Feet 
Diameter ; and the Stem was as 
large as a middle fiz'd Broom -ftafif, 
tho* but of one Summer*s Growth. 

The Seeds of the fixih Sort were 
brought from the Eaft- Indies^ which 
came up and flourifhM in the Phy- 
fic-garden at Chd/ta This Sort 
grows about the fame Height as the 
common Kind ; but the Leaves are 
not fo deeply divided. The Cover- 
ings of the Seeds are not prickly, as 
in moft of the other Sorts (fomewhat 
refcmbling the outer Cover of the 
Cheftnut) i bu: are rough, and full 
of Protuberances. 

The Seeds of the fevcnth and 
eighth Sorts were fent from 'Jamai- 
ca by Mr. Kohtrt Millar ^ who ga- 

tiier'4 them on the North Side of 

R I 

that Ifland. Thefe Plants grow, in 
their native Country, to be eigh- 
teen or twenty Feet high, and con- 
tinue two or three Years. They 
are nearly alike in their outward 
Appearance ; but ditFer in the Co« 
vering of their Seeds, the feventh 
having prickly Covers, and the 
eighth being fmooth. 

The ninth Sort is a low Plant, 
feldom rifing above three Feet high, 
and differs from the common fmall 
Sort, in having fmooth Coven to 
the Seed. ; this is lefs common, and 
hath not been remarked by any Bo* 
tanical Writer. 

The tenth Sort is a Native of 
Ceyloiiy from whence the Seeds were 
brought to Holland^ and hath been 
cultivated in many carious Gardens. 
The Leaves of this Kind are very 
deeply jagged, in which it chiefly 
differs from the common Sort. 

The eleventh Sort was difcoverM 
by the late Dr. William Houjleun at 
Campecby^ from whence he fent the 
Seeds to England. This is a very 
low Plant, feldom rifing above nine 
Inches or a Foot high, and periihes 
foon after the Seeds are perfcded. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by fowing their Seeds upon an Hot- 
bed ; and when they are come up, 
they (hould be each planted into a 
feparate Pot fill'd with frelh light 
Earth, and plunged into a frefli Hot- 
bed, obferving to water and (hade 
them until they have taken Root ; 
after which they mull have a great 
Share of free Air, when the Seafon 
is mild , otherwife they will draw op 
tall, and be very weak : and as thefe 
Plants grow very faft, their Roots 
will in a fhort time fill the Pots : 
therefore they fhoqld be (hifced into 
larger Pots filled with the like fceQi 
£anh ; and toward the Latter end 
©f ili^, when the Seafon ii warm, 



R I 

tbey may be hardened to endare the 
opea Air by degrees ; and then, if 
they are planted oui into a very rich 
Bolder, and in dry Weather duly 
vaicr*d, they will grow to a very 
large Size, particu!arly the firft Sort, 
which I have feen upi^ard of ten 
Ftet high in one Seafon ; and thefe 
Pianu have produced a great Qoan- 
ttty of Flowers and Seeds ; but 
iiyoa intend to prefervc them 
through the Winter, they muft ne- 
ver be placed in the full Ground, 
becauie after their Roots have been 
widely extended, there will be no 
tranfplanting them with Safety ; 
therefore the bed way is to ihift 
them into larger Pots from time to 
tine, as their Roots fhall require, 
placing them in the open Air duriog 
the Summer-leafon, in fome warm 
Situatioo,where they may rema'n till 
O^fbir, when they mud be removed 
into the Houfe with other Exotic 
Plants, obferving duly to water 
them inWinter wnen they require ir^ 
and let them have frte Air in mild 
Weather ; for they only require to 
be proteded from Froll, and cold 
Winds, fo that they will endure the 
Winter in a warm Green - houfe 
without any Addition of artificial 

The fird four Sorts will perfed 
their Seeds the fird Seafon in this 
Climate, provided they are fown 
early in the Spring; but' the fifth 
Sort will rarely produce any till the 
fecond Year ; fo that there is a Ne- 
c^lTity of prefen-'ing this through the 
W'lntrr, otherwife it cannot be main- 
tain 'd in EnglanJ. 

Thcfe Plants defervc a Place in 
erery curious Garden for the fingu- 
lar Beauty of their Leaves ( not with - 
ftanding their Flowers are not very 
valuable), efpecially thofe Sorts 
which may be propagated every Year 
^foo) Sc^ds, .buca^l's (hofe Fcrfcns 

R I 

who have no Green-hoofe to plaoe 
them into in Winter, may cultivate 
them as other annual Plants; amongd 
which thefe, being placed either ia 
Pots or Borders, afford an agree- 
able Variety : but it mud be ob« 
fervM, as thefe are large-growing 
Plants, never to place them too near 
other Plants of lefs Growth, becaufe 
thefe will overbear and dedroy them; 
and thofe which are planted in Pots» 
fliould be allowM room for their 
Roots to expand, and mud be fre- 
quently watered, otherwife they will 
not grow very large. 


The Cbaradtn of this Genus of 
Plants are not fufficienily defcribed 
to afcertain what Clafs it belongs 
to; nor do.thefePlants produceFiow- 
ers in any of the Euraptan Gardens i 
(b that, uolfcfs the Flowers are exa- 
mined by a ikilful Perfon in their 
native Places of Growth, it will not 
be known where to place it. 

Dt. Fan RffyiM, Profedbr of Bota- 
ny zxLiyitn^ has ranged thefe Plants 
under the Genus of Dio/coreai but 
from the imperfewk Remains of Tome 
Flowen brought from America^ it 
appeared to me this diould not be 
placed there. 

The Species are ; bamt 

1. RicoPHORA hdlca^feu Inj^uis 
ruhra^ cauU alat9 fcamiMnii^ 
nei-^ofis conjugatii. Par. Bat, Frodi 
The red-ftalk'd Yam. 

2. RicoPHORA magnaVirginiana^ 
bryonia nigra: modo *volubilis^ngulari 
folio nemjofo Jlixili t canle tetragono^ 

ad anguloi elato. Pluk, Almag. The 
great Virginian Yam, with a fquare 
Stalk climbing like Black-bryony, 
and a (ingle- ribbM Leaf. 

I'hcrc are fome other Varieties 
of this Plant in the warm Parts of 
the Eafi and If^tfi-lndies \ but thefe 
two are the mod commonly culti- 
vated for Ufe. Thcfc Plants are 


. R I 

wild in theWoods in Zeyion^ ftnd are 
rtekoned as good Its thofe which are 
cvltivated; but as they are difficult 
to dig up, and grow fcattering at a 
great Diitance from each other, fo 
the Inhabitants of that Ifland plant 
tbetti in Open Fields for Food. Thefe 
are aHb cultivated by the Inhabit- 
ants of Jamaica^ and the other 
Iflands in Amtriea iitnd are efteemed 
a very wholfome Food. The man- 
iter of popagating them istheTame 
as for Potatoes ; which is, to divide 
thie Roots into feveral Pieces, pre- 
ferving a Bud or Eye to each, and 
planting them in Drills, at about a 
Foot and an half Diftance in the 
'Kows, and three Feet afunder Row 
from Row. Thefe Drills (honld be 
made a Foot deep ; and, after the 
Pieces of Roots are laid therein, 
jnoft be covered over with the Earth 
which came oat of the Drills. After 
this they require no farther Care 
but to keep the Ground dear from 
Weeds, until the Shoots are grown 
ftrong, when they will over-top the 
Weeds, ted prevent their growing. 
In about ten Months after the plant- 
ing, the Roots will be fully grown 
for Ufe ; when they will, fome of 
them, weigh five or fix Pounds per 
Root or more : when they are taken 
out of the Ground, they muft be 
laid up in drySand to preferve them 
for Cfe ; but the Sand muft be kept 
very dry, otherwife the Roots will 
grow, and oftentimes they will rot 
with much Moiilure. With thefe 
Roots the Planters feed their Ne- 
groes inftead of Bread ; and they 
grind the Roots to a Powder, and 
stake Puddens of it, in the fame 
manner as Wheat- flour is ufed in 
England: but the Roots muft be 
well foaked in Water before they are 
ufed, to draw out the (harp biting 
Tafte, which they have when taken 
out of the Ground. 

R I . 

Thefe Plants are preferved m fome 
curious Gardens in Eurtpg for Va- 
*riety ; but as tif^re ib little Beauty 
in them, they are hardly worthy of a 
Place ; for they muft be kept ina 
warm Stove, and plunged into the 
Tanners Bark, otherwife they will 
not thrive in this Coontry. The 
Shoots of thefe Plants will rife to the 
Height of ten or twelve Feet, and 
twine about the Plants which are 
near them ; fo that where thefe are 
preferved, they ftiould be placed 
near a Trelace on the Back*fide of 
the Bark -bed ; and as the Sbootsare 
produced,' they (hould be trained 
up to the Poles of the Trelace to 
fupport them, that they may not 
ramble over the Plants, and defiroy 
them. The Shoots of thefe die to the 
Root in Winter ; after which time 
they (hould not have much Water 
given to them, left it ftiould rot 
them ; but, during the Summer-iea- 
ion, they muft be plentifully watered 
in hot Weather. Thefe Roots naft 
be taken up in Marcb^ before tbey 
begin to flioot^ and new-potted ; and 
at the iame time, it will be proper to 
cut oflF the old decayed Parts of the 
Roots, preferving only the found, 
and fuch as have good Buds or Eyes 
for planting : for if the whole Roots 
are planted, as they were uken out 
of the Ground, they are very fubjeft 
to rot ; fo that it is much better to 
cntthe Roots into feveral Parts, and 
let thefe lie a few Days to heal their 
Wounds, before they are planted. 
* Thefe ftiould be plunged into as 
Hot- bed, and muft have very littk 
Moifture until they fhoot; but after- 
ward will require it m ore plentifuD J. 

The Cbara£Iers are ; 

7be Fluwer is afetaloms : the Em* 

f element confijfs of fimr L*a^Jr.% 

whicb are placed circularly^ and fx- 

pund inform of a R'^fe : the Pointnl 


R I R O 

ii fUwaied th the Centre^ attended hy Bunchy like thofe of the Carrtn-Cfee, 

fix Stamina, 'wbicb are extended he- toward the ^nd of the Branches. 

jfondthe EmpaUment : the Feintalaf- Thefe are focceeded by Berries 

terwatdbetolaes a foft ntundijh Berty^ aboat the Size of Carraiu, of a fear- 

full of Jkice^ in Kubicb is included a let Colour. 

fingJe Seed. The other Sort hath climbing 

The Title of this Genus was giv- woody Branches, which twift them- 

en to it by Father Plumer^ who dif- felves about thofe Trees which 

coverM the Plants in Jmerica^ in grow near it; and rifes to the 

Honour to AuguPm pinkos Rl^vi- Height of twenty Feet ; the Leaves 

nut^ a famous Botanilt of Leipfir^ of this Sort are much larger than 

who publiftiM two Volumes of Plants thofe of the other; the Flowers 

in Folio, in which the Figures of grow in dofer Clafters; and thefier- 

the Plants ate engraven on Copper- nes are of a Violet - colour when 

plates. Thefe were pabliih*d in ripe. , This Sort was found grow* 

1690. ing in Jamaica^ by the lace 1>t^ 

Dr. Uknttms has applied the Ti- William Heuftomn^ who alfo found 

tie of this Gemis to the Solanoides the firft Sort at the Ha<oannab, 

of Tourtufort^ which is by Dr. Boer* Both thefe Plants are tender ; fe 

hoove joined to the Phytolacca ; fo cannot be preferved through the 

has been of hte Years chiefly known Winter in England, unlefs they are 

by the Name of Phytolacca fruSa placed in a warm Stove. They may 

adnori : bat this is totally different be propagated by Seeds ; but thefe 

£rom Flnmiiri Plants ; and the commonly remain a whole Year in 

Do£lor has chargM Father Vlnmer the Ground : fo that they fhould be 

with an Error in the engraving of fown in Pots, which may be plung*d 

the Characters of this Genus with fix into the Tan-bed, where they muft 

^t amino ^ inftead of four : whereas be kept warm in Winter, and in the 

Piumier\ Plants have fix Stamina i following Spring Ihould be plunged 

but the Plant which the DoSor has into a fre(h Hot-bed of Tan, to 

appliied to this Title has but four, bring up the Plants ; and when they 

Therefore the Miflake is the Doc« are nt to remove, they fhould be 

tor\<s, and not Father Plnmier\. each planted ioco a feparate fmall 

The Species are ; Pot fill'd with frcfii light Earth, and 

1 . R t v I N I A bunalis racemofajbac- plungM into the Tan-bed ; and then 
cis puniceis. Plum. AW. Gen, Dwarf the Plants Iheuld be treated in the 
branching Rlvinia, with fcarlet Bcr- fame manner as hath been dire£led 
rie5, fometimes calVd Curran tree for other tenderPlants from the fame 

2. RiviNiA fcandcvs racemofa. Countries. 

ansplis folani fotiis, baccis nnclaceis. I received the Berries of the firft 

Pimm. Nov. Gen. Climbing branch- Sort from Jntigua, by the Name of 

ing Rivinia, with ample Night- Currans. 

fliade- leaves, and Violct-bcrries. ROBINIA, Falfe Acacia. 

The firfl Sort grows about four or The CbaraSers are ; 

live Feet high, having very woody The Empalement of the Flonjoer if 

Stems and Branches ; the Leaves are of one Leaf, and di*uided into four 

ihaped fomcwhat like thofe of the Pat ts, the three Under fegments being 

pear- tree, but are more pointed : narrow, but the upper one is broad: 

the Flowers are produced in along the Flcnver is of the pea-bhom 

■ Kind: 

R O 

KnJ: tbi Standard u large^ rtntndijh^ 
K mndfprtads open : the two Wings are 
o*val and obtufe : the Keel is roundijh^ 
€9mprefsdy ohtufe^ and is extended tht 
Length of the IVings : in the Centre 
efthe Keel isjituatedthe Point a l^ at- 
tended by ten Stamina, nine of them 
heing joined together ^ and the other 
fietnding Jingle : thefe are inclofed fy 
the Kiel : the Pointal aftemuard he- 
eomes an oblong eomprefs*dPod^ inelofe^ 
ing iidney-Jhap'd Seeds, ^ 

The Species are ; 

1 . R o B I N I A pedunculu racemofis . 
foliis pinnatis. Hart. Upfal, Com- 
mon Virginia Acacia, with fmooth 


2. Rob IN I A foliis pinnatis^ legu- 
tttinibus echinatis, Virginia Acacia, 
with (hort prickly Pods. 

3 . R o B 1 N I A pedumulis JimpUciJJi' 
muSf foliis p:rniatis» Hart, VpfaL 
The Caragana. 

4 . R B I N I A pe/luncu!is Jimplicijfi' 
mitt foliis quaiirnatis petiolatis,Hort. 
Upfal. Falfe Acacia, with a fingie 
Footflalk, having four Lobes. 

5 . Ro B I N I A pedunculis ftrnpliciji- 
. mis, pimtis fubrotundis^ leguminilus 
\ mlatis, Fallc; Acacia, with fingie 

Footitalks, round Lobes, and wingM 
Pods ; commonly call'd Dog-wood 
ift the IVefi Indies. 

The firlt Sort has been long an In- 
habitant of many Englijh Gardens, 
where it was commonly known by 
the Timple Title of Acacia : but as 
this is of a very different Genus 
from the true Acacia, Dr. Tournefort 
has given the Tile of Pfeudoacacia 
to this Genus of Planes: but Dr. 
Linntcus has rejedled this Name, as 
it is a Cojnpound ; and has callM it 
Jtihinia^ in Honour to Monfieur 
Hobine^ who introduced this Tree 
iiiro the Gardens of Ftance from 
li^rth' America. 

The fecond Sort is lefs common 
than the firil- I'iieic was a large 

R o 

Tree of this kind, fome Veart ago, 
growing in the Bifhop of Londotii 
Garden at fulham, which produced 
plenty of Seeds. The Pods of this 
Sort are much (horter, and clofely 
befet with (hort Prickles ; but in 
other refpeds it agrees with the firft 
Sort. There is alfo anotherVaricty 
of thisTree, which has rofe-coloor'd 
Flowers; but this is not common in 
England^ nor do I believe it is plenty 
in America \ though I have been in- 
formed, that in fome of the Woods 
in Ne<u)'England^ they are in as 
great Plenty as the common Sort; 
which if true, in time this Sort may 
become common in, England, 

The third Sort is a Native of Si- 
heria^ from whence the Seeds have 
been brought, and diftributed to 
many Gardens in England and Hol- 
land, This Sort grows to the 
Height of twenty or thirty Feet in 
itf native Country, and produca 
long Cluflers of fweet yellow Flow- 
ers : but in England there are few 
of thefe Plants which thrive well; 
for they generally begin to (hoot 
with the . firfl \varm Weather in Fe- 
bruarys and if Fro ft happens after 
(which is generally the Cafe in this 
Country), the Shoots are kilPd; and 
this (lints the Plants fo much, as thac 
they do not recover it the following 
Summer. This is propagated by 
Seeds, which (hould be fown on a 
Bed of light Earth, in the Spring of 
the Year, covering them about half 
an Inch deep with the fame Jight 
Earth. The Plants will come up in 
about five or fix Weeks, and will re- 
quire no oiher Care but to keep clean from Weeds ; and in 
the Autumn they mud be tranfplant- 
ed where they arc dcfign'd to re- 
main, bccaufe th?y do not bear 
tranfplaming well. Thefe Planis 
(hould have a cool Situation, and a 
i&o:li Sail, in which I find they cbriv« 


R O 

better tlian wlien tbey have a warm 
Situation. Where chefe Plants have 
fucceeded beft, they have producM 
Flowers, and perfeded their Seedf, 
the fourth Year from Seeds : but in 
other Places I have known the Plants 
fland three or four Years after their' 
Remoral, without making the 
leaft Progrcfs. 

The fourth Sort is alfo a Native 
x>i Siberia : this grows to be a Shrub 
of about five or fix Feet h^gh, bear- 
ing Clufters of yellow Flowers, 
which come out early in the Spring. 
This Sort thrives better in England 
than the former ; but they both do 
hdBi in a cold Situation, and a moid 
Soil.The fiiH Sort is generally propa- 
gated in the EngUjb Nurferies, by 
Suckers taken from the Roots of the 
old Trees : but thefe are not fo va- 
luable as chofe which are raifed from 
Seeds ; becaufe they do not make 
near fb great Progrefs in their 
Giowtfa, and are ytsj fnbjed to 
fend forth many Suckers from their 
Roots, whereby the Ground will be 
flPdwith them, to a great Dtlbince; 
and thefe Suckers will diaw away 
the ^oarifhihent Uom the old Plants, 
whereby theirCrowth will be great- 
]y retarded. 

If this is propagated by Seeds, 
they (hould be fown on a Bed of 
light Earth, about the Latter-end of 
March^ or the Beginning of Afril. 
If the Bed is well expofed to the 
Sun, the Plants will appear in 
aboot five or fix Weeks^ and will 
require no fiuther Care but to keep 
them clear from Weeds. In this 
Bed the Plants may remain till 
the following Spring, when they 
ihould be tranfplantcd into a Nxirfe- 
ly about the Latter- er)d of March ^ 
placing them in Rows at three Feet 
IMftance Row from Row, and a 
Foot and an half afunder in the 
Rows. Id this Nurfery they may 

R o 

remain two Years, by which time 
they will be fit to tranfplant where 
they are defign*d to grow : for as 
thefe Trees lend forth long tough 
Roots, fo, if they Hand long unrc- 
movM, the Roots will extend them- 
felves to a great Diftance ; therefore 
they muft be cut off when the Plants 
are tranfplanfed, which fometimes 
occafions thetr mifcarrying. 

Thefe Trees will grow well upon 
almoft every Soil, but bell in a light 
fandy Ground, in which they will 
ihoot fix or eight Feet in one Year ^ 
and while the Trees are young, they 
make an agreeable Appearance^ be- 
ing well furoifh*d with Leaves ; hat 
when they are old, the Branches he- 
i|ig frequently broken by Winds^ 
render them unfightly i efpecially if 
they iland in an expofed Place. The 
Leaves of thefe Trees come out the 
Beginning of Afo^, and they Bower ia 
ynne, and fi'equently ripen Seeds ia 

Theie Trees were formerly in 
great Reqnef^ in England, and weie 
frequendy planted in Avenues, and 
for fhady Walks i but their Branches 
being frequently broken, or fplit 
down by the Wind in Summer, when 
they are doathM with Leaves, rea- 
der thefe Trees improper for tHi 
Purpofe ; and their Leaves coming 
out late in the Spring, and falling 
off early in the Autumn, occafion'd 
their being negleded for many Years: 
but of late they have been much ia 
Requefl again, fo that the Nurferies 
have been dear'd of thele Trees ; 
though in a few Years they will be 
as little inquired afcer as heretofore, 
when thofe which have been lately 
planted begin to have their ragged 

The Flowers of this Tree arc 
produced in long pendulousBunches, 
and, when they are in plenty, make 
a fine Appearance, being o( an ele- 

R O R O 

gant Wbite, and diey haveaa agr^t- ThU Plant was difcoverM by Ft* 

able Odour ; bat they fddom laft ther Plunder ia Amnica^ who gare 

longer than a Week in Beauty. it this Name in Honovr to G«/fi/- 

The fifth Sort is a Native of the nwi RoftdiUtim, a famous Phykian 

warmeft Parts of America^ where it of MQntpelier, 

grows to the Height of thirty Feet, The Seeds of this Phint were fent 

having a large Trunk : the Branches to £ngUnd by Mr. R»htrt Millar ^ 

are produced irregularly on every $urgeo«, who collef^pd them on the 

Side : thefe are clqathed with wing- North Side of the Ifland of T^mww, 

ed Leaves, which are generally com- where the Trees grow plentifully, is 

pofed of feven large roundifli Lobes, alfo in feveral Parts of the Spmijb 

each having a ihort FootftaHc. The Wefllndia. 

Flowers are produc*d on the Branches This Plant, being very trndir, 

before the Leaves put out: for in cannot be preferv*d ifi £»^/9^/bd« 

their native Soil thefe Trees caft their lefs it is kept in a war^a Stove. It 

Leaves in the great Droughts ; where- is propagated by S^eds, wjkich (hooU 

as thofe Plants which are preferved be fown on an Hot-bed efir]y in the 

in England f retain their Leaves Spring; and when the Plants vt 

throughout the Year. coipe up, thfcy muft be tranfpiaaMi 

This is a tender Plant ; fo will not into feparate fmaU Pots, a^id plugged 

live through the Winter in England, into a moderate Hpt-bf4 of Tm- 

nnlefs it is placed in a wann Stove, ners Bark» where they m^ft be treat* 

It is propagated by Seeds, which ed in the fame aaannfr «# |i^th l^ecn 

iiould be fown in the Spring upon dire<fted for the Pf r^tda 2 aad in 

an Hot-bed ; and, when the Plants Winter muft be placed in Ae Tap* 

come up, they rouft i>e tseated in the bed in the Stove, wherff theft PJaaP 

fame manner .as hath been dieeded will thrive » and Vfk two or three 

for other tender Plants, and fhoukl . Years will flower ; w}i»tk 4hef wiO 

be oonftantly kept in the Tan-bed in make an agreeablfs Variety amf>B^ 

the warm Stove. There are fome other tender Exotic Plants* 

of thefe Plants in England ten Feet ROSA, The Apfe-trce. 

high ; but they have not producM The QtaraSen are 1 

Flowers. This is call'd Dogwood Thi Flrwtr h c^mfo/fd 0/ fttftral 

in America. Leaves^ which ari fl4cid circalarif, 

KONDELETIA. ^nd expami in a hiofiti/nl Order i 

The CbaraSers Bie; nvhe/e leafy /sWer-ri^ e(fierwari 

It hatb a falver-fiafd Flower^ becomes a roundijb or cJ^Ung /fjh 

cwfifiing 9f one Leaf ^ tuhieb is tubu- Frnit, inclofing frvtral angnlar bairy 

lousy and refis on tbe Empalement i Sgeds : to wbicb may be Zdied, h it 

ivbicb Empalement after<ward becomes o weak piibyShrub^ fir the mo0part 

a rennSJb coronated Fruity divided beftt tvstb Prickles^ and hath pinna- 

into t'wo Cells, containing mauyfmall ttd Ltaves, 

Seeds, The Spfcies are 1 

We know but one Spedu of this i. Ko s a /ylve/ln's fm/>r#, fin ta» 

Plant ; v/«. nina. Park, f^nat. The Wild-biiar, 

KonDEL^ri A arborefcens^ tinifa- Oog-rofe, or Hep-tree. 

eie. Plmn. Nov, Gen. Tree-like Ron- 2. Rosa fyi't/cfirie, fimSa majvt 

deletia, with the Face of Laurus bijpido. Raii Syn, Wild-briar, or 

Tinus. Dog' 

R O 

Dog-rofi^ with large prickly 

3. Rosa fyhmfirii fomiftm majvr 
mfiroi. Rmi Sjn. The greater Bng/i/f 
apple- bethng Rofe. 

4. ¥jo%a fmmilajpintfiffima^ fiUis 
fmfimtlUB gUdfris, flort ftlbo. J. B. 
The Dwarf wild - baraet - leav^^ 

5. Kos A f mm/a jpimffijfima, f§Hh 
^mpintUm glabru^ tx luUo ^ nnridi 
eltgamter 'variigatis. The Dwarf 
wild-biiniel-kav'd Rofe» with varie- 
g^ued Leaves. 

6. Rosa pimfinella minvr Scotiea^ 
Jkrihmt $x ^Ih^ l^ cameo eieganter 
varugatis. Pkk. Aim. The Ariped 
Stticb Rofe. 

7. Rosa fylvtftris^ ftliis odtratis. 
C. B. P. The Sweet-briar, or £g- 

8. Rosa fyknfiris ^Sora five Eg- 
Uanerim^ Jhre duflici. Park. Parad, 
Swcct'lmr with a double Flower. 

9. KoSAj^hffJIris, fiUis oJorath^ 
JUrs flem. The Sweet-briar with a 
very doaUe Flower. 

10. Rosa fylvefiritj fiUis oiorm- 
Hs, femfirnnrens^ [fimre plena inearna" 
r#. Ever-green Sweet briar, with a 
donUe pale Flower. 

1 1 . Rosa rmbra multiplex, C.S,P, 
The dooble red Rofe. 

1 2. KoBADama/cina. Pari,Parad. 
TheDamalk Rofe. 

13. Rosa ProvindaSt^ five HoU 
iaeuUca^ Damafeena, Park, Parai, 
The Damaik Preminte Rofe. 

14. Rosa Pr9vinciali$ major, Jlare 
flrna nibirrimo, Boerh. And,, Alt, 
The red Prvoemee Rofe. 

15. Rosa centtfilia Bata*vtca, 
Clm/K The Dif^r^ hundred- leav*d 

16. Rosa ProvinctaJisfyinoJtfftma^ 
fidmncuh mnfcofo. Boerh. Ind. Alt, 
The Moft Pro*vence Rofe. 

1 7. Rosa Prpvindalis ritira. Pari. 

R O 

Parad. ThecommkonP/overtceHofe, 
I S. Rosa Mofericeafimplex, Park. 
Parad, The fingle Velvet Rofe. 

'19. Rosa bokfericea multiplex^ 
Park, Parad, The double Velvec 

20. Rosa odore ciftnamomi, Jbrr 
pleno, C. B, P. The double Cioaa- 
mon Rofe. 

21 . Rosa odar^ cirmamomijfimpltx. 
C. p, P, The fiogle CmnamoA 

22. Rosa lutea fimplex, C. B. P. 
The finglc yellow Rofe. 

23. Rosa lufea mu/tipUx, C, B, P. 
The double yellow Rofe. 

24. Ko$ A /yln/eflris Auftriaca^Jhrt 
pbrnnice: Park, ibeat. The Aujtriam 

25. Rosa fylijeflrh Anfiriaca^ 
Jiore totmm hUmm, The ydlow Am- 
ftrian Rofe. 

26. Rosa uno reum lutns^ Cdgteris 
fmdceosflores gerensjtmf licet, Boerk. 
bid, Alt. The Auftnax Rofe, with 
yellow Flowers upon one Branch, 
and purple Flowers on the other. 

27. Rosa alba vulgaris major^ 
>C B, P. The common white Rofe. 

zi, Rosa alba minor. C, B, F. 
The leffer white Rofe. 

29. Rosa Candida femiplena, J. 
B. The femidouble white Rofe. 

3 o . Ro s A incamata . Park, Parai. 
The filttfh Rofe, or Maiden-blafh. 

31. Rosa Pr^tneflina n;ariegata 
plena. Hort. Eyft. The York and Lau^ 
cafi^er Rofe. 

32. Rosa rubral^ albo trariegata^ 
Ro/a mundi vu/go diSa, Raii Hifi. 
The Rofe of the World, or Rofm 

33. Rosa Franeofurtenfis, Park. 
Parad. The Frankfort Rofe. 

34. Rosa femper'virens. Park. 
Parad, The ever- green Rofe. 

35. Rosa omnium calendarum. H. 
R,Par, The monthly Rofe. 

36. Rosa 

R O 

36. Rosit ommMm edleniarum^ 
fore 'varitgato. The ftripcd monthly 

37. Ko9A fiiij^ims, /are mittate. 
C. B. P. The Rofe without Thorns. 

. 38. Rosa fimjfinis^ flore nu^are 
Tuherrima. The royal Virgin Rofe. 

39. Rosa fylvifiris VirginiinJU. - 
Jiaii Hifi. The wild Virgiman Rofe. 

40. Rosa fyhvefiris Virgifdana^ 
fiore majore pallido. The wild Virgi- 
man Rofe, with a larger pale Flow- 

41. Rosa Americana mofchatu^ 
fiore minere. The American Mu(k 
Rofe^ with a fmaller Flower. 

4Z. Rosa Americana odoratijpma 
ferotina^ fiore pallido plena. The moft 
fweet-fcented American late* flower- 
ing Rofe, with a double Flower. 

43. Rosa mofcbata^ fimplici flore, 
C. B. P. The fiilgle Mulk Rofe. 

44. Rosa mofchata^ flore plena. 
C. B. P. The double Mufe Rofe, 

45. Rosa mo/cbata fempervirens, 
C. B. P. The ever -green Muik 

46. Rosa Belgica, fi've 'vitrea^ 
fiore rubra, Rea,Flor* The red Be/gic 


47. Rosa Belgica^ fi've wtrea, 
fiore rubicanie. Rea, Flor. The Blufh 
Belgic Rofe. 

48. Rosa marmarea. Rea* Ftar, 
The marbled Rofe. 

49. Rosa Provincialise fiore fim- 
plici. The fingle Provence Rofe. 

50. Rosa Damafcena^ fiore fim* 
plici. The fingle Damailc Rofe. 

5 1 . Rosa pimpinella minor Scotica^ 
fiore iivide rubente. The Dwarf 

Scotch Rofe, with a blui(h-red Flow- 

The firft Sort of Rofe grows wild 
in the Hedges in mod Parts o^ Eng- 
land : the Fruit of this Tree is made 
into a Conferve for medicinal Ufe ; 
but this is feldom cultivated in Gar- 

R o 

The fecond, third, ahd fourth 
Sorts alfo grow wild in divers Parti 
of England \ and are rarely, preferved 
in Gardens, unlefs for Variety-fake. 

The third Sort is a very tall- 
growing Shrub, having ftrong up- 
right Shoots; the Flowers are fiisgle, 
and of a bright -red Colour; the 
Fruit is very large, and is by fome 
Perfons made into a Sweet-meat ; fo 
the Plant is cultivated in many Gar- 
dens on that account. 

The fourth Sort is of humble 
Growth, feldom rifing mach above 
three Feet high ; the Leaves are like 
thofe of Burnet; the Flowen are 
white, fingle^ and have a moiky 

Tht fifth Sort is a Variety of the 
fourth, and is preferved by fome for 
the Beauty of its firiped Leaves. 

The fixth Sort is found wild in 
Scotland^ and has been by many fap- 
pofed to be the fame as the fourth 
Sort, but only differing, therefrom in 
having variegated* Flowers ,* which 
is a great Miftake ; for I have ob- 
ferv'd, where the two Sorts were 
cultivated on the fame Soil formaoy 
Years, and yet retained a confider- 
able Difference in the Size of i\^ 
Plants, the Scotch Sort being not half 
fo large as the other; yet t;he Flow- 
ers were much larger, the Leaves 
were leG, and the Branches mudi 
weaker^ than thofe of the fbordi 

The lafl Sort here mentionM was 
rais'd from the Seeds of the Scottk 
Rofe ; and altho* the Flowers were 
pIain-coIour*d, yet the whole Ap- 
pearance of ths Plant continues the 
fame as the original Kind ; which is 
a plain Proof of its being diffcreac 
from the fourth Sort. 

The Sweet-briar, altho* wild in 
fome Parts of England^ yet is pe- 
ferv'd in molt curious Gardens, for 
the extreme Sweecnefs of its Leava, 


R O 

wUch perfumes the circomambietit 
Ait 10 the Spring of the Year, efpe* 
daily after a Shower of Rain. The 
Flowers of this Sort, being fingle, 
are not valued ; but the Branches of 
the Shrubs are cut to intermix with 
Flowers to place in Bafons to adorn 
Halls, Parlours, Csfr. in the Spring 
of the Year, the Scent of this Plant 
being agreeable to mofl Perfons. 

Tae double-flowerM Sweet-briar 
is prefer vM on the account of its 
bcaotiful Flowers, as well as for the 
Swectncfs of its green Leaves. 

The other Sort, with very double 
Flowers, has been lately obtained 
from Seeds ; and as the Flowers of 
this Kind are much more double 
than thofe of the other, it has ob- 
tained the Preference with moll Peo- 
pie : the Flowers of this Sort have 
little Scent. 

The evergreen Sweet-briar, with 
a doable pale Flower, has been very 
lately obrained from Seeds : the 
Leaves of this Sort commonly con- 
tiooe green till the Spring, which 
Itts oaafionM many Perfons to co- 
vet the Plants ; but this is what has 
been obtained from Seeds feveral 
times^ tho' not with a double Flow- 

All the other Sorts of Rofes are 
origioally of foreign Growth ; but 
are hardy enough to endure the Cold 
of our Climate in the open Air, and 
produce the mod beautiful and fra- 
grant Flowers of ^ny kind of Shrubs 
yet known : this, together with their 
jODg Continuance in Flower, has 
jaftly re::derM them the moll valuable 
of all the Sorts of flowering Shrubs ; 
befide, the great Variety of diflFerent 
Sorts of Rofes make a Colledion of 
Flowers, either for Bafons, or in the 
Cardcn, without any other feddi- 
tional Mixture ; and their Scent, be- 
>»>g the moft inolFenfive Sweet, is 
generally elleemcd by moft PcrfonS. 

Vou III. 

R O 

But in order to continae thefe 
Beauties longer than they are natu- 
rally difpoded to lad, it is proper to 
plant fome Qf the monthly Rofes 
near a warm Wall, which will oc- 
cafion their Budding at lead three 
Weeks or a Month before thofe in 
the open Air : and if you give them 
the Help of a Glafs before them, it 
will bring their Flowers much for- 
warder, efpecially where the Dung 
is placed to the Backfide of the Wall 
(as is pra£lis*d in railing early Fruitb) : 
by this Method I have feen fair Rofes 
of this Kind blown in Ftbruary ; and 
they may be brought much fooner^ 
where People are curious, this way. 

You (hould alfo cut ofJF the Tops 
of fuch Shoots which have been pro- 
duced the fame Spring, early in 
May^ from fome of thefe Sorts of 
Rofes which are planted in the open 
Air, and upon a drong Soil: this 
will caufe them to make new Shoots, 
which will flower late^ in Autumn $ 
as will alfo the late removing the 
Plants in Spring, provided they do 
not fnfFer by Drought, as I have fe- 
veral times experienced, but parti- 
cularly in the Year 1718. when I 
had Occafion to remove a large Par- 
cel of thefe Plants in May^ juft as 
they were beginning to flower : in 
doing of which I cut off all the 
Plower-buds; and, after having 
open'd a Trench in the Place where 
they were to be planted, • I poured a 
large Quantity of Water, to as to 
render the Ground like a Pap \ then 
I took up the Plants, and placed 
them therein as foon as poflible, that 
their Roots might not dry ; and a^' 
ter planting them, I waterM the 
Ground wcl a_,ain, and covered the 
Surface over with Mulch, to pre* 
vent its drying : after this I re- 
peated watering the Plants all over 
two or three times a Week, in ibe 
Evening, until they bad taken Rcot: 

4 H 

R O R. O 

in aboat three Week* time the Plants Growth. The red Rofe and the 

ihot out again, and produtM a great Rofa mundi commonly grow from 

Quantity of Flowers in Auguft and three to foar Feet high, but Celdom 

Siptmher^ which were as fair as exceed that ; bat the Damafk, Pre- 

thofe produced in June. This is the vence^ and Frankfort Rofes grow to 

only Sort of Rofe for this Purpofe, the Height of feven or eight Feet ; fo 

there being no other Sort which will that in planting them great C^e 

flower early and late, except this. fhould be taken to place their feve- 

The next Sort of Rofe which ral Kinds, according to their various 

flowers in the open Air, is the Cin- Growths, amongft other Shrubs, that 

namon, which is immediately fol- they may appear beautiful to the Eye. 

low'd by the Damaik Rofe ; then the The yellow Rofe, as alfo the Aa- 

Blufh, and York and Laneafier come; firian Rofe, are both Natives of 

after which the Province^ Dutch^ America: thcfe were originally 

Hundred -leav*d White, and moft brought from Caxptf^, by the FrArci^: 

other Sorts of Rofes, follow ; and the other Varieties, which are now 

the lateft Sorts are the two Mufk in the Gardens, of thefe Sorts, have 

Rofes, which, if 'planted in a fhady been accidentally obtained, and are 

Situation, feldom flower until Sep- preferved by budding them on the 

temberi and if the Autumn proves other Sorts. The Shrubs of thefe 

mild, will continue often till the Rofes feldom (hoot fo fbong as moft 

Middle of Offcber, of the other Sorts, efpecially in the 

The Plants of thefe two Sorts light Land near L0ffii&?ir ; where they 

fliould be placed againft a Wall, Pale, feldom produce their Flowers. Thefe 

or other Building, that their Branches are efleemed for their Colour, being 

maybe fupported ; otherwife they very different from all the other Sorts 

are fo ilender and weak, as to trail of Rofes : but as their Flowers have 

upon the Ground: thefe Plants no Scent, and are of Oiort Duration, 

ihould not be pruned until Spring, they do not merit the Price they are 

becaufe their Branches are fomewhat generally fold at. 

tender ; fo that when they are cut in The Frankfort Rofe is of little 

Winter, they often die after the Value, except for a Stock to bod 

Knife. Thefe produce their Flow- the more tender Sorts of Rofes up- 

crs at the Extremity of the fame on ; for theFlowers feldom open fiiir, 

Year*s Shoots, in large Bunches ; fo and have no Scent ; but it be* 

that their Branches muft not be ing a vigorous Shooter, renders 

fliortehM in the'Summer, left there- it proper for Stocks to bud the 

by the Flowers fhould be cut off. yellow and Auftrian Rofes, which 

Thefe Shrubs will grow to be ten or will render them fironger than upon 

twelve Feet high, and mufl not be their own Stocks ; but the yellow 

check*d in their Growth, if you in- Rofes feldom blow fair within eight 

tend they fhould flower well ; fo or ten Miles of London ; tho' in the 

that they fhould be placed where Northern Parts of GrM/Br/'/tfra they 

they may be allowed room. flower extremely well. This Sort 

The lowefl Shrub of all the Sorts muft have a Northern Expofore ; 

here mentioned is the Scotch Rofe, for if it is planted too warm, it will 

which rarely grows above two Feet not flower. • 

high ; (o that this muft be placed The Damafk and monthly Rofe 

among other Shrubs of the fame feldom fto^ver well in fmall confined 


R O R O 


Gardens, nor in the Smoke of Lott- one opon the fame Plant ; bat then 

' dm; therefore are not proper to it muft be obferved, to bud fucti 

plant in fuch Places; tfao' they ire- Sorts opon the fame Stock as are 

quently grow very vigoroufly there : nearly equal in their Manner of 

thefe always begin to fhoot the firfl Growth ; for if there be a Bud of a 

of any of the Sorts in the Spring; vigorous -growing Sort, and Tome 

therefore frequently fuffer from others of weak Growth, the flrong 

Froft, in April, which often deflroy one will draw all the Nouriihmenc 

all their Flowers. from the weaker, and intirely flarve 

The Pro*venci Rofe, which is the them, 

moft common Sort in Englandy is by The beft Sort for Stocks is the 

£ar the ' moil valuable of them all ; Frankfort Rofe, which is a vigorous 

tho^ moft of the other Sorts are pre- Grower, and produces ib'ong clean 

ferr'd to it on account of their Scar- \ Shoots, which will take the Buds 

city : but the Flowers of this Sort much better than any other Sort of 

are the faireft, and have the moft Rofe : but you muft be. very careful 

agreeable Scent, of any Sort yet to keep the Stock after Budding in* 

known : and this is alfo svty hardy, tirely clear from Suckers or Shoots 

flowering in many Places where at the Bottom ; fur if they are per- 

manyof the others will fcai;cely live; mitted to remain on, they will, in 

which renders it ftill more valuable : a ftiort time, ftarve the Buds. The 

aod if it was as rare to be feen as beft Seafon for budding of Rofes is 

fome other Shrubs, would be efteem- in June \ the Manner of doing it, 

ed perhaps more than any other. being the fame as for Fruit- trees^ 

There are at leaft three Varieties need not be repeated here, 
of this Rofe, which are promifcu- Ifyouwouldpropagate $ hem from 
ouily fold by the Nurfery-men, un- Suckers, they (hould be taken off 
der this Title; one of which is a low annually in OBohtr^ and tranfplaot- 
Shrobf feldom growing above three ed out either into a Nurfery in Rows 
Feet high: the Flowers are much (as hath been diredled for feveral 
fnuller, aod the Buds rounder, and other Sorts of flowering Shrubs), or 
even ; fo that before the Flowers into the Places where they are to re- 
open, they appear as if they had main: foriftheyare permitted to ftand 
been clippM with Scifl[ars. This upon the Roots of the old Plants 
Mr. Rea calls the dwarf red Rofe ; more than one Year, they grow 
there are fewThorns on the Branches woody, and do not form fo good 
The other Sort is taller, and the Flow- Roots as if planted out the firft 
era are large, but not fo well fcented Year ; and fo there is more Danger 
as the common Provence Rofe. of their not fucceeding. 

All the Sorts of Roles may be But the beft Method to obtain 

propagated either from Suckers, good-rooted Plants is, to lay down 

Layers, or by budding them upon the young Branches in Autumn, 

Stocks -of other Sorts of Rofes; which will take good Root by the 

which latter Method is only praftifcd Autumn following (cfpecially if they 

for fome peculiar Sorts, which do are watered in very dry Weather) , 

not grow very vigorous upon their when they may be taken from the 

own Stocks, and fend forth Suckers old Plants, and tranfplanted waere 

very fparingly ; or where a Perfon they are to remain. The PUius 

is wilUiig to have more Sorts than which are propaoated by Layers, are 

4 H 2 not 

R O 

not fo apt to fend out Suckers from 
their Roots, as thofe which are from 
Sdckcrs; therefore fhould be pre- 
ferred before them ; becaafe they 
may be much eafier kept in Com- 
pafs : and thefe will alfo flower much 
Uronger. Thefe Plants may be tranf« 
planted any time from OSober to 
April \ but when they are defigoM 
to flower ftrong the firft Year after 
planting, they fhould be planted 
early ; tho\ as I faid before, if they 
are planted late in the Spring, it 
will caufe them to flower in Au- 
tumn, provided they do not fuffer 
by Drought. 

Mod of thefe Sorts delight in a 
rich rooift Soil, and an open Situa- 
tion, in which they will produce a 
greater Quantity of Flowers, and 
thofe much fairer, than when they 
are upon a dry Soil, or in a (hady 
Situation. The Pruning which they 
require is only, to cut out dead 
Wood, and the Suckers cleared ofl", 
which flio ild be done every Au- 
tumn : and if there are any very 
luxuriant Branches, which draw the 
Nourifliment from the other Parts 
of the Phint, they fliould be taken 
out, or (horten'd, to caufe it to pro- 
duce more Branches, if there be Oc- 
caiion for them to fupply a Vacanc)'; 
but you mufl avoid crouding them 
with Branches, which is as injurious 
to thefe Planes as to Fruit-trees ; for 
if the Branches have not an equal 
Benefit of the Sun and Air, they 
will not produce their Flowers fo 
ilrong, nor in fo great Plenty, a$ 
when they are more open, and bet- 
ter exposM to the Sun ; fo that the 
Air may circulate the more freely 
between them. 

mia Sinenfis. 


ROSE-TREE. Vide Rofa. 

R O 

ROSEMARY. Vidi Rofman- 

The CharaSers are ; 

// is M 'VirticilUte Plants *wiih a 
lahiatedJlvwtr^ confifiing ofong Leaf^ 
nAiboft Upper- lip or Crejt is cut into 
t'wo FartSy and turns mp lachmtfard, 
'with crooked Stamina, or Chives: 
hut the Under-lip^ or Beard^ is di<vi' 
ded into three Parts ; the middle Seg- 
ment being hollow like a Spoon : out 
of the tRLo or three teethed Flower- cap 
arifes the Pointal^ attended^ ms it 
ivere^ byfossr Embryoes, tuhich after * 
nuard turn tofo mattf Seeds ^ that are 
roundijhy and an inclofed ist the 

The Species are ; 

1. Rosmarinus bortenfis^ latiore 
folio, Mor. Hift. Broad-leavM Gar- 
den Rofmary. 

2. Rosmarinus bortenfist angU' 
ftiore folio, C. B, P. Narrow-leav*d 
Garden Rofmary. 

3. RosMARiNUsy?r/i2/if/, Jive au- 
reus. Park. Theat. The Gold-fbriped 

4. Rosmarinus hortevfit, angu- 
ftiore folioy argenteus. H. R, Par, 
The narrow - leav*d Silver -ftrip^d 

5. Rosmarinus JlmerienJ!t, JUrt 
majore fpicalo purpurafcente, Toum. 
Rofmary oi Jlmeriay with a large 
fpiked purplifli Flower. 

6. Rosmarinus fpontaneus^ felie 
eleganter *varifgato. Beerh, Ini, 
Broad-leavM Rofmary, with an ele- 
gant flriped'^Leaf. 

Dr. Linnet us has feparated this 
Genus, with fome others, from the 
Clafs where they have by all Bo- 
tanifls been ranged, on account of 
their having but two Stamina in each 
Flower : whereas the other Plants of 
this Clafs have four, two long, and 
two ihort: but (his is not altogether 
juftifiable ; fincc in every other Cha- 


R O 

nfler, they agree with their Conge* 

Thefe Plants grow plentifully in 
the Southern Parts of Frana, in 
SfMtMf and in Italy, where, upon 
dry rocky Soils near the Sea, chey 
thrive prodigioofly i but, nocwith- 
iUnding they are produced in warm 
Countries, yet they are hardy enough 
to bear the Cold of our ordinary 
Winters very well in the open Air, 
provided they are planted upon a 
poor, dry, gravelly Soil, on which 
tbey will endure the Cold much bet- 
ter than upon a richer Ground, where 
the Plants will grow more vigoroufly 
10 Summer, and fo be more fubjed 
to Injury from Froft ; and they will 
not have fo ilrong an aromatic Scent 
as thofe upon a dry barren Soil. 

Thofe Sorts with {(riped Leaves 
are fomewhat tender, and fhould 
either be planted near a warm Wall, 
or ia Pots filled with frefh light 
Earth, and fheitered in Winter un- 
der a Frame, otherwife they will be 
fabjefl to die in froAy Weather. 

All thefe Sorts may be propagated 
by planting Slips or Cuttings of them 
in the Spring of the Year, upon a 
Bed of frelh light Earth ; and when 
they are rooted, they may be tranf- 
planted into the Places where they 
are deiign^d to grow ; but it will be 
proper to do this about the Begin- 
ning of ScpUmber, that they may 
take Root before the frofty Weather 
comes on ; for if they are planted 
too late in Autumn, tbey feldom 
live thro' the Winter, efpccially if 
the Weather proves very cold ; fo 
that if you do not tranfplant them 
early, it will be the better Method 
to let them remain unremoved un- 
til March following, when the Frofl 
IS over, obferving never to tranf- 
plant them at a Scafon when the dry 
£a& Winds blow,, but rather defer 
the doing of it until the Seal'on is. 

R o 

more favourable ; for if they are 
planted when there are cold drying 
Winds, they are apt to dry up their 
Leaves, and kill them : but if there 
happen to be fome warm Showers 
foon after they are removed, it will 
caufe them to take Root immediate- 
ly ; fo that they will require no far- 
ther Care, but to keep them clear 
from Weeds 

Altho' thefe Plants are tender 
when planted in a Garden, yet 
when they are by Accident rooted 
in a Wall (as I have feveral times 
feen them), they will endure the 
greateft Cold of our Winters, tho\, 
expofed much to the cold Winds; 
which is occafioned by the Plants be- 
ing more dinted and fbrong, and 
their Roots being drier. 

The Flowers of the narrow-leaved 
Garden Sort are ufcd in Medicine, 
as are alfo the Leaves and Seeds. 

ROYENA, J/iican Bladder-nut. 
The CharaStrs are 5 

The Empalenunt of the Flotver is 
of one Leaf\ fucelling out in a Belly ^ 
and blunt at the Brim, ivhere it is 
indented in five Farts : the Flotver is 
of one Leaf hu*ving a Tube the Length 
of the Empalement ; but fprgads open 
at the Topt ivhere it is (lightly cut 
tntofi've Parts : in the Cm! re is fi- 
tuated the hairy Fointal, nuhich is 
attendrd by ten Jhort Stamina: the 
Poittfal after*ward becomes an oval' 
CcpfuU, having four Fuiro*ws open- 
ing in one Celi^ in twhich are contain^ 
edfour oblong triangular Seeds, 
The Species arc ; 

1. RoYENA tWis evatis. Lin. 
Ilort. Cliff, African Bladder -nut, 
with a fingle (hining Leaf. . 

2 . Ro Y E N A flits lanccolatis gla* 
bris. Flor, Leyd. African Bladder- 
nut, with fmooth fpear - (bap'd 
Leaves; by fome cail'd African 

3. RoYENA fiiis lancsolatis hir- 
4H 3 fvt]s. 

R U 

futii. Tlor. Leyd. African Bladder- 
nut, with hairy fpear-flupM Leaves. 

The firft Sort has been long an 
Inhabtant of fome carioas Gardens 
io England: but it is not vzt'^ coih- 
snon here ; for it is very difficult to 
propagate. The fureft Method of do- 
ing It, is by Uying down the young 
Branches, and thefe will feldom take 
Root under two Years. I have alfo 
raifcd a few by Cuttiogs» but it was 
two Years before they put dut 
Roots : and it was three Years be- 
fore they began to grow upward ; 
and then they made bat little Pro- 

I'his Plant will grow eight or ten 
Feet high, and puts out its Branches 
on every Side > fo may be trained 
up to a regular Head : thefe Branches 
are cloathed with oval fhining 
Leaves, which are placed alternate- 
ly, and continue all the Year; fo 
that it makes an agreeable Variety 
among other Exotic Plants in the 
Green ho ufe, during the Wintcr- 
feafon : the Flowers are produced 
from the Wings of the Leaves, along 
tht' Branches; but as they have lit- 
tle Beauty, few Perfons regard them. 
I have not obferved any Fruit pro- 
duced by thefe Plants in England. 
This was defcribed and £gored by 
Dr. Hirman^ who was Profcflbr of 
Botany at Ltydcn^ under the Title of 
Staphylodcndt on jifricanuM^ foli9jin^ 
gul'tri lucido. 

The otner two Sorts are at pre- 
fent rare in the Engiijh Gardens ; 
but in the curious Gardens in Hol- 
land \\ity are in greater Plenty. They 
are all of them Natives *of the Cape 
%f Giod thpc \ fo are hardy enough 
to live in a common Green-houSe^ 
with Myrtles and Orange - trees : 
thefe Plants may be treated in the 
fame way 

Thefe two Sorts are as d-fficuU to 
propagate a$ the firll \ which is the 

R U 

Canfe of their Scarcity : the bel 
time to lay down the Branches of 
theie Plants is in Angnp\ bot the 
Cuttings (hould be planted in JwJiji 
they muft be planted in Pots, and 
(haded from the Sun in Summer,2nd 
iheltered under a Frame in Winter. 
RUBIA, Madder. 

The CharaStrs are ; 
^bt Flotver €9n/ifts of ong fhtgU 
htaf^ nubicb is cut into four or fivt 
Segments ^ and expanded at tbeTop: the 
Flonoir-cnp a/ienward becomes a Frml 
compo/ed oft*wo Jnicf Berries^ ^^*fify 
joined togetber^ containing Seed, fir 
tbe tnoft part bollow*d like a Havel: 
to *wbicb may be addedf Tbe Leaves 
being rougb^ and fssrroun£ng tbe 
Stalks in fVborles, 
The Species are ; 
I . R u B I A iinSornm fati^va. C B, 
P. Cultivated Dyers Madder. 

a. Rub I A fvl'veflris a/per a^ qu^ 
fyhefiris Diofcoridis C. B. P. Wild 

3. Rub I A fyl*oeftris Monfpcfulana 
major, J, B, Great wild Madder of 
Montpelier. * 

The iirft of thefe Sorts was for- 
merly cultivated in divers Parts of 
England^ for the Dyers Ufe ; bat of 
late Years it has been wholly negleA- 
ed; fo that at prefent \ believe there 
' is fcarpe any of it cultivated, except 
in Onall Quantities for medicinal 
\3(t : how this Plant came tobcfo 
much negledled in EngLnd, I can- 
not imagine, fince it will thrive as 
well here as in any Couittry in £■• 
rope ; and the Confumption of it ia 
England is pretty large ; for I have 
been informed, that we pay op- 
wards of ^0,000 /. annually for thb 
Commodity, which might be eafil/ 
favM to the Nation, were it culti- 
vated here. At prefent the greatcft 
Quantity of is is cultivated in Flos- 
ders and fklland ; from whence m 
are annoally fun>iih*d with it, ii 


R U 

tliree different Mannen, and diftin- 
gaifh*d by the Names of Madder in 
the Branchy Madder in the Bundle, 
and Madder unbundled. The firft 
Sort is brought to us in the Root, as 
it comes out of the Ground, witn- 
ont any other Preparation than that 
of being dried. The fecond Sort is 
that of Bunch Madder, or fuch'as is 
made into Bundles, which is Mad- 
der in Branch, firft freed from the 
Bark and the Pith, then mund by 
a Mill into grofs Powder, as we 
bay it. The third Sort is the Mad- 
der unbundled, that is, the Branch- 
ed Madder ground into Powder ; 
but the Bunched Madder, or that in 
Bundles, is the beft, which, for its 
Excellency, when it is frefh, is 
made into Bales, or put into Cades : 
*tis of a pale Red ; but, as it grows 
okier, increafes its Colour to a fine 
Red : that of Ztaland is efteemed 
the beft for the Dyers Ufe. 

In the Year 1727. I obfcrvM a 
great Quantity of this Plant culti- 
vated in Holland^ between Hel<voet- 
^fimci and the Brill \ and it being 
the firft time I had ever feen any 
confiderable Parcel of it, I was 
tempted to make fome Inquiries' 
abont its Culture, and take fome 
Minutes of it down upon the Spot, 
which I (hall here infert, for the 
Ufe of fuch as may haveCuriofity to 
attempt the Culture of it. 

In Autumn they plow the Land, 
where they intend to plant Madder, 
in the Spring, and lay it in high 
Ridges, that the Froft may mellow 
it ; in Marth they plow it again ; 
and at this Seafon they work it very 
deep, laying it up in Ridges eighteen 
Inches afunder, and about a Foot 
high ; then about the Beginning of 
Afril^ when the Madder will begin 
to (hoot out of the Ground , they 
open the Earth about their old 
Roots, and take off all the Side- 

R u 

ihoots, which extend themfelves ho 
rizontally, juft under the Surface of 
the Ground, preferving as much 
Root to them as poffible: thefe they 
tranfplant immediately upon, the 
Tops of the new Ridges, at abon( a 
Foot apart, obferving always to do 
this when there are fome Showers, 
becaufe then the Plants will take 
Root in a few Days, and will re- 
quire no Water. 

When the Plants are growing, 
they carefully keep the Ground 
hoed, to prevent the Weeds from 
coming up between them; for if 
they are fmothered by Weeds, efpe- 
cially when young, it will either de- 
ftroy or weaken them fo nfiich, that 
they feldom do well after. In thefe 
Ridges they let the Plants remain 
two Seafonsy during which time 
they keep the Ground very clean j 
and at Michaelmas^ when the Tops 
of the Plants are decay*d, they take 
up the Roots, and dry them for Sale. 
This is what I could learn of their 
Method of cultivating this Plant ; to 
which I will fubjoin a few Obfcrva- 
tions of my own, which I havefince 
made upon the Culture of Madder 
in England. And, firft, I find there 
is no Necefiity for laying the Ground 
up in Ridges in England, as is prac- 
tifcd by the Dutch (efpecially in dry 
Land), becaufe the Places where I 
faw it were very wet Land, which is 
often floated in Winter ; fo that if 
the Plants were not elevated upon 
Ridges, their feoots would rot in 
Winter. Secondly, They fliould be 
planted at a greater Diilance, in 
England i the Rows fhould be at 
lealt three Feet Diilance, and the 
Plants eighteen Inches afunder in the 
Rows ; for as they extend themfelves 
pretty far under-ground, fo, where 
they are planted too near, their 
Roots will not ha^e room to grow. 
And, thirdly, I find, that if all the 

4 H 4 horizon- 

R U R U 

l^orizontal Roots are deflroyed from PUnt» might eafily inform them' 
time to time, as they are product » felves, by going over to HolUndtt 
it will caufe the large downright the Seafon of taking up the Roots. 
Roots to be much bigger ; in which What I could learn from the Peo- 
the Goodnefs of this Commodity pie with whom I converfed in Hcl- 
chiefly confids : for if the upper iand on this Affair, was, that tbey 
Roots are faffered to remain, they pared off the outfide Rind of thd 
will draw off the principal Nouriih- Roots, which is dried by itfelf, and 
ment from the downright Roots, as is called Mull-madder. Then they 
I have experienced ; for I planted a pared off another fiefliy Part of the 
few Roots upon the fame Soil and Root, which is made into another 
Situation^ which were oT equal Madder, and is called Number O; 
Strength^ and rooted equally well : but thelnfide, or Heart of the Root, 
half of thefe I hoed roun,d, and cut is called Crop-madder. The Mi 
off the horizontal Roots ; and the Sort is not worth above fifteen or 
other Half I permitted the horizon- fixteen Shillings /^rhundredWdght; 
tal Roots to remain on ; and when I the fecond Sort is fold at about forty 
took them all up, thofe which I had Shillings ; but the third Sort wiQ 
hoed about, and kept clear from ho- fell for five Pounds per Hundred. I 
rizontal Roots, were almoft as large have iince been informed. Chat theie 
again as the other^and theRoots were is no Neceflity of dividing it into 
double the Weight ; which plainly thefe three Sorts for Ufe ; for if the 
proves it neceitary to cut oft thofe Whole is dried, and ground toge- 
Superficial Roots : fo that where ther, it will anfwer the Dyers Pur- 
this Plant is cultivated in Quantity, pofe full as well. Thefe Roots moft 
it will be an excellent Method to ufe be dried on a Kiln, before they are 
the Hoeing • plough, to ftic the ground to Powder : for which Pur- 
Ground, and deflroy the Weeds : pofe, I fuppofe, the fame as are ufed 
for, with this Inflrument, a large for drying of Malt might be made 
Quantity of Ground may be kept ufeful for this Commodity, 
clean, at a fmall Expence : and as • By fome few Experiments which 
this will llir the Ground much I made, I imagine that one Acre of 
deeper than a common Hoe, it will good Madder, when fit to take up 
cut off the fuperficial Roots, and for Ufe, will be worth above one 
thereby improve the principal Roots, hundred Pounds ; fo that if it were 

This Crop of Madder fhould be to fland three Years in the Ground, 
fliifted into frefh Land ; for the and to be planted on Lard of three 
Ground which has had one Crop, Pounds ptr Acre, it would pay ex- 
will not be fit to receive another in ceeding well ; confidering the annual 
lefs than four Years ; during which Culture (if performed by a Plough) 
time any other annual Crop may be will be no great Expence s the prin- 
cultivated on the Land. cipal Charge being in the firft pre- 

The manner of drying and pre- paring of the Land, and the plaiit- 
paring thefe Roots for Ufe, I am not ing : but whoever has a mind to 

acquainted with, having never had cultivate this Plant, might rent 

an Opportunity of feeing that Part, ytiy good Land for this Purpofe, 

fo can give no Indr nations concern- for twenty ^\t or thirty Shilling* 

ing it t but whoever fhall have Cu- per Acre, at a Diflancefrom Undtn^ 

rioiity enough to cultivj^te this ufeful but near fome Navigation. 


R U 

The two Sores of wild Madder 
are of no Ufe ; thoagh their Roots 
fceffli to be of the fame Quality with 
Che manured Sort ; and as they are 
never cultivated in Gardens, it is 
necdlefs to fay any (hing more of 
them in this Place. 

Thefe Plants love a loofe Soil, nei- 
ther too dry nor over-wet ; but will 
do better on a dry than on a wet 
•Soil, becaufe in fuch Places the 
Roots are apt to rot in Winter* 

RUBEOLA, Petty-madder. 
The CharaBiri are ; 

li bath a funnel-Jhaftd Flower^ 
tonfifling of one Leafy nuhicb isjlightly 
tui into four Par it at tbi Brim ; 
refting mi tbe Empalemint, *wbicb is 
fomttimts daubli^and fometimes JingU : 
this Emfaliment after<ward hecomts 
a Fruity eomfofed of ttvQ nakid 

The Speciei are ; 

1. RirneoLA lutiori folio. Inft, 
R. H, Broad -ieav'd Petty -mad* 

2 . R u B EO L A angufiion folio. Inft. 

R. H. Narrow-leav*d Petty-mad- 

3. Rubeola 'vulgaris fuadrifo' 
Ha Itenfisy florihut furft/rafcentihtj, 
Inft, R, H. Common fmooth foor- 
leav'd Petty-madder, with purplifh 
plowers, commonly called Squioan- 

4. Rubeola hufitamca ajhtra^ 
florihui furfur afctntibus* lufi, a. H, 

Rough Petty-madder of Portugal^ 
with purplifh Flowers. 

5. Rubeola Cretica faxatilis 
fruticefa^ gallii folio^ fton furpureo 

njiolacto. Toum, Cor, Shrubby rock 
Petty-madder oi Candy, with a La- 
dies -bed ftraw-leaf, and a violet pur* 
pie Flower. 

6. Rubeola Cretica fa vat His 
frutefcens, fore fla<vefeente. ^ourn. 

Cor. Shrubby rock Petty-mrddcr 
giCandj, with aycllowifli Flower. 

R U 

7. Rubeola Crsticm faefidfjlf^ 
ma fruiefctus myrtifolia^ Jlore magma 
fuave ' rttbente, Toum, Cor. The 
moft ftinking ihrabby Petty-midder 
of Candy, with a Myrtle-lof, and m 
large pale-red Flower. 

8. Rubeola Orienialis frnfida 

've'mhenti, Tonm, Cor. Shrabl^ 
ftinking £aftern Petty-madder, with 
a Mother-of-thyme-leaf, and a fmall 
pale-red Flower. 

Q. RuBBOLA Orienialis, foHis 
gallii, flore multiflici )tx tfiridi fian/e- 
fcenfi. Tonm, Cor. Eaftem Petty- 
madder, with many greenifh-yellow 
The firft, feoond, fourth, and ninth 
Sorts are annoal Plants, which decay 
foon after they have perfected 
their Seed. Thefe are preferved 
in the Gardens of thofe Perfons who 
are curions in Botany, for the (ake 
of Variety. They are very hard/ 
Plants, which require no other Care 
than to clear them from Weeds : for 
if they are permitted to fcatter their 
Seeds, the Plants will come up, and 
maintain their Place, if they are 
not overborne with larger Weeds. 
The Seeds of thefe Plants may be 
fown either in Spring or Autumn, in 
the Places where they are to remain, 
which may be in almoft any Soil ; 
but they love an open Situation. 

The third Sort grows wild- on 
chalky Hills, in divers Parts of Eng- 
land, where the Branches trail on 
the Ground, and produce Tufts of 
purpliih Flowers from the Joints 
where the Leaves are fet on ; whick 
open in yuxe, and the Seeds are ripe 
in Jugkf ; but the Roots abide ma- 
ny Years. I'his Plant is efteemed 
efficacious in the Cure of Quinfeys, 
either taken inwardly, or outwardly 

The fifth, fixth,feventh,and eighth 
Sorts were difcover'd by Dr. Tonrne* 



firt in the Lewuit. Thefe are &bi<)e- 
ing PlantSy which become ihrubby, 
and, by their diiFereDt Appearances, 
make an agreeable Variety in a 
Garden. They may be propagated 
by (owing their Seeds on a Bed of 
frefh undunged Soil, in the Spring ; 
and when the Plants come up, they 
jnaft be kept clear from Weeds, and 
in very dry Weather they ihould be 
refrefhed with Water ; and when 
the Plants are about three or four 
Inches high, they ihoakl be tranf- 
,|Janted, fome of each Sort, intoPots, 
that they may be fhelterM nnder an 
Hot' bed-frame in Winter ; and the 
others into dry warm Borders of 
poor Earth ; for in fuch Places 
where the Plants grow flowly, they 
•will live through the Winter, better 
than when they are planted in a rich 

RUBUS, The Bramble, or Rafp- 
berry -buih. 

The Cbara3ers arc ; 

// bath a Flonvir cmfifiing ef fiui 
Leavet^ nvbich an placed circuiarly^ 
andixfand inform rfoKoft: thtFkw' 
'9r»C9f ii diijidid into five Farts am' 
tmng maty Stamina, i/t the Bofom tf 
tbi flower ; in the Centre of tubteb 
^fes the Pointalg mtbieb mftemvard 
leeomes tbeFndt^ eonjtfting of many 
frotnheranees^ andfullofjmce. 
The Swedes are i 

1. KvBVS major ffrnSnnigrtk % 
3 The common Bramble, or 

2. lluBUS minor^ fmSn coeruleo, 
J, B. The Dewberry - bufli, or 
Icficr Bramble. 

3. RvBus <ottlgarii major ^fruffu 
alio. Rati Sjn. The common great- 
er Bramble-bufh, with white Fruit. 

4. RuBVs 'Vulgaris major^ folio 
ilegaMter variegato. The greater 
Bramble- buih, with a beautiful ib-i- 
ped Leaf. 



e. RoBUs Meuf ffnofm^ .finBn 
fSro. J. B. The Rafpberry-baih, 
Framboife, or Hind-berry. 

6. RuBUS Idans fptnofits, fruBo. 
albo. y B. The Rafpherry-bulh, 
*with white Fruit. 

7. RuBVS Idims fpinojus^ fmBu 
rubroferotino. The Rafpberry-baih, 
with late-red Fruit. 

8. RvBVS Id^ens non ffinofut, J. 
B. The Rafpberry-bttih, without 

. 9. RuBUS Id^eus, fruSn migro, 
Firginiannt, Bani/fer. The Firgi- 
nian Rafpberry - bufli, with black 

10. RvBtrs oJoratns.Comnt. Vir^ 
ginian flowering Rafpberry, in^o. 

11. RuBVS jfmericannSf magis 

oreSuSy fpinis rarioribm,ftipite ceeru* 

leo. Fink. Aim. The Upright Fm- 

fylvatda Bramble, or Raipbeny* 


12. RvBUS ^jj^imvi bumilit, J, 
B. Dwarf Bramble of the J^s. 

13. RuBVS vulgaris, f^nis r«- 
rens. H. R, Far. Common Bram- 
ble, without Spines. 

14. Kv^vsJpinofuStfoliis^ flirt 
ileganter laciniatii. Inft. R. H, 
Prtckly Bramble, with Leaves and 
Flowers elegantly jageed. 

I ;. Rvnvsflore auio pleno. H. R. 
Par. The Bramble with double 
white Flowers. 

16. RuBVS non fpiuofns, fruSn 
nigro majortj Folowicns, Burr. Icok. 
Poland Bramble without Thorns, 
and a larger black Fruit. 

The firft and fecond Sorts are ve- 
ry common in Hedges, and apon 
dry Banks, in moft Parts of J^n^yW, 
and are rarely cultivated in Gardens. 
The third Sort was found by Mr. 
Jacob Bobartf in an Hedge not far 
from Oxford I ^nd hath iince been 
cultivated in feveral Gardens as a 
Curiofity. This docs not only dif- 


R U 

€er fir^m the caminon Bramble in che 
Coloar of the Fruit, bat alfo in that 
of the Bark and Leaves, which, in 
this Sort, are of a lively Green ; 
whereas thofe of the coimmon Sort 
are of a dark-brown Colour. ' The 
foarth Sort is a variety of the com- 
mon Bramble, dilFering therefrom 
only in having ftriped Leaves, for 
which it is" prefcrv'd by feme Per- 
fofls who are curious in collecting 
variegated Plants. 

The thirteenth Sort is m all re- 
fpeGti like the conmonBramble, ex- 
cepting in this Particular, that there 
are no Thorns on the Branches or 
Leaves of this Sort. 

The fourteenth Sort ditfers from 
the common Bramble in having the 
Leaves and Flowers curionfly jag- 

The fifteenth Sort produces large 
Spikes of Flowers, which are very 
large and double, fo that they make 
a fine Appearance, being almoft as 
large and double as Rofes. This 
merits a Place in every good Gar^ 
den ; beca jfe it may be planted in 
any abjedt Part of the Garden, under 
Trees in Wildernefs- quarters; where 
it will thrive and flower as well as 
when planted in a more open Situa- 

The fixteenth Sort is not very 
common in England, but is a Native 
of Poland, This produces mnch 
larger Fruit than the commonBram- 
ble ; fo is prcferv'd in the Gardens 
of fome curious Perfons for the fake 
of Variety, 

The Rafpberry-buih is alfo very 
common in divers Woods in the 
Northern Counties of Eng/anJ ; but 
Is cultivated in all curious Gardens 
for the fake of its Fruit. Of this 
there are three Kinds, which are cul- 
tivated commonly in Gardens near 
London ; which are the common red, 
late-rcd, and the white Sorts ; but 

R U 

Ae Sort ^thoQt Thorns is Ie6 com* 
mon at prefent than the other. 

The ninth, tenth, eleventh, aa4 
twelfth Sorts are preferv*das Cariofi« 
tiei IB feveral Gardens near London ; 
as tfaehr Fmits are of no Valve, thej 
are fcarcely worth cultivating^ ex- 
cept in Botanic Gardens for Va- 

All the Sorts qf Bramble are eofilj 
propagated by kyingdown of their 
Shoots, which in One Year will be 
f^ifficiently rooted to tranfplant ; fo 
may then be cut off from the old 
Plants, and planted where they are 
defign'd to remain ; which (hoald 
be in Wildernefs-quarters, or other 
abjea Parts of the Garden, where 
they may have room to (pread,with* 
out incommoding other rlants. 

The Rafpberry is always cultiva- 
ted in Gardens, for^the fake of the 
Fruit. There is a Variety of this 
Plant, which produces two Crops 
of Fruit every Year ; one in the; 
nfual Seafon in Jhfy, and the fecond 
Crop in O&ohtr ; and when the Au- 
tumn proves favourable, the fecond 
Crop will ripen extremely well; and, 
in fome Year?, have been in as great 
Plenty as the firft Crop. 

The Rafpberries are always pro- 
pagated by Sockers, tho' I fhonid 
prefer fuch Plants as are raifed by 
Layers ; becaufe the^ will be better 
rooted, and not fo liable to fend 
Out Suckers as the other j which ge- 
nerally produce fuch Quantities of 
Suckers from their Roots, as to fill 
the Ground; and where they are 
not carefully taken out, or thinned, 
caufe the Fruit to be froall, and in 
lefs Quantities ; efpecially when 
the Plants are placed near each other, 
which is too often the Cafe j for 
there arc few Perfons who allow 
thefe Plants fofiicient room. 

In preparing thefe Plants, their 
Fibres (hould be ihortened ; but the 


R U 

Btid3» which are placed at a fmall 
Bidance from the Seem of the Plant, 
muft not be cat off, becaufe thofe 
prodace the new Shoots the follow- 
ing Summer. Thefe Plants ihould 
be planted aboat (wo Feet afunder 
in the Rows, and four or ^ve Feet 
Piilance Row from Row ; for if 
they are planted too clofe, their 
Fruit is never fo fair, nor will ripen 
fo kindly, as when they have room 
for the Air t<y pafs between the 
Kaws. The Soil^ in which they 
thrive befl» is a freih fandy Loam, 
neither too moift nor over- dry ; the 
Extreme of either being injurious to 
thefe Plants. 

The time for drefling of them is 
in O^oieTf when all the old Wood, 
which produced Fruit the preceding 
Summer, (hould be cut down to the 
Surface of the Ground, and the 
young Shoots muft be ihortenM to 
abont two Feet in Length ; then the 
Spaces between the Rows (hould be 
well dug, to encourage their Roots ; 
and if yon bury a very little rotten 
Dung therein, it will make them 
(hoot vigoroufly the Summer- fol- 
lowing, and their Fruit will be much 
fairer. During the Summer-feafon 
they {houl4 be kept clear from 
Weeds, which, with the before- men- 
tioned Culture, ^s all the Manage- 
ment they will require: but it is 
proper to make new Plantations 
once in three or four Years, becaufe 
thofe are better than where thePlants 
are fuffier'd to remain longer. 

The Firginiau flowering Rafpber- 
ly is commonly propagated in the 
Nurferies as a flowering Shrub. The 
Flowers of this Sort are as large as 
^ fmall Rofes ; and there is a Succef- 
fion of them Ibr two Months or 
more, fo that they make an agree- 
able Variety during their Continu- 
ance* This Sort has product Fruit 
.in England, which were larger than 

R u 

thofe of the common Sort; but bad 
little Flavour. Thefe were ripe in 
September f and the Plants on which 
they produced, grew on a ftrong 
Soil ; but it is very rare to fee any 
Fruit upon thefe Plants. 

The eleventh Sort frequently pro- 
duces Fruit in EngUnd^ which are in 
Appearance very like the common 
Blackberry ; but have a different 
Flavour^ Thefe ripen late in the 
Autumn, and are not worth culti- 
vating for their Fruit. 

RUJPBECKIA, Dwarf Sonfiow* 
er, 'vulgo. 

The Cbara3ers are ; 
// bath Male and Hirmaphr9£ti 
Flotwers inched in one common Em* 
falemeni: the Empalemont is cm- 
f0s*dof tvjo Orders of Leaves: the , 
Flower has a Border of Rays ^ and the 
Middle is occupied hy a great Ntanber 
of Hermaphrodite Flotvers, tvlnds 
form a Cone : the Hermaphro£te 
Flowers are tuhulous^ and cut intofiw 
Parts at the Brim ; thefe ha-ve the 
Pointaljituatedin their Centre /which 
is attended by fi^ve Jlender Stamina : 
the Male Floivers^ nvhich gro^w round 
the Border, and form the Rays, are 
f retched out on ono Side like a Tongue, 
*which is cut into two or three Parts, 
and is plain : thefe are barren ; hut 
the Hermaphrodite Flotvers ha^e each 
afingle oblong Seed, *which is four- 
cornered^ fucceeding them. 

This Genus of Plants was byMon- 
iieur Vaillant titled Obelifcotheca ; 
but this being a compound Name, 
Pr. Linnaus has altered it to this of 
Rudbeciia, in Honour to Dr. Rud» 
bed, who was ProfeiTor of Botaoy 
at Up/a/ in Sweden. 
The Species are ; 
I. RuDjECKiA foliis lanceolate' 
o*vatis alternis itidi'vijis, petalis re/iii 
integris, Flor. f^irg. Dwarf Sun- 
flower, with yellow Rays and a dark 

2. RUD- 

R U 

2, Ru»BBCKiA foitis Unciolatts 
^ktrnii indi'vifisf petalis radii hifi* 
£s. FUr. Fir, Dwarf American 
Sooflower, with porpie Rays, whicii 
are bifid. 

3. RuDBECKiA foliis compofitis 
Uaniatis, Lin, Virid, American 
Sonflowefy with Leaves which are 
compofed of many Parts, and deeply 

4. RUDBECKIA foliis €9mpofitis 

aMgufiioribus laciniatis American 
Sanflower, with narrow cut com- 
poand Leaves. 

5. RuDBECKiA foUis compofiiis 
httgris. FUr, Leyd. American 

Soo-flower, with whole compound 

6. RuDBECCiA foliii 9ppofitis Ian' 
€e9lai0-gvaiij, petalis radii bifidis, 
Flar, Vir. American Sunflower, 
with oval fpear-ihapM Leaves plac*d 
oppofice, and the Petals bifid. 

The firfl Sort has been many, 
Years fH-eferv'd in feveral curious 
Gardens in England, The Seeds of 
this Sort were fent from Virginia^ 
nnder the Title of Chryfanthemum 
Amiricamem^dorotucifoUoyflore luteo, 
ambone atro-purpure§. This is a 
perennial Plant, which has rough 
oval Leaves growing clofe to the 
Ground; from between thefe, in 
^e Spring, the Footfialks of the 
Flowers come out, which grow 
about two Feet high, having two or 
three fmall Leaves placed alternately 
on each. The Top is crowned by 
a fingle Flower, about the Size of a 
large Marigold, having a Border of 
yellow Rays, and a conical dark 
Middle or Umbone. Thefe Flow- 
ers are of long Duration ; each iingle 
Flower will continue a Month in 
Beauty ; and as there is commonly 
aSucceflion of them on the fame 
Plant, they continue from the Mid- 
dle of July to the Middle of Oaober 
in Flower j which renders thefe 

R U 

Plants valuable. As this Sort rarely 
produces good Seeds in England, the 
Plants are commonly propagated by 
parting their Roois. The belt time 
for this is in March, before they be- 
gin to fhoot ; but there mufl be Care 
had not to part the Roots into fmall 
Heads, efpecially where they are ex- 
peded to flower flrong the fame 
Summer ; but in the Nurferies they 
are ufually divided very fmall for 
the Increafc of the Plants. But the 
Plants which are raifed from Off-fets 
never flower fo Urong as thofe pro- 
duced from Seeds ; fo that where the 
Seeds can be obtained, it is by much 
the befl Method to propagate them 
that way. 

The fecond Sort is alfo a Native 
of Virginia and Carolina^ and is more 
rarely to be found in the EngJiJlf Gar- 
dens than the firil. The Leaves of 
this are longer, and more pointed, 
than the firft, and are not fo hairy. 
The Stalks off the Flowers are uller, 
and are frequently naked, having no 
Leaves coining out. The Flower 
has a Border of narrow long purple 
Rays, which are reflexed ; fo that 
thefe Flowers make not any great 
Appearance. However, as it is a 
fcarce Plant, it is generally fold at 
a good Price by thofe who deal in 
curious Plants. 

This Sort is propagated in the 
fame manner as the former; but doth 
not produce fo great Plenty of Offj 
fets as the firft, which occafions the 
prefent Scarcity of the Plants. 

When the Seeds of thefe Plants 
can be procured, they fhould be 
fown in Pou filled with frefh light 
Earth, and placed where they may 
have only the morning Sun, and fre- 
quently watered in dry Weather. 
Some of the Plants may probably 
come up the firft Year; but the great- 
eft Part of them will not appear till 
the Spring following; fo that the 


R U 

£aith Ihould not be difturbed i and 
if any of the Plants fhoold come up, 
they may be drawn out, and planted 
each into feparate Pots; but the 
Seed-pou fhoald be placed under a 
Frame, where they may be (helter^d 
from fcvere Froft» bat in mild Wea- 
ther have a large Share of free Air ; 
and in the Spring following thePlants 
wilkome up: when they haveobtain- 
ed Strengtbythey may be planted one 
into a Border of light Earth, about 
four Inches afunder each Way. In 
this Bed they may remain until the 
Autumn following, when they fhoukl 
be tranfplanted where they are to 
Hand for Flowering, which ihouFd 
be in a warm Situation ; otherwife, 
if the Winter proves fevere, they 
will be deiboyed : therefore it is ad- 
vifeable to plant a few Plants of each 
Sort in Pots, that they may be placed 
under an Hot-bed- frame in Winter, 
to (belter them from hard Froft, in 
order to preferve the Kmds. 

The third, fourth, and fifth Sorts 
are very hardy Plants, though they 
came originally from the fame Coun- 
try as the others. Thefe grow fix 
or eight Feet hieh, and produce a 
great Number of Flowers in a fort of 
Umbel on the Tops of the Branches i 
which are in Shape like fmall Son- 
flowers, fo have been by many ran* 
ged in that Genus. Thefe Plants 
flower' in July aftd Auguft^ and are 
proper Furniture for the Borders of 
large Gardens. They are propa- 
gated by Off-fets, which the Roots 
furnifli in plenty; and fiionld be 
planted in Offohir^ that they may 
get good Root before the Froft fets 
in ; and then they will flower flrong- 
]y the following Summer : for when 
the Plants are removed in the 
Spring, they will not get good Root 
in the Ground before they put out 
their Flower-ftemt ; fo cannot pro- 
duce their Flowers fo large. Thtfe 

R U 

alfo perfea their Seeds in Bnglud 
in favourable Years. 

The fixth Sort fnould be treated 
in the (ame manner as the two firft; 
but it is fomewhac hardier, and will 
perfed its Seeds in good Summenin 
Emgkmdy fo may be propagated m 
greater Plenty. 


The CharaSers are ; 

It bath a funnel JhapeJ Fhwtr^ 
eonfifting ofont Leaf, tuhicb ig cut /«- 
/tf fe<vfral Parts at ihe^ Ryim^ frm 
njiihffe Empaiement arifts the Piintal, 
*wlnch is fixed Hie a Nasi im the B$t' 
tern of the f lower ^ and after^wardht* g 
cemes a memhranaceem Peel, which f 
opens into feveral Parts, assd isfUd 
wthfmali Seeds, 
The Species arc ; 

1. Ru£LLiA Americana htmilit, 
afphodeli radice. Plum. Nov, Gar. 
i^warf American Ruellia, with an 

2. Ruellia Careliniana, filiis 
ohUngis angujiis,jlere pmrpuree. Howf. 
Carolina Ruellia, with narrow oblong 
Leaves, and a purple Flower. 

3. Ruellia Americana hnsailis^ 
par*uo flore caeruleo^ capfuUs tereti- 
htu. Heuft. DyfftLtf American R^d- 
lia, with a fmall blue Flower, and a 
taper Pod. 

The firft Sort was difcovered by 
Father Plnmier in America^ who 
gave this Name to the Genos, is 
Honour of Dr. Ruellius, who was a 
very learned Perfon in Natural Hi* 
flory, and lived about two handrtti 
Years paft. 

The fecond Sort grows plentifollf 
in Seuth-Carelina, from whence it 
was brought into the EngUflt Gar- 
dens. This Sort grows much taller 
than the other two. 

The third Sort was dl/cover'd by 
the late Dr. William Houftonn in 7«- 
maica, who fent the Seeds into En^- 
land. The Flowers of this Kind are 


R U R U 

mudi fmaller than tbofe of the other blae Colour ; (o that it makes a fine 

Sorts, and are of fhort Daration» Appearance when it flowers ; and as 

feldom contmoing above one Day. the Plants are fmall, they may be 

Thefe Plants are propagated by kept in a little Compafs, and are as 

Seeds, which muft be fowh early in well worth preferving, as mod ten* 

tbe Spring in Pots filled with light der Exotic Plants, When this Plant 

fkh Earth, and plunged into a mo- is ihifted (which ftiould be the Be* 

,<iente Hoc-bed; and when the Plants ginning o{ April ^ before the new 

come up, they muft be tranfplanted Leaves are put out), great Care 

each into a feparate fmall Pot filled fliould>be taken, that the Roots ai« 

with rich Earthy and plunged into not broken or bruifed ; for as they 

ao Hot-bed of Tanners Bark, where confift of many thick Tubers, if thefe 

thev muft be ihaded from the Sun, are injured, the Plant is frequently 

until they have taken new Root ; af- dcftroy'd. 

tcr which time they muft have frefh RUSCUS, Knee-holly, or But- 

Air admitted to them t^tty Day in chersbroom. 

warm Weather, and be conftantly Tht O^araSers zxti 

Hiratered three or four times a Week 7be Fiamf€r-ct^ confifti of Mi Leaf^ 

during the Summer-feafon. If the ^xtbicb is cut into favirat DMfiom^ 

?Unts thrive well, thoie of the firft out •fmubUh is froduc'd u globular 

and third Sort will produce Flowers btll'fiaftd Flower^ confifling alfo of 

the July following, and will perfeft wo Loaf\ in tbe Centn of wbicb 

their Seeds in Augufi ; but the Roots mriffs tbe Poi$rtal^ vubicb afigrward 

will continue, provided they are becomes a foft roumdijb Fruii, im 

plunged into the Bark -bed in tbe nubicb art inclosed ont §r two bard 

Stove, and kept in a moderate Tern- Suds. 

perature of Heat. The 5^r<V/ are ; 

The fecond Sort, which rifes i.Ruscus ityrtifolius acsdeatiss, 

niQch higher than either of the other, Toum. The common Knee-holly, 

will require to be ihifted into larger or Butchers-broom. 

Pots, by the Beginning of Junn a. Rvscvs angmftifolius^ frmSm 

and then they fhould be removed in- folio inmafcnto. Touru, Narrow* 

ft) die Stove, or a Glafs-cafe, where leav*d Butcbers-broom, or Alexsm^ 

they may have a larger Share of drian Laurel, with the Fruit grow« 

Air ; ocherwife they will draw up ing on the Leaves, 

very weak, which will prevent their 3. Rvscvs latifoUus^ fruSu folio 

Flowering. This Sort dies to the innafcento, Tourm, Broad - lea^*d 

Root every Winter 1 but if the Pots Butchers - broom, or Alexandrian 

are placed in a warm Stove, their Laurel, with the Fruit growing on 

Roots will live, and pot out again the Leaves, 

the following Spring* fo may be 4. Ruscus angaftifolius^ fruSa 

eontinaed feveral Years. This Sort fummit ramulis itmafetntt. Toum, 

will ripen Seeds very well, provided Narrow-leav*d Butchers - broom, or 

the Plants are ihelter^d when they Alexandrian Laurel, with the Fruit 

are in Flower. growing upon the Tops of the Bran- 

The firft Sort is by much the moft ch^s. 

beautiful Plant, the Flowers being 5. Ruscus lati folios crenatut^ 

four times as lai^e as thofe of either fruSu e crenis foliorum frodenntibus, 

of the other Sorts, and are of a fine Broad Icav'd Alexandrian Laurel, 



R U R U 

with the Fruit growing opon the Thefe Plants may be propagated 

Edges of the Leaves. by parting their Roots in (he Spring 

6. Auscus vulgaris p folio am- of the Year, before they begin to 
fiiorg. Hort. Pa/. Butchers- broom make, new Shoots ; obferving, if the 
with a larger Leaf. Seafon be dry, to water them until 

7. Ruscus nmlgarisp folio angw they have taken Root ; aher which 
ftiore. Narrow - leav*d Butchers- they will require no farther Care« 
broom. but to keep them clear from Weeds i 

The firft Sort is very common in obferving not to tranf plant. or dif- 

the Woods in divers Parts ofEng- turb their Roots oftener than once 

ianJ, and is rarely cultivated in Gar- in three Years , for when they are 

dens. The Roots of this Kind are often removed, they feldom thrive 

fometimes ufed in Medicine; and the well, and rarely produce Fruit, 

green Shoots are cut, and bound The fifth Sort is tender, and moft 

into Bundles, and fold to the But- therefore be placed in Pots £lled 

chersy who ufe it as Befoms to fweep with frefh Earth, and in Winter pot 

their Blocks; from whence it had into the Green- houfe; bntitfltould 

the Name of Butcbers-broom. be placed where it may have £ree Air 

The fecond, thirds fourth^ fixth, in mild Weather, and be conftandy 
and feventh Sorts are hardy Plants ; watered : in which Management 
and though not Natives of England^ this Plant will fend forth Stems fix 
yet may be prefervM in Gardens, if or eight Feet high, furnifh'd with 
planted in a (hady Situation, as in Leaves from Bottom to Top; and io 
Wildemefs-quarters, ^c. where they June will be clofely fet with Flowers 
-ferve to intermix with other Wood- upon their Edges, which make i 
plants, to make Variety. The fecond a very beautiful and odd Appear- 
and third Sorts are fometimes ufed in ance, and renders it worthy of a 
Medicine. Place in every good CoUe£lion of 

The fecond Sort has fmall Leaves Plants. This is alfo propagated by 

growing out of the Middle of the parting the Roots, as the former, 

larger ; fo it is called Bis ^lingua by which fhould not be done very of- 

fome Writers. The other ftands in ten ; becaufe, if the Roots are not 

the Difpenfaries under the Title of permitted to remain fome time to 

Lamrms AlexanJrina, g(st Strength, they will produce hot 

Thefe Plants produce their Flow- weak Shoots, and very few Flowers; 

ers and Fruit on the Middle of their and in the Strength of their Shoots, 

Leaves, which are of the Size of and Number of Flowers, the great- 

fmall Cherries; and being of a fine eft Beauty of thefe Plants confilb. 

red Colour,, make a pretty Appear- This Sort grows plentifully at Me- 

ance, efpecially when there is plenty ddra^ from whence the Seeds may 

of the Fruit on the Plants. The be procured ; but this commonly lio 

Fruit is ripe in Winter ;fo that there in the Ground a Year before die 

are fome Perfons who cut the Bran- Phints come up ; fo ihould be fown 

ches with their ripe Fruit, to put in- in Pots filled with frefh Earth, and 

to Bafons, for adorning their Rooms placed under an Hot-bed-frame in 

at that Seafon, when there are few Winter, to fcreen the Seeds from 

other Plants in Beauty ; and thefe the Froft; and the following Spring 

' will keep frefli a long time, when the Plants will appear, 

put into Water. It is generally fuppofed« that it 


Was one of thefe t'lants which the 
'ihticnt Viftors were crown'd with; 
iJQce from the Pliablenefs of their 
Branches, whereby they are v^ry 
proper to wreathe into any Figure, 
"fts alfo from the Refemblance thofe 
Coronets, which we fee furroundiag 
the Heads of fome antient Buds, 
have to the Leaves of thefe Plants, 
it ii a prDbable Conjedcure at leaft. 

RUTA, Rue. 

The Chara^trs *re ; 

The Tlowet for tht meft part con- 

fifti of four boHirw Lionfet, nuhicJ^ are 

'"piac'ed orbicularly t and txfand in form 

of a ilofe I out of nvhofo Flowtr^cnp 

arijes tht Poinfai, tvhicb after^ward 

becomes a roundijb Fruity mibicb is 

generally four- cornered^ and composed 

' of four Cellsfx'dtoan Axis, and full 

of f mall angular Seeds, 

The Species are ; 

1. Rut A major bortenjis latifolia. 
*Mar. Uift, The common broad- 
leavM Garden-rue. 

2 . R u T A horfenfis mintr tenui folia, 
Mor, Hift. The leffer Garden-rae, 

' with narrow Leaves. 

3. RtJTA bortenfis minor tiuuifolia, 
fbliis n)ariegatis argenteis. Boefb, 
Ind. The leffer Garden-rue, with 
narrow Leaves, variegated with 

4. Rt/TA Cbal^mfs laYtfolia, fio» 
rum pet alls *villis fcatenfihus, H. L, 
The troad-leavM ^//^/d Rue, whofe 
Flower-lea?es arc befet with Down. 

5. Rut A Cbalepenjis tenuifolia^ 
fiorwn petalis *vilUs fcatentibus, Mor. 

Hifl. Narrow -leav'd Aleppo Rue, 
whofe Flower-leaves are befet with 
IX) wn. 

6. Ruf A fyheftris major, C. B. P. 
Greater wild Rue. 

i 7. ^xjT\ fyheftris minor. C. B. P. 
Smaller wild Rue. 

8. Rut A fyheftris Unifolia B- 
fp:inica. Bocc. Muf, Bf^mfh wild 

Kue, uiih g FIa3c leaf. * 
Vol.. 111. 

R U 

The lirft Sort here mentionM i* 
that which the College of Phy fician^ 
have direded to be uled in Medicine, 
and is the moft commonly cultivated 
in England, 

The fecond Sort is propagated 
but in few Gardens in England i tho* 
the third, which is a Variety of the 
fecond, and only diFering from it in 
having its Leaves variegated wiHi 
White, is very commmon in Etig- 
land, being greatly cultivated by 
thofe Gardeners who fu{^Iy the 
London Markets with Plants in the 
Spring-feafoR ; at which time this 
Plant makes a beautiful Appear- 
ance : but as the Seafon advances, 
and the Plants increafe in Vigour, 
the Variegation of the Leaves goes 
off, and they appear almoil green ; 
bac their Colour returns in Winter. 

The two Sorts of Aleppo Rne are 
only preferv*d in fome curious Gar- 
dens, being rarely ofed in Medi- 
cine i though of late Years the brotd- 
leav*d Sort was become fe plenty, as 
to be brought to the Markets iaileaii 
of the firtt Sort : but beiog much 
ranker, and of a more offenfive 
Smell, it was neglected. 

The greater wild Rue is left com- 
mon in England thkn either of th;: 
former. This f raifed from Seeds. 
which were fe&t me by my honoured 
Friend Mr. Henry Hopkey, from G/'- 
braltar, where this Plant grows up- 
on the Hills in great Plenty. 

The fmaller wild Rue is alfo un- 
common : the Leaves of this Sort are 
fmall, and neatly fet on the Branches, 
fo as to make 'a very pretty Appear- 
ance; but this, and the former So rt^, 
arc tender; fo are frequently de- 
ftroy'd by Cold in the Winter. Thefe 
two Sorts produced plenty of Seeds 
in the Phyfic-garden at Cbelfea, }\'h\ch 
feemed very perfeA ; but not one of 
them came up when fown. 

The eighth Sort is alfo tender, and 
4 1 cymes 


eomesfrom the fame Country ; there- 
fore thefe three flioald be planted in 
Pots, and (helter^d in Winter from 
fevere Froft ; bat they moft have 
free Air in mild Weather. 

All thefe Plants maybe propagated 
either by fowing of their Seeds, or 
by planting Slips or Cuttings; both 
of which muft be done in the Spring. 
The manner of propagating them 
from Cuttings being the fame with 
Rofmary, &t. I fhall not repeat it 
here, but refer the Reader to that 
Article ; and if they are propagated 
by Seeds, there needs no &rther Care 
but to dig a Bed of f refli Earth in 
the Sprmg, making it level ; then to 
few (he £eds thereon, and rake the 
Ground fmooth : after which you 
mull obferve to keep the Bed clear 
from Weeds until the Plants are 
come up about two Inches high; 
wheft they (hould be tranfplanted out 
into frefh Beds, where they may re- 
main for Ufe. All thefe Plants muft 
have a dry Soil, otherwife they are 
verv fubjeft to be deftroy*d in Win- 
ter. The two Aieffff Rues, and the 
wild Rue, are fomewbat tenderer 
than the common Sort; but thefe 
will endure our ordinary Winters 
. vtf y well in the open Air, efpecially 
if they are planted on a dry Soil. 

The firft Sort was formerly nfed 
to plant for Edgings on the Sides of 
Borders ; it was then called Heri of 
Grace ; but was by no means pro* 
per for this Ufe; for the Plants 
ihoot fo vigoroufly, that there is no 
keeping them within the Bounds of 
an Edging; befides, when they are 
kept dofely ihear'd, they appear 
▼ery ragged and ftumpy ; and their 
Roots fpread fo far, as to exhauft the 
Goodnefs of the Soil, fo that the 
other Plants would be deprived of 
their Nouriihment ; which Reafons 
have caus*d them to be wholly neg- 
Icifled for this Purpofe ; fo that at 


prefent they are chiefly cultivate 
lor medicinal Ufe, or to fumiih the 
Balconies for the Citizens in die 

RUTA CANINA. Fide Scro* 

or White Maiden-hair. 

This Plant is found growing oat 
of the Joints of old Walls in difdi 
Parts cSEngUmJ^ where it is gathered 
for medicinal Ufe ; but as it cannot 
be cultivated in Gardens, fo as to 
grow to Advantage, I ihall not faj 
any thing more of it in this Place, 

The CbaraBirs are ; 

// baib a labiaiid Flovoer enfif* 
ing ofont Leaf ^wbofi Upper-lip (V 
Creft) is divided int§ two Parts ; ht 
the Beard is cut inte three Segments^ 
the middle Segment being divided inia 
i«wo Parts ^ msdis tvnified like a Scrtvf: 
out of the Empaiement arifes the Peiu' 
tali fixed like a Nail in the binder 
Part of the Flower^ eutessded hjfev 
Bmbryoes\ tvbich afier^vard hceme 
fo mast^ Seeds inchfed in the Bmpok' 

We have but one Spedes of thk 
Plant; which is, 

RvrscHiANA Jhre ceemUo ma* 
gno. BoerbJnd. alt. Rnyfchiana with 
a large blue Flower. 

This Name was given to tUs 
Plant by the learned Dr. Boerbaa^, 
Proftfior of Botany at />^, in 
Honour to Dr. Rwffcb^ who was Pro- 
feiTor of Anatomy and Botany ^iAm- 
Jlerdam. It was by fome Writers in 
Botany ranged among the Hyffops ; 
by others it was made a Ground- 
pine ; and by fome a Self-heal ; to 
neither of which it exa£Uy agreed: 
which occafion^d Dr. BeerbaoFve to 
conititute a new Genus of it bj thi) 

This is a perennial Plant, which 
dies to the Root in Autumn> aad riies 



igaiA At foItpwiDg Spring, tt com- 
inonly grows about two Feet high, 
tnd has long oarrow Leaves, fome- 
what reiembling thofe of Rofmary ; 
OQ the Tops of the Stalk, the Flowr 
ers are produced in a cfofe thick 
Spike, growing in Whorles roand 
the Stalk ; which are of a fine blue 
Colour, and make a very pretty Ap* 
parance duriog their Continuance in 
Beauty ^ which in a cool Seafon it 
ibmctimes fix Weeks, beginning in 
Mmj, and lafting cili Jufy. 

It is propagated by Seed, which 
(boold be fown in the Middle of 
fifarch, in a Bed of frefh light Earth, 
iA an open Expofore; and in about 
five Weeb after the Plants will ap- 
pear, when they fliould 1>e carefully 
cleared from Weeds ; and if the Sea* 
fon ihould prove dry, they mail be 
refrefhed now-and-then with Water, 
which will greatly promote their 
Growth. When the Plants are about 
two Inches high, they ihould be care- 
fnlly tranfplanted into a Bed or Bor- 
der of freih light undonged Earth, 
obTerving lo fiiade them from the 
Suo until they kave taken Root; as 
alfo to refrefh them freqsently with 
Water, until they are well eftablifliM 
i& this Bed ; after which time they 
will require no farther Care>'bat to 
keep them conftantly dear from 
Weeds, till Micbaehnas^ when they 
At to be removed into the Places 
where they are defigned to remain 
for good. 

When the Plants are firft tranf- 
pbnted from the Seed-bed into a 
Karferybed, they ihould be plant- 
ed about fix Inches afunder every 
Way, which will be fuficient room 
fer them the firft Seafon ; and tliis 
Will admit of the Hoe to come be«> 
tween the Plants to deftroy the 
Weeds, which is by much a better 
Method than the polling them out 

S A 

By Hand, and is mach (boner per- 

At Michaelmai, when the Plants 
are tranfplanted for good, the/ 
(hould be carefully taken up wicii 
Balls of Earth to their Roots ; and 
they muft be plailted in the Middle of 
the Borders in fireih light Earth, in- ^ 
termixing them with other hard/ 
Plants of the fame Growth ; whero 
they will make a pretty Appearance^ 
when they are in Flower, and wili 
continue three or four Years ; and 
tn fome poor ftony Soils I havo 
known the Roots live fix or feven 
Years ; but thefe did not proddco 
fo large Spikes^of Flowers, as ti^ofo 
younger and more vigorous Plants. 

It will be proper to have foroe of 
the Plants in Pots, which, in cafe of 
a fevere Winter, may be (belter *d 
under a Frame, for fear thofe Plants 
which are exposed ihould be deftroy- 
ed I and theie Plants in Pots, if they 
are duly fupplyM with Water in dry 
Weather, will flower very (bong ; 
wherefore they may be placed among 
other Plants, to decorate Courts, &c. 
where they will have a good Effe£l. 

But as thefe Plants do not continue 
many Years, it will be proper to raife 
a Supply of young Plants to fucceed 
them ; for the old Plants will pro- 
duce Seeds plentifvilly, which are 
ripe in Aumfiy when they ihould be 
gather^ in dry Weather, and kept 
in a warm dry Room, till the timo 
for fowing them. 

8 A 

SABtNA, The Savine-txee. 
The CharaQnt are ; 
// hath can^oB^ rigtdf and ffhf^' 
la tnfir'grftm LiMiVis: th$ Frmt it 
4l« /mtM, 

S A 

fwall^ fphtrical^ and nvartgd-i and 
the 'whole Plant has a 'ucry rojtk 
firong Smell. 

The Species arc ; 
* \,Shh\r^k folio tamarlfci Diofcori- 
dis, C. S, P. The Male or common 

2 . S A B t N A folio cuprefji, C. B. P. 
.The berry-bearing, or upright Sa- 

• _ 

3. Sabina folio varirgato. The 
ftriped Savine. 

Thcfc Plants arc commonly culti- 
vated for medicinal Ufe, and are 
rarely planted in Gardens for Plca- 
furc, becaufe their til Scent renders 
them difagrccablc in frequented Pla- 
ces ; but yet they may be admitted 
for planting in Clumps, or to foj^m 
. Amphitheatres of evcr-green Trcci ; 
where, if thefe are intermix^ among 
other low erowing Plants, they will 
add to the Variety. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by layingdown their young Branches 
in the Spring ; which, if duly wa- 
tered in dry Weather, will take 
Root in a Yearns time, and may then 
be tranfplanted out either into a Nur- 
fery, or the Places where they arc to 
remain : they may alfo be propaga- 
ted by Cuttings, which (hould be 
planted on a moid Soil about the 
beginning of O^ober \ which, if 
duly water'd in dry Weather, will 
take Root, and the Autumn follow- 
ing may be removed^ as was direOed 
for the Layers. 

The time for tranfplanting thefe 
Plants is the fame with Laurels, 
Lauras Tinus, {ffr. obferving to do 
it in moift Weather, laying a little 
Mulch upon . the Surface (^f the 
Ground about their Roots, to pre- 
vent their drying : after they arc 
rootfcd, they will require no farther 
Care but to keep them clear from 
^Vccdf, and to dig the Ground about 

s a 

their Roots every Spring, which 
will greatly promote their Growth. 

Thefe Plants arc ufually ranged 
with the Junipers; to which Genos 
they properly belong by their Cha- 
rafters ; but as they have been long 
known by the Tide of Savine in the 
Shops, I have continued this Nasie 
to them. 

The firll Sort feldom produces 
Berries in this Country, nor in many 
other Places ; which has occafion'd 
many Perfons to give it the Epithet 
of Male, and to the upright Sort 
that of Female, from its bearisg 
plenty of Berries ; and from hence 
fome have fuppofed them to be bot 
one Species ; but they are certainly 
two diHindl Plants ; for they totally 
differ in the mamier of their Growth, 
as alfo in their Leaves. I have fome- 
times found Berries on the iirft Sort; 
but thefe are prod uc'd fparingly, aad 
never but on old Plants. 

The firft feldom rifcs above three 
or four Feet high; the Branches 
n>read horizontally to a great 'DH- \ 
iknce from the Stem ; fo thefe Plants 1 
are very proper to plant for cover- 
ing of Rocks, or to hang over Wa« 
ter, where the dark Green of tbe 
Leaves will have a very good £&d« 
and being extremely hardy, is an- 
other kecommendaiion : for indie 
fevere Froft in the Year 1 739-40. 
when there were few Plants efcap'd, 
thefe retainM their Verdure, ud 
were not injured. 

The other Sort grows more ered, 
and will rife to the Height of tcncr 
twelve Feet. The Leaves of lhi» 
refemble thofe of the Firzinian Cc- 
dar, and have the fame rank Soest 
as the common Savine ; but this is 
not common in England ^t prefent: 
however, it defervcs to be props- 
gated, as it makes a Variety amovg 
other ever -green Shrtibs. 



S A 

SAFFRON. F/V/ Crocus; 

SAGS. r/V/ Salvia. 

SALICARIA, WiUow-wort, or 
Spiked Loofc'llnre. 

The Cvaraffers arc; 

The Flowers confijl of frveral 
Leaves, nvbieb art flaeed eircularly, 
W expand in form of a Rofe : theft 
Leaves are produced from tbtlncifurts 
9f the Flowtr-cup : from tbt Ctntrt 
rf the Flovaer-citp rifts the Pointal, 
which aftervjard becomes a Fruit j or 
cvalHuJk, eonfifting oft<w§ Cells ^ and 
lentrallj full of f mall Seeds , tubicb 
adhere to the Placenta, and are com* 
9ubIj ivrafpeduf in tbt Flotver-cuf, 
The S feats arc ; 

I.Salicaria vulgaris purpurta, 
ftliis ohiongis. Totem. Purple fpiked 
Willow-herb, or Loofe-fuife, with 
long Leaves. 

2. Salicarxa purpurea ffoliis/ul' 
rstttndis, Toum, Purple fpiked 
Willow-herb, or Loofe llrife, with 
roandiih Leaves. 

3. Salic AK I A bjjfopi folio latlort, 
hf. R. H. Broad hyflbp - leav'd 
Willow-wort, or Hedgc-hyflbp. 

4*Salicaria byjfopi folio angw 
fii^re. Inft, R. H. Narrow hyflbp- 
leay'd Willow-wort, or Grafs poly. 

5. Salicaria Lujttanica, angu- 
P'tfre folio. Inf. R. H. Portugal 
Willow -wort, with a narrow Leaf. 

6. Salicaria Hi/panicat byjfopi 
filio^ forihus oblongis, faturate cap* 
ruleis. Ittjl, R. H. Spanijb Willow- 
wort, with an Hy flop -leaf, and ob- 
long deep blue Flowers. 

7. Salicaria minima Lujitamca^ 
^mmuUria folio, hft, R. H, The 
leaftPdr/ftTg-fl/ Willow, wort, with a 
Money wort- leaf. 

8. Salicaria OritntaliSy fali:is 
filio acutijjimo l^ glahro, Tourn. Cor. 

Faftcm Wjllow-wort, with a fharp- 
poinicd fmooth Willow leaf. 

9. Salicaria Crctico , funics fo^ 

lio, 7ourn. Cor. Candy Willow* 
wort, with a Pom granate- leaf. 

The two Sorts firft-mentionM are 
very common by theSidesof Ditches, 
and other moif! Places, in divers 
Parts oi England, and are rarely cul- 
tivated in Gardens: yet, for the 
Beauty of their long Spikes of pur- 
ple Flowers, they deferve a Place in 
a good Garden, as alfo for their, tong 
Continuance in Flower: however, 
if there happens to be a moid boggy 
Place in a Garden, where few other 
Plants will thrive, thefe may be 
placed there to Advantage, and will 
afford a great deal of Pleaiure. They 
propagate themfelves very fail by 
their creeping Roots ; and if they de- 
light in the Soil, will in a (hort time 
multiply exceedingly. Thefe pro- 
duce their Flowers in Junt and July^ 
and often continue till Augujl in 

The two next Sorts are found wild 
in England, on moid Soils, where 
the Water Hands in Winter; but 
they are pretty rare near London. 
Thefe are feldom preferved in Gar- 
dens, but are here mentioned to in- 
.trodace the next Sort, which is a 
very beautiful Plant, and deferves a 
Place in every curious Garden, for 
its long Continuance in Flower. This 
Sort is a Native of Portugal; but is a 
tolerable hardy Plant, and will en- 
dure the Cold of our ordinary Win- 
ters in the open Air ; but in very fe- 
vcre Frofl, is fometimes deftroyed ; 
fo that fome Plants of this Kind may 
be planted in Pots, which may be 
ihclter^d under a common Frame in 
Winter, where they Ihould have as 
much free Air as poflible in mild 
Weatlicr ; for they only require to 
be prote£led from very hard Frofts. 
In. Summer they may he placed 
abroad with other flowering Planfs ; 
but in dry Weather they mull be duly 
4 I 3 watered^ 

S A 

watered, otherwiTe they wfll aot 
£ewer firong, nor contmue fo long 
in Beauty. Thcfc Flowers arc pro- 
duced from the Wings of the 
Leaves, beginning at the Bottom 
of the Stalks near the Root* and are 
continaed all the Way up to the Top 
k>t the Sulks, which are about two 
Feet in Length ; for this Sort ieldom 
rifes any higher: the Flowers aire 
pretty large, and of a bright purple 
Colour. This Plant begins to flower 
the Beginning of June, andcontinacs 
till Auguft, 

As this Sort very rarefy produces 
ripe Seeds in England^ it nuil be 
propagated by parting of the Roots, 
•or by laying down the Branches, 
which will take Root in a few 
Months (provided they are conftant- 
]y watered in dry Weather); and 
may then be taken from the old 
Plants, and planted into Pots, that 
they may be (helterM in Winter; 
and the Spring following, fome of 
them may be (haken out of the PotSj, 
and planted into a Border, where 
they may have the morning Sun ; 
and in dry Weather, if they are wa- 
tered conftantly, they will flower 
\txy well, and make a fine Appear- 
ance. " 

The fixth Sort is alfo a very beau- 
tiful Hant, and well deferves a Place 
in every good Garden. This growi 
tbout the (ame Height with the for- 
mer; fo may be inurfpersM with it 
in the Borders of the Flower-gar- 
den ; as may alfo the feventh and 
eighth Sorts, for Variety, thy they 
are not near fo beautiful as either of 
the former Sorts. Thefe may be 
treated in the fame manner as hath 
been direfted for the fifth Sort ; with 
which Management they wii|l thrive 
very well. 

The eighth Sort grows much tall- 
er than eiuier of the ether ; fo ihonld 
be placed amongft larger Plants. This 

S A 

is very hardy, and may be prop«^ 

gated either by Seeds, or by parting 
of Ithe Roots, which is the fureS 
way ; becaufe the Seeds do not ripei\ 
every Year in this CUmatte. The 
beft time to part the Roots is in Au- 
tumn, that they may be well fixed m 
the Ground before the Spring ; be- 
caufe thofe which are parted in the 
Spring, feldom flower very ftrong, 
efpecially^if the Seafon proves diy. 
This Sbrt may be intermix^ with 
the two large Kinds fir(l-mention\l, 
and will grow in almoft any Situa- 
tion, provided they are'watered vo^ 
dry Weather. 

SALICORNIA, Jointed Gliff- 
wort, or Saltwort. 

The CharaBeri are ; 

It hath an afttaUui flvwer^ vMOt" 
ing the Empakment ifir the Stamina 
(or Ofi'ues)^ and the Embryees^ grtw 
en the extreme Part of the Leioit i 
thefe Emhrjeet afterv)ard become Pede 
9r Bladders^ ivhich for the moft iart 
contain one Seed, 

The Species are ; 

1 . S A L I CQRif I A genienlata femfer* 
'virent. Tourn. Con Jointed ever- 
green GlaiTwort. 

2. Salicornia geniculata antU, 
Tmirn, Cor. Annual Jointed Glaff* 

Thefe Plants grow on the Sea- 
coaft in many Parts of Europe, and 
upon the Shores in feveral Places la 
Eng/and,vf\iidi are waflied everyXide 
with the Salt-water ; but are rarely 
planted in Gardens, becaufe it is very 
difiicuh to make them grow in soy 
other Situation, than in SUt-mar/bes^ 
and on the Shores, i^l^ere the Salt- 
water frequently flows. Of thefe 
Plants there feem to be two or three 
Varieties, which appear remarkably 
different ; but are not (bppofed to he 
di^nA Species. 

The Inhabitants near the Sa* 
^ok&, where thefe Plan^ grpw, cot 


S A S A 

tbem Dp toward the Latter-end oF 6. Saliz fiUo auricuht^ Jikn- 

Summer, when they are fully intiy JUxUii, Cat. Cant. The 

r>wD ; and after having dried them round- earM ihining Willow, 

the San, they burn them for their 7. Sklix folio iongo fublnteo^ mn 

Afhes, which are ufed in making of auriculato, 'vimnibus luteis. Rati Sjn. 

Glafs and Soap. Thefe Herbs are. The long-leavM yell6wi(h Willow, 

by the Coontfy.people, caird Kelp ; 8. Salix latifolia rotunda. C 

and are .promifcuouily gathered for S. P. Roond-leav*d Sallow. 

I'fe. 9. Salix latifolia rotunda ^arit" 

Froon the Alhes of thefe Plants is guta. The ft^ped Sallow. 

cztra£fced the Salt, called Sal KaR, 10. Salix latifolia^ folio J^Un-^ 

or Alkali^ which is much afed by ^V Sjn. Broad lhining-leaY*d SaU 

the Chemifis. low. 

The manner of 'gathering and It. Salix Orintaiih fiageUis di- 

faoming of thefe Herbs is already trfum fulcbrt pondtntiius. T. Or. 

mentioned under the Article of KaH ; The weeping Willow. 

fo I ihall not repeat it in this Place. i:;. Salix cafrea^ acuto kngofuM 

In feme Parts of England thefe folio, Raii Sjn. Mountain Willow* 

Herbs are gathered and pickled for with a long-pointed Leaf. 

Samphire, though it is very difiereot 1 3- Salix minimi fragilis, foliii 

from either of thefe. longijpmij utrinqm viridiSus non ftr^ 

SALIX, The Sallow, or Willow- ratis. Raii Sfn. Smooth long green« 

tree. leav'd Willow. 

The CiaraHers are I 14. Salix folio lougij/fmo. Cat. 

It hath amentacnus Flowers^ con* Cant, The Oiier. 

fifitng offnferal Stamina, 'which an 1 5. Salix humilior, foliis anguflis 

colU^tdintoaSpike^ hut are barron: fubcetruleis ox adverfi hinis. fLui, 

she Emhryoes ar$ produeod upon dif Sjn. The yellow dwarf Willow. 

ftreut Trees from the Male Flowers, 16. Salisp Al^na^ aini rotunda fo* 

and afterward become a Fruit or Hufi, lio, refens. Bocc, Muf Mountain 

fi>aped like a Cone, opening in t*wo creepiDg Willow, wiUi a round A1- 

ParfSf and containing downy Seeds, der-leaf. 

The Species are ; There are a greater Number of 

I. Salij; 'vulgaris alba arbor O" Species to be found in England than 

fcens. C/B.P. The cpmmon white are here mentioned, efpedally of 

Willow. the Sallows, as I have been in- 

z. ShLix folio laureo, feu tatogla- formed by a very judidoas Ba<^ 

Aro odarato, Phjt.Brit. The hay- iketrnuker: there are at lead 

leavM fweet Willow. thirty Sorts, which they difUngnilh 

3.'Salix folio longJi utrinqui^ <vi« by Name, commonly in Ufe in their 

rente odorato. The iQAg-leavM fweet Trade ; imd beiides thefe, there are 

Willow. ft great Number of mountain Wil« 

4. S A Lix folio hngo latofue fp/en» lows, which grow upon dry Grounds, 

dentin fragiUs. Raif Syn. The Crack and are cultivated as Under- wood. 

Willow. in many Parts of England, 

^. Salix folio amjgdalino, utrin* The firft Sort here mentioned is 

que aurito^ corticcm abjtciens. Raii the common white Willow, which 

Syn. The almond-leav*^ Willov*^, grows to the largcft Size of all the 

chat calls iu ?ark, " Sorts. The Shoots of this arc brit- 

4 I 4 tie. 

S A 

tie, fo arc not fit for the Bafket- 
makers or Gardeners ; but the Wood 
of this Tree was much efteemM by 
the Shoemakers for Heels of Shoes, 
being a light fmooth Wood :. fo thajt 
this Sort is only proper for fuch 
Plantations as arie defigned to grow 
tall, either for Shade or Shelter ; 
therefore is generally planted in low 
xuarlhy Lands, for that Putpoie. 

The fecond Sort (hoots very ftrong, 
but is not inclinable to grow to a 
large Size ; fo is chiefly planted for 
the Ufe of Ba&ct' makers ; the Twigs 
of this being pliable. The Leaves of 
this are as large as thofe of the Bay- 
tree, and have an agreeable Scent ; 
for which Rcafon ipany People plant 
this in the low wet Parts of Planta- 
tions^ vic'hfrc better Things will not 

The third Sort hath alfo an agree* 
able Scent ; fo is by many preferred 
in their Gardens and Plantations^ 
The Twigs of this are pliable, which 
renders them fit for the Baiket-mal^- 
ers and Qardeners. 

The fourth Sort is brittle, fo un- 
fit for Ufe. This grows to be a large 
Tree ; therefore may be planted for 
Shade and Shelter. 

The fifth, fixth, feventh, thir- 
teenth, fourteenth,, and fifteenth 
Sorts have pliable Twigs; fo are 
planted in the Ofier-grounds tor the 
jBaskec-makers ; bqt the thirteenth 
Sort is eftcem'd the beft. The Twigs 
of this oi^y be twifted about like 
Thread, being exceeding tough and 
pliable ; therefore thefe are the bed 
Sort for the Gardeners Ufe, and par- 
ticularly for fattening of Fruit-trees 
to the Efpalier ; fo that where there 
is Room and Conveniency, a few of 
thefe fhould be planted, becaufe they 
are very ufeful in a Garden. 

The eleventh Sort is not a Native 
of this Country ; but has been in- 
troduced of late Years from th(i/- 

S A 

va/ft, where it is a Native. The 
Branches of this Sort are very flen- 
der, and always hang downward i 
which occafion^d this Title of weep- 
ing Willow. This is very proper to 
plant at the Termination of Water, 
where the Head is defigned to be hid, 
and the Sight deceiv'd, by the Wa- 
ter being loll under the Boughs of 
the Willow. 

The eiglith, ninth, and twelfth 
Sorts are frequently planted in Cop- 
pices, for Underwood ; and are of- 
ten cut for Hoops, as alfo for make- 
ing Hurdle • fences about Fields. 
Thefe Sorts grow upon dry chalky, 
Lands, where few other Kinds will 

The ninth Sort is only a Variety 
of the eighth, having variegated 
Leaves, which in the Spring make 
a pretty Appearance ; fo is preferv^d 
in the Gardens of thofe who are 
curious in having Plants with varie- 
gated Leaves. 

The fixteenth Sort is of very hum- 
ble Growth, feldom rifing to be one 
Foot high. The Roots of this Rind 
creep in the Ground ; fo it propa- 
gates very faf^ in a cold moid Situa- 
tion. This grows plentifully in the 
mountainous Parts of ffa/a and 
Cumhirlandf as alfo upon the Alps ; 
and r have alfo received it from Da* 
vis^s Streigbts ; fo that I believe it is 
common in mod cold Countries: 
but it is difficult to get this to thrive 
in the South '; for where feme curi- 
ous Perfons have procur'd Plants of 
it from the Places of its Growchj, 
they have not been able to keep it 
many Years ; for it delights to grow 
upon Moors and Swamps, where 
the Soil is of a peaty Nature. But 
as this Plant is of no Ufe or Beau- 
ty, it is rarely prcfcr\*ed in Gardens. 

There are fevcial of the Sorts 
which are planted in the Oficr- 
grounds, and aLvayk kept lo'v, that 


S A S A 

when they are not cut down, and all the Filth and Weeds will be de** 

have room to grow« will rife to a tainM by the Plants, which will 

confiderable Height, and become choak them up. 

large Trees ; fo that they may be The beft Scafon for planting thefe 

planted for the fame Purpofes as the Cuttings is in February ; for if they 

firft Sort, and will make a Variety are planted fooncr, they are apt to 

when intermixM with it ; though peel, if it proves hard Froll ; which 

they are commonly cultivated for greatly injures them. Thefe Plants 

their Twigs, which are annually are always cut every Year ; and if 

cut, and produce good Profit to the the Soil be good, they will produce 

Owner of the Land. a great Crop ; fo that the yearljr 

All the Sorts of Willows may be Produce of one Acre has been oftea 

eaiily propagated by planting Cut* fold for fifteen Pounds; but ten 

tings or Sets in the Spring, which Pounds is a common Price, which is 

readily take Root, and are of quick much better than Corn-land i fo that 

Growth* Thofe Sorts which grow it is great Pity thefe Plants are not 

to be large Trees, and are cuiti- more caltivatcd, efpecially upon 

vated for their Timber, are gene- moifl boggy Soils, upon which fcvr 

rally planted from Sets, which are other Things will thrive, 

about feven or eight Feet long : thefe SALVIA, Sage, 

are (harpen'd at their larger End^ The Chara^ers are ; 

and thruft into the Ground by the // bath a lahiated fhvJtr^ eonftjl" 

Sides of Ditches and Banks, where ing af one Leaf, nuhofe Upfer-lip 

the Ground is moifl ; in which Pla- // fimetimes arched^ and fome- 

ces they make a confiderable Pro- times hooked ; hut the Under-lif, or. 

grofs, and are a great Improvement Beards is di*uided into thru Part$\ 

to fach Edates ; becaufe their Tops hunching out^ and not hollowed^ as 

will be fit to lop tvtry fifth or fixth the Clary : out of the Flovttr-ciffi 

Year. The larger Wood, if found, rifes the Point al, attended^ as it ^ert^ 

is commonly fold for making wood- by four ZmhryoeSy <which afternuard 

en Heels or Soles for Shoes ; as become fo many Seeds, ivhich arg 

alfo to the Turners, for many Kinds roundijb^ Jhut up in an Hujk^ nvhieS 

of light Ware. nvas before the FloiAiercup : to nvhick 

The Sallows are commonly plant- mny he added. That the Staminay««/- 

ed in Cuttings made from (Irong ^Ajbat refmhle the Os Hyoidis. 

Shoots of the former Year, and are The Species are; 

about three Feet long: thefe are i. Salvia major ^ an Sphacelus 

commonly thruft down two Feet Theophrajli. C. B, P. The greater 

deep into the Ground, and are one or common Sage. 

Foot above it. The Soil (hould al- 2. Salvia nigra, C. B, P, Com* 

ways be dag or plow'd before they mon red Sage, 

are planted, and the Cuttings plac'd 3. Salvia mnjor, foliis ex *uiridi 

about three Feet Row from Row, bf albo *uaritgatis. Boerh. lad. The 

and eighteen Inches afunder in the greater Sage, with Leaves variega- 

Rows; obferving always to place ted with White and Green, 

the Rows the floping Way of the ^. Shhw a foliis ^erfciloribus, C. 

Ground (fpcciaWy if the Tides B. P. Party-colour'd Sage, 

overflow the Place) ; becaufe if the 5. Salvia lat if alia f errata. C. B^ 

Rows are plac'd the contrary Ways, /*. The Broad-lcav'd notch'd Sage, 

6. Salvia 

S A 

6. Saltia latifoUa ferrata^ fo&it 
ex alho 'uaritgatis. Broad -'leaT'd 
Sage, with variegated Leaves. 

7. Salvia ahfinthium rtd^Um. J, 
S, Wormwood Sage. 

S. Salvia luhior aurita^ bf non 
mmrita. C. B. P. Sage of Virtue. 

9. Salvia mintr^ foiiis *vari€ga' 
in. H. R, Par. Sage of Virtue, 
with ftriped Leaves. 

10. Salvia Qrientaiis latifolm 
mhjinthium rtdoUnSj Jtore cameo ma^ 
gw. Burh, Broad -leav*d Eaftern 
^age, fmetlmg like Wormwood, 
with a large fie(h-co]oar*d Flower. 

11. Salvia Oritntalu latifolia 
hirfittTjpma nnfafa finna$a^ fore fcf 
emlyce furfmreis^ inodora, Boerb. lni„ 
EaitevD Sage, with broad hairy 
clammy winged Leaves, wkh a par- 
file Flower and Flower-cup, without 

1 2. Salvia Africana fruUfcem^ 
foli^feorodonitt^ fiore *violaceo, H, A* 

Shrubby African Sage» with a Wood- 
lage-leaf, anda violet-colour'd Flow- 

13. Saltia Africana f rut efcenSf 

JUi9 fwhrotwtd^ glauco^ fiore aureo 

m*gf». H. A, Shrubby African Sage, 

wkh roundilh fea- green Leaves, and 

m large golden Flower. 

14. Salvia Orientalls ahfinthium 
TtdolemSf foiiis pinnatis^ fore carneo, 
alatior. Sher, Eaftem upright Worm- 
wood Sage, with wing'd Leaves, and 
a flefh-cdour'd Flower. 

1 5 . Sa L V 1 A Hifpanica^ folio kmen* 
Ma. Tonrn. Spanifl^ Sage, with a 

There arc feveral other Species, 
or at leaft Varieties, of this Plant, 
which are preferved in Tome curious 
Botanic Gardens abroad ; but tbofe 
Yitr^ mentioned are what I have 
obferved* in the Englijh Gardens. 

The firft Sort, tho' the mod com- 
mon in many Parts of Europe, yet 
is but rarely to be fcen in the Lng^ 

s A 


U/b Gardens ; but the red Sort is moft 
commonly cultivated in this Coun- 
try, whidi many Perfons fuppofe to 
be only a Variety of the common 
Sort ; but it confUntly preferves its 
Difference when raifed from Seeds, 
as I have two or three times experi- 
mented ; fi> that I don*C icmple to 
make it a diftind Species, fince iu 
Difference from the common k 
much greater than in fome of the 
oiher Sorts of Sage, particularly the 
Sage of Virtue, and the Lavender- 
Ieav*d Sage; both which, when cul- 
tivated in a good Soil, are fo netrly 
alike, as not to be diftingnilhM by 
the beft Botanifb. This red Sage, the 
Wormwood Sage, and Sage of Vir- 
tue, are the principal Sorts coltivaced 
for Ufe in England i tho* the Broad- 
leav*d Sage is much preferable to 
the Sage of Virtue for Tea, it giving 
the Water a much more grateful Fla- 
vour, and is eileemed to be of a le(s 
drying Quality ; fo that moil Per- 
fons, who are Lovers of Sage-tsi^ 
prefer this for that Purpofe. 

All the Sorts of Sage, except tlie 
eleventh Sort, which is but annoal, 
may be propagated by planting Coc- 
tings or Slips, during any ef the 
Summer-months, obTerving to wa- 
ter and (hade them until diey have 
taken Root ; after which they nujr 
be ^ken up, and planted where thef 
are*defignai to remain, which fhonU 
always be upon a dry Soil, and where 
they may have the 6ene6t of tbeSon ; 
for if they are planted on a rooift SoiI| 
or in a (hady Situation, they are very 
fubjeft to be deftroyed in Winter ; 
nor will tliefe Plants endure the Cold 
to well, when planted upon a rich 
Soil, as thofe which have a banto, 
dry, rocky Soil, which is the Cafe 
of moft of the verticillate Plants. 
The Side (hoots and Tops of diefe 
Plants may be gathered in the Sum* 
m^T^ and dricdi if defigncd for Tai 


S A^ S A 


etherwUe they are beft taken peen . S^gmntSi mid fxpimJ in firm rfm 

ffOin thePlants for moft other Ufes. AA • thtfe ar$^ for tin meft part^ 

The twelfth, thirteenth, and foar- colleBed into an Umbel^ and ar$ fuc- 

teenth Sorts are fomewhat tender; cetdid hy fofi futcuUnt Bvrriu^ havr 

therefore th^Ce muft be planted into in^ three Seeds in each. 
Pocs filled with freih light (andy The 5^#riV/ are ; 

£ard& ; and in Winter muft be re- i. Sambucus fmSu in unAella 

moved into the Confenratory« where uifro. C.S,P." Common £lder« 

they ihoald be place^ as near the with black Berries. 
Windows aspoffible, that they may 2. Sambucus /mSn in umhella 

have a great Shareof freih Air when* viri£. C. B. P. Common Elder, 

ever the Seafon is mild ; for if they with greenifli Berries, 
are too much drawn, they feldom 3. Sambucus /ru£u alio, Loi» 

flower well, and make but an indif- The white-berried Elder. 
/erent Appearance : in Summer they 4. Sambucus racemofa ruhra, C. 

snuft be expofed amongft other Exo- £. P. The mountain red-berried 

tic Plants in fome wdl-fiieltered Si- Elder. 

toation; for they are pretty hardy, 5. Sambucus laeimato folio, C 

^d only require to be flieltered from B. P, The Cut or Parflcy-leav d 

the Froft, and ftrong Winds. Thefe Elder. 

plants mnft be often refreflrtS with 6. Sambucuj amlgaris^ foliis ox 

Water, efpecially in warm Weather, imteo*variegati4. The blotch*d-Icav*d 

otherwife they will (hrivel and de- Elder. 

cay^; and they fhould be tranfplant- 7. Sambucus homiBt, five Eln- 

ed at leaft twice every Summer, be- /». C. B. P. Dwarf Elder, or 

ciofe their Roots will greatly in- Danewort. 
creaTe; which, if confinM in the Pots The firft of thefe Trees is very 

too Jong, will turn mouldy, and de* common in the Hedees in moil Parts 

pay. The other Oriental Sorts are of England; but the fecoud and third ' 

hardy enough to endure the Cold of Sorts are more rare : theie are pro- 

mir ordinary Winters in the open pagated for the fake of their Berries, 

Air, provided they are planted in a which are by fome Perfons ufed for 

dry Soil, and a warm Situation. making Wine, and for other Pnr- 

Thefe Plants may alfo be propa- pofes. The fourth Sort is lefs com- 

fated by foxing their Seeds in the mon in England than either of the 

pring upon a Bed of freih Earth, former, it being only to be found in 

obierving to keep the Ground clear fome curious Gardens at prefent. 

frona Weeds until the Plants are come The fifth and fixth Sorts are preferv*d 

op ; when they ihould be tranfplant- for the Variety of their iMvts, by 

ea isto Beds of freih Earth, and fuch as are curious in colledliog the 
treated as thofe raifed from Cuttings various Kinds of Trees and Shrubs. 
or Slips. All thefe Sorts may be eafily pro- 

SALVIA AGRESTIS. Fido pagated from Cuttings, or by fowing 
Scordiam. their Seeds ; bat the former, being 

SAMBUCUS, The Elder-tree. the moft expeditious Method, is ge- 
The Cbaraaerjzre; nerally pradifed. The Time for 

TJ^o Branches are fM of Pith, planting of their Cuttings is from 
favimg hut little Wood : the Flowers , September to March ; in the doing of 
0rf taonofetalous, diy^dintp/ev^raf which, ti|Cre J^^ nQ mere Care 


S A 

thao to thrttft the Cuttings about fix 
Of eight Inches into the Ground, and 
tkty will take Root fad enough, and 
nay afterward be tranfpranted 
where they are to remain, which 
may be upon almoft any Soil or Si- 
tsation : they are extreme hardy ; 
9^ if their Seeds are permitted to 
fall upon the Ground, they will pro- 
duce Plenty of Flams the fucceeding 

Thefe Trees are often planted for 
jnaking Fences, becaufe of their 
^uick Growth; but as their Bot- 
idiTu become naked in a few Years, 
tttey are not fo proper for that Ufe : 
neither would I recommend them to 
be planrcd near Habitations ; becaufe - 
ot the Seafbn when they are in Flow- 
er, they emit fuch a flrong Scent, as 
^n occa£on Tiolent Fains in the 
Heads of thofe who abide k>ng near 
them : beiides, the crude Farts which 
are continually pcrfpircd thro' their 
Leaves, are accounted unwholfome ; ' 
too* the Leaves, Bark, ahd other 
Parts, are greatly cftecmcd for many 
Cfes in Medicine. 

The Dwarf Elder is found wild in 
fome Counties of £>/^/axr</; but near 
London it is propagated in Gardens 
for medicinal Ufe; tho* very often 
the Herb-women in the Markets give 
the tender Shoots of the Elder-tree 
inllcad of this, to fuch Fcrfons as 
can*t diflinguifh them afunder. 

This Plant multiplies exceeding 
faft by its creeping Root, which, if 
permitted to run, willfoonoverfprcad 
a large Spot of Ground: the OfT-fets 
of tbefe Roots may be tranfplanted 
any time from Septembtr to Marcb^ 
and will grow in any Soil or Situa- 
tion ; but (hould be allowed room 
to fprcad ; for if they are planted 
near other Plants, they will over- 
run and deftroy them. 

SAMOLUS, Round-IeavM Wa- 
ter rimpernc!. 

The CbaraSiri arc \ 

S A 

// hath a ijohetl'jhafei flower, 
eonfifting of mu Leaf, which Is cut 
int9 fenftral Segments : the Pointal 
ari/is frem the Emfalement^ and it 
fixed like a Naitin the Centre of the 
Flonveri nvhich, uniting tvith the 
Empalement, is turned into a Fndt or 
Fod^ opening at the 7op, andincUfieg 
many fmall Seeds. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; which is^ 

Samolus Voter anil, f. B. 
Round-leav*d Water- pimpernel. 

This Plant grows wild in fwampy 
Places, where the Water ufually 
ftands in Winter ; and is feldom pre- 
ferred in Gardens : ft is an annual 
Plant, which flowers in ynne, and 
the Seeds are ripe in Auguft ; at 
which tinie, whoever hath a mind to 
cultivate this Plant, ihould fow the 
Seeds on a moift Soil, where the 
Plants will come up, and require no 
farther Care, but to keep them clear 
from Weeds. 

The CharaQers arc ; 
The flower is inch fed in a Sheath, 
eompofed of tnuo o*vat concave Leagues, 
nuhich fall off : the Fhrwer hath eight 
oblong Petals, nvhich are alternaitlj 
narronv : thefe fpread open\ and in the 
Centre isjituated the Point al^ attend- 
ed hy Je-veral Jhort Stamina : tie 
Pointal afterward becomes an obhng 
f'welling Pod, opening both ivays, and 
including many round pointed Seeds. 

We have but one Species of this 
Plant; v/a;. 

Sancuinaria miner, f ore fmtUci, 
Hort. Elth. The fmall Puccoon, 
with a fingje Flower. 

There arc fome other Varieties of 
this Plant mentioned in the EUkam 
Garden ; but they are not didinA 
Species, for they vary annually ; 
therefore it is to no purpofe to men- 
tion their Variations. 

This Plant was formerly ranged ' 
in the Genus of Celandine, by the 

'1 ide 

S A 5 A 

IrUle of Chili Jonium maximum Cam- It will be pretty difficult to JMd 

den/e acaulou ; and this Name of San^ them, af:er their Leaves decay ; tor 

^winaria V/2LS applied to it by Dr. they are of a dirty-brown Colour oa 

Dilieuiuj^ who was ProfefTor of Bo- the Ootfide ; fo are not eafily di- 

tany at Oxford. We have no pro- flinguiihcd from the Earth, 

per Eaglijb Name for this ; but as This Plant is ytry proper to mix 

. the Inhabiunts of J/nerica call it by with the Dogs-tooth Violet, Sprio^ 

the Ltdian Name Puccoon, I have Cyclamen, Perjian Iris, Bulboco- 

continued it here. dium, Sifyrinchium, and fom^ other 

it '\% a Native of mofl of the low growing bulbous and tuberous- 
Northern Parts of y^/wfr/V^, where it rooted Flowers, which require the 
^rows plentifully in the Woods ; and fame Culture ; where thefe will add 
m the Spring, before the Leaves of to the Variety when they arc ia 
the Trees come out, the Surface of Beauty : for when the Roots are 
the Ground is in many Places cover- ^rong, and grow in a good Soi], 
ed with the Flowers, which have t^^y will produce a great Number 
fomeRefemblanceofoarWoodAne- of Flowers upon each Root: the 
mone; but they have (hort naked Roots msy be planted about four or 
Pedicles, each (upporting one Plow- five Inches afcinder every Way. 
er at the Top : fomc of thefe Flow- S ANGUISORB A, Burnet, called 
ers will have ten or twelve Petals ; by the Frtmb Pimpernel, 
fo that they appear to have a double The Chara/ttrs are ; 
Range of Leaves, which has occa- 7^^ Bmpmlement of the FLiver con- 
iioned their being termed double ffioftnnoLea*ves^nuhicbfallirwayt 
Flowers : but this is only acciden- fhg Flowtr is if one Leaf divided iu-^ 
tal, die fame Roots, in different '^ four Patts^ nvhicb are joined at 
Years, producing diiFercnt Flowers: the Bottom : the quadrangular Poin- 
the Roots of this Plant are tuberous, tal^ lubicb isjtiuatedin the Centre^ 
and the whole Plant has a yellow becomes afmall Capfule^ opening both 
Juice, which the Indians ufe to paint Ways, and inclofingfmall Seeds. 
themfelves. The S'/^r/V/ are ; 

This Plant is hardy enough to live i* Bangui so rb a nunor. C. B, P. 

in the open Air in England; but it Common Burnet, or Pimpernel, 

ihould be planted in a loofe Soil, 2. SANCuisdaBA major pratenfis. 

and a ihekered Situation, but not too Rupp. Flor. Great Meadow Burnet, 

much expofed to the Sun : it is pro- 3. Sancuisorba Canadenjts^fore 

pagated by the Roots, which may albo fpicato. Rupp, Flar. Canada 

be taken up and parted every other Burnet, with a white fpiked Flower. 

Year: the bell lime for doing of ^. Sakcvisokb a major, folHsau^ 

this is in September, that the Roots riculatisglabris. Great Burnet, with 

may have time to fend out Fibres fmoothear'd Leaves, 

before the hard Froft fets in. The 5. Sancuisorba birfuta, agri- 

Flowers of thit Plant appear in monia foliis. Hairy Burnet, wich 
jtpril; and when they decay, the • Leaves like Agrimony. 

green Leaves come out, which will 6. Sancuisorba fpif.ofay caule 

continue till Midfummer ; then th*y fru/ia/o. Prickly Burnet, with a 

decay, and the Roots remain un- woody Stalk. 

adlivc till the following Autumn: y.SAnGvisoRBA r/jajop\Hi/pwicat 

fo that unlcfs the Roots arc marked, congUmerato fare. Great Spani/b 


6 A 

Bttmec, with Flowers growing in « 
dofe Head. . 

8. San GUI SORB A minor, /emtrte 
majore i^ crafflare. Small Burnet, 
with a larger and thicker Seed. 

This Genas of Plants has been by 
fome old Writers titled Sanguifirba, 
by others Pimfinella ; and by fome 
both Titles have been applied to it : 
baft Dr. Unnaus has divided the Spe- 
cies of this Genus, to fome of which 
be applies this Name of Sauguifirba, 
and to the others Poterium : the firft 
Genas he places in his Oafs of TV* 
trandria, as they have but four ^/a- 
wuna in their Flowers : the other he 
places in his Clafs ofMonoecia Poiy^ 
andria, thefe having Male and Fe- 
male Flowers in the fame Spiice; 
and the Flowers have mBnyStamna: 
fo, by his Method, thefe two Gmera 
are feparated to a great Diftance : 
but as thefe Species have been al- 
ways brought undergone Genus be- 
. fore his time, I choi^fe to continue 
them together. 

The nrft Sort grows wild in many 
Parts of England, particularly upon 
chalky Land, where it grows fo 
fmaO, as to appear different from 
what it does when tranfplanted into 
Gardens. This is the Sort which is 
diredled by the College for medicinal 
Ufe ; and it has been ufed as a cool- 
ing Herb in Drinks i but of late 
Years the People cultivate it for Sal- 
lads: the young Leaves in the Spring, 
being mixed with other fiAall Her& 
in Sallads, give a vtry agreeable 
Flavour to them. 

The fecond Sort alfo grows wild 
in moid Meadows, in fome Parts 
of England. The third Sort was 
brought from the Northern Parts of 
Jmerica. The fourth Sort is a Na« 
live of the Mountains in Sa*v^, The 
feventh Sort grows wild in Spain and 
Portugal; and the eighth Sort in, 
Jftria and Dalmatia ; from whence 

S A' 

1 received the Seeds, which wer8 
procured for me by my much ho- 
noured Friend the Chevalier Rath* 
geL Thefe are all of them- hardy 
perennial Plants, which will eafily 
rife from the Seeds, if they are fowa 
on a Bed of common Earth in the 
Springs and when the Plants are fit 
to remove, they ihonld be tradf- 
planted into fields : the fmaU Sorti 
may be planted one Foot auinder, 
and the large Sorts two Feet : thefe 
Roots will abide feveral Years, and 
produce plenty of Seeds. 

The fifth Sort feldom lafts longer 
than two Years ; fo that when the 
Plants have peife6ted their Seeds, 
they foon after perifh: therefore 
whoever is willing to preferve this 
Species, (hould annually fow fome 
of the Seeds : this is hardy, and may 
be propagated in the fame manner . 
as the former Sort 

7*he iixth Sort grows with woody 
Stalks about three Feet high, which 
continue feveral Years ; and feads 
out many irregular Branches, whidi 
are fumifhed with Spines toward 
their Extremities : this Sort is not 
fo hardy as the former; fo (hoold 
he preferved in Pots, and flieltered 
from fevere Froft in Winter s other- 
wife the Plants will be deftroyed : it 
may be propagated by Seeds, as the 
former Sorts, or by Cuttings, whidi 
may be planted any time in Sum- 
mer : and if they are duly watered 
and fliaded, they will foon take 
Root i and may afterward be planted 
into Pots. 


SANICULA, Sanicle. 
The Cbara£lirs are ; 

It U an nmheUiferous Plants ^nhtfi 
Flower con/ijls of froe Leava fUad 
orhUularly ; hut aro gtntraUj hhit 
hack to the Centre of the Flower, roM* 
img on the Emfalcment, which it* 


S A S A 

tames a Fruit eomfos^d rf two Suds, Tiurn. Cyprefa-leaT^d LtTendcr- 

thmi are gibbous and frickiy on m/ COtcon. 

Sidij bmi plain on the other : fim€ of 5. Santolina repenst^f camefcem^ 

the FUnvers an alnjuayi barren, Toum, Creeepiiig and hoary L%- 

Tliere is but one Species of thh vender-cotton. 
Plant at prefent in England \ tfisc, ^' Savtoliv a /oliii minus ineoksK 

Sanicula officinarssm, C, B, P. Tonrn. Lavender-cotton with lefe 

Sanide, or Self-heal. hoary Leaves. 

This Plant is found wild in . 7. Santoliha /Ms Afinrt «/« 

Woods, and fliady Places, in mod rentihtu^ fiore anreo, Toum. Lavea- 

Tim oi England I bat being a me- der-cotton with dark-green Leaves, 

didnal Plant, may be propagated in and a golden Flower. 
Gardens for Ufe: it may be in- 8. Santolina foliis rori/marim\ 

creafed by parting of the Roots, any me^or, Tontn. Greater La vender^ 

time from September to March ; bat cotton, with Rofmary-leaves. 
it is beft to do it in Autumn, that 9. Santolina 'vermicnlata Cre- 

the Plants may be well rooted before tica. Toum, Vermiculated Laven- 

the dry Weather in Spring comes der-cotton of Candy. 
on: they fliould have a moift Soil, The firfl of thefo Plants is culti* 

and a fbady Situation, in which they vated in Gardens for medicinal Ufe ; 

will thrive exceedingly. as is the third, for furnilhing Balco- 

SANTOLINA, Lavender -cot- nies, and other little Places in and 

ton. near the City, by way of Ornament; 

The CbaraSers are 1 but the other Sorts are rarely to be 

It hath a gkbofe JUfcuUiu Flonuer^ found, but in the Gardens of thoie 

emjifiing of many Florets^ di'vided in* who are curious in Botanical Studies. 
to federal Segments^ fitting on thg Moil of thefe Plants may be colti- 

Embryo^ contained in the intermediate vatcd fo as to become Ornaments to 

. littlt Leanjes^ hollowed like a Gutter^ a Garden, particularly in fnull Bof- 

and a fquamous hemifpherical Empale- |iuet5 of ever-green Shrubs j where, 

ment : the Embryo afterward becomes if tkefe are artfully intermixed with 

a Seedf not at all^ furnijhed with other Plants of the fame Growth, and 

Down : to thefe Notes muf be added, placed in the front Line, they will 

Larger Flowers than thofo o/IVorm- make an agreeable Variety; efpe» 

nuood and Southernwood^ andaljo the cially if care be taken to trim them 

whole Face of the Plant. twice in a Summer, to keep them 

The 5//^i>/ are ; within Bounds; otherwife thek 

I. Santolina foliis teretibus. Branches are apt to ftraggle, and, 
Tiarw. Common Lavender -cot- in wcr Weather, to be borue down, 
ton. and difplaced, which renders thera 
^ 2. Santolina jfi?!*/ majore^ foliis unfighjly ; but when they are kept 
nnllofis (^ incanis. Tourn. Lavender- in Order, their hoary and different- 
cotton, with a larger Flower, and coloured Leaves will have a pretty 
hoary Leaves. EfFed in fuch Plantations. 

3. Saktohv A foliis efyc^ t/el /a- Thefe Plants may be propagated 
hin^e. Tourn. Green-leav*d Laven- by planting Slips or Cuttings of any 
der-cotton, withaScenf like Oint- of tlie Kinds during the Spring, which 
ment. fhould be put into a Border of fre(h 

4. Santolina foliis cuprejji. light Earth, and watered and fhaded 


S A S A 

in hot dry Weather, until they have die Ends of ^e Branches, which vt 
thken Root ; after which they will fmall and white, growing in Cla- 
require no farther Care, but to keep fters. Thefc are fucceeded by fpheri- 
<hem clear from Wteds till Autumn, cal brown Berries^ about the Size of 
when th^ fhould be carefully taken Cherries, which have very little 
up, and tranfplanted where they are Pulp ; but a brown Skin covering 
defigned to remain: but if the the Nut, which is round, black, and 
Oround is not ready by that time to hard. Thefe Nuts were formerly 
receive them, it will be proper to brought ioto England to make Bat- 
let them remain in the Border until tons f for which Purpofe they were 
'Spring ; for if they arc tranfplanted very proper, becaufe they never 
late in Autumn, they are liable to crack. The Skin which furroundi 
be deilroyed by a little Cold in the Nut, will lather like Soap, and 
•Winter. is ufed in America to waQi Linen i 

Thefe Plants are very hardy, and though many People fay it will bom 

if planted in a lean, gravelly, or it, when it is often ufed. 

^andy dry Soil, will continue many This Plant is propagated by Seeds 

Years, and refift the Cold very well : (which muft be obtained horn the 

but if they arc in a wet or rich Soil, Countries where they naturally grow; 

they are often deftroyed in Winter. for they do not produce Fruit in 

- S APIN DUS, The Soapberry. Europe) : thefe muft be put into fmall 

The CharnBeri arc ; Pots filled with frefh rich Earth, aad 

// hath a Flmuir^ tuhich, for the plunged into an Hot-bed of Tanners 

tnoft party is compofed •/ four Leases Bark. The Pots muft be frequendy 

txpanding in form of a Rofe : from watered, otherwife the Berries, whofc 

nvhofe.four'leanj^dEmpalement arifes outer Cover is very hard, will not 

the Pointal, which afterivard Becomes vegetate. In a Month or five Wceh 

a ^herical Fruity halving a thick o'tly the Plants will begin to appear. 

Confer, inclojing a Nut of the fame when the GlaiTes of the Hpt-bed 

Form, ihould be raifed every Day in warm 

We have but one Species of this Weather, to admit frefh Air to the 

Plant ; which is. Plants. In three Weeks or a Month 

S A p I N D V s foiiis cofia aht^e inna- after the PI an ts appear, they will be 

fcentibus!lnft. R, H, The Soapberry, fit to tranfplant; when they moftbc 

or Soap-apple-tree. fhaken out of the Pots, and carc- 

This Tree is very common in Ja- fully parted, fo as not to injure thcit 
tnaica, Barbados, and mofl other Roots, and each planted into a fe- 
Places in the H'^tji- Indies ^ where it parate fmall Pot filled with light rich 
jrifes to the Height of thirty Feet, or Earth, and then plunged into the 
jnore ; but in Europe it is prefervM Hot- bed again ; obferving to (ha^ 
by thofe Perfons who are curious in them from the Sun every Day, no- 
cultivating Exotic Plants, for the til they have taken new JRoot ; after 
lingular Structure of the Leaves, which time, they muft have free Ait 
vhich are very long and narrow, admitted to them every Day, whea 
having Borders on each Side, which, the Weather is warm ; and will ic- 
at about ^very two Inches, have quire to be frequently watered. 
Pinnay, or Wing«, oppofite to each After the Plants are well rooted, 
other, and terminated by an odd they will make great Progrefs fo a ^ 

one. The Flowers are produced at to hll thefe PoU with their Roots \\ 


S A 

A few Weeks time; therefore the^ 
moft then be Ihifted into larger Pots ; 
mnd as the Plants advance^ they 
ihoold be inured to bear the open 
Air bj degrees ; for if they are forced 
too mach in Sammer, they feldom 
live through the Winter^ I hare 
Ireqaently rais'd thefe Plants from 
Seeds, to the Height of two Feet in 
one Summer; and the Leaves of 
thefe Plants have been a Foot and an 
half in Length, fo that they made a 
fine Ap|)earance: but thcTe Plants 
did not furvive the Winter; where- 
as thofe which were exposed to the 
open Air in Jufy, and thereby 
ftinted in their Growth, oontioned 
their Leaves freih all the Winter. 
Thefe were placed in a Sto?e upon 
Shelves, where the Warmth was very 
moderate ; with which thefe Plants 
will thrive better than in a greater 

SAPONARIA. Fida Lychnis. 
^SAPOTA, The Mammee Sapo- 
. ta. 

Tbe Cbaraders ^ ; 
/f both a rofi'jhaped Fhwer^ ew* 
Jifing 9/ fe<veral Ltawn^ *wbich an 
fiacedin a circular Order \from nvbefi 
Empaiemint arifis tb§ Point al^ nubicb 
aftertward hecamis a*larwi oval foft 
fi(fbj Frmt^ inckfing an iblong pointed 
Simu or Fruity nubicb it finely polijb^ 
td^ having a rough Fiffure on one of 
the Edges ^ of an AJh^colour. 
The Species are; 
t. Safota fruQit turbinato mi- 
mori. Plum. Nov, Gen. Sapota with 
a lefler Fruit, (haped like a Top. 

z. Sapota fruSu ovato m/jori. 
Plsem. Nov. Gen. Sapota with a 
larger oval Fruit. 

The Name of Sapota is what thefe 
Frait are caird by the Natives of 
America ; to which fome add the Ap- 
pellation of Mammee : but there is 
no other N^me given to thefe Fruits 
by the Englijh^ Unce they have fct- 

S A 

lied in the Wefi-Indiee, fo Ar as I eta 

The hrft of thefe Trees is com- 
mon about Panama, and fome other 
Places in the Spanijb Weft-Indies ; 
but is not to be found in any of the 
Englifi} Setdemeuts in America. The 
feoond Sort is very common in Ja-- 
maica, Barbados, and moft of the 
lilands in the Weft-Indies, where the 
Trees are planted in Gardens for 
their Fruit, which is by many Per- 
fons greatly efteemed. 

Thefe Trees grow in America to 
the Height of thirty five or forty 
^exx, having a ftrait Trunk, cover- 
ed with an afli-coloured Bark. The 
Branches are producM on every Side, 
fo as to form a regular Head : thefe 
are befet with Leaves, which are a 
Foot in Length, and near three 
Inches broad. The Flowers, which 
are produced from the Branches, are 
of a Cream*colour ; when thefe fall 
away, they are fucceeded by large 
oval or top fhaped Fruit, which are 
covered with a brownifh Skin, un« 
der which is a thick Pulp of a Rufiet- 
colour^ very lufcious, caird Natural 
Marmelade^ from its Likene(s to 
MarmeUde of Quinces. 

As thefe Trees are Natives of very 
warm Countries, they cannot be pre-* 
fervM in England, unleis they are 
plac'd in the warmeft Stoves, and 
manag'd with great Care. They 
are propagated by planting the 
Stones ; but as thefe will not keep 
good long out of the Ground, ihe 
furell Method to obtain thefe Plants 
is, to have the Stones planted in 
Tubs of Earth, as foon as they are 
taken out of the Fruit, and the Tubs 
placed in a Situation where they may 
have the morning Smp, and kept 
duly waterM. When the Plants are 
come up, tbcy muft be fecurM from 
Vermin, and kept clear from Weeds; 
but ihould r^maia in the Country 

4£ till 

S A 

tin ixfut abouOa Foot h%h» wifea 
they may be Ihipp'd for Engltmd: 
but they ihould be broaght over in 
the Suxnmer-feafony and, if poffible, 
time enough for the Plants to m&ke 
good Roots after they arrive. Dtt- 
rmg their Pafikge^ they muft hUve 
fome Water, while they trbntinoe 
in a Warm Climate; but as thoy 
come into colder WcaAer, th^ 
ihould have little Moifture ; aiid 
they muft be fecured from fait Wa- 
ter, which will foon deftroy the 
Plants, ifit'getsatthem 

When thefe Plants arrive in £rff - 
iand^ they ihoold be carefully taken 
out of the Tubs, preferving fotaie 
Earth to their Roots, and planted 
into Pots filled with freih Earth, and 
then plunged into a moderate Hot- 
bed of Tanners Bark 5 obfcrving. If 
the Weadier is hot, to (hade the 
Glaffes with Mats every Day, to 
Tcreen the Plants from the Sun, un- 
til they have taken new Root; «b- 
ferving alfo, not to water theiki too 
ioruch at firft, efpecially if the £arth 
in which they come over is moiibs 
' bedaufe too much Water is very ia- 
jurioos to the Plants l)efbre they are 
well rooted; but afterward they 
mail have plenty of Water in warm 
Weather: and they mull have a large 
Share of A ir admitted to them^ other- 
wife their Leaves will be infeiled 
'withlnibAs, and become foul; in 

* which cafe they mod be waihed 
with a Spdnge, to dean them; without 
'which the Plants will not thrive. 

In the Winter thefe Plants muft 
be placM in the wartneft Stove; and 
in cold Weather they fhould have 
but little Water given to them, tho* 
they muft be frequently refrefhed 
when die Earth is dry ; efpecially, 
if they retain their Leaves all the 
Winter, they will require a greater 

■ Share of Water, than when they drop 
their Leaves : fo that this mult be 

« A 

^ne wkh-Difcretion, Mcordii^ to 
the State in whi^ the Plants ait. 
As thefe Plants gPdW in Magnitude, 
they Ihonld be £ifted into Pots of a 
larger Siae ; but they muft not be 
cver^potted ; forthat will infallibly 
deftrby them. 

SARRACENA, TheSidc^faddk 

Thb GbardSers are; 

// bath m Flower c^/Hug •/ ft- 
Viral Lmkfes, nohicb art placed cir- 
cularly^ nud ex fund inform of a Rtfi, 
Tond refttng in a many- leaved Evfate* 
ment : from tbi Mrddii arifa tht 
Pointalf njdbich is membfianacitgSf 
and fiafed lih^iui Hood, and^ir* 
noard bcthies « touHdiJb Frtdt itm- 
did intofiue Celh, wbicb emHOM A» 
kng Suds. 

The SpkcUs are ; 

1. Sarhacbh'a •CmBodevfisyfohis 
cavii^ auritis. Inft. R. H. G*m^ 
Sarriiceria,'wkh hollc^eai^ LAves. 

2. SARRACBNAy^/rVi lottgionbtu^ 
anguftieribuj. Catefb, Hijl. Car^* 
Long narrow*]eavM SarmceM. 

Thefe Itenge Plants are Natives 
of Nenv'EMgiand, Firginim^ aadle- 
veral Places tn /SK^r/i^ifaMrm, where 
they^ grow on Kogs, sad in fixch Pla- 
ces Where the' Waters tifiially fiaod in 
Winter. The Leaves of the 4iHl S6rt 
-arife from khe Root every Sprng, 
being eight 6r nine in Numbei; 
which are fmail at the Bottom, k>t 
fwell larger toward the Top, and 
^re hollow like a Pitcher ; bavkga 
fort of an Appendage at the Top, 
fomewhat relbmUing a Flap: ib 
that in thefe Leaves there is com- 
monly a large Quantity of Witer 
containM. Thefe are fevm or eigbt 
Inches in Length : between the 
Leaves arifes the i'lower- ftem,'whkh 
is naked ; and ^ach of thefe fuftaiof 
one purple Flower, growing on tke 
Top, which is facccedfd by a round- 
ifli Fruit, 

- . Thft 

S A 

the Lesves of ^he itcmkA Sott 
glow near three Feet Jiijh 4 -beiqg 
fmall at the Bottom, Jbut widening 
gradually to the Tqp. Thqfe are 
EoUow, and are arched ^ver^tt^he 
Mouth like a Friar's Cowl. The 
Flowers of this grow on -oaked Pe- 
difiles, riiing4rom the Hoot to 4he 
Height of three F«ec : thefe Flow- 
ers are green. 

Th&Name was given *to ^thie Pbuit 
by Dr. T^mnufrrty iniionour of Dr. 
SarraztJi, a curious .Bota^ifty who 
fent the Plant irom Cana^ |o Dr. 
^Ammef«rt at FarU, 

Jls thefe Plants jgroiv on B^s, it 
is very dii&calt to cultivate them in 
Englomd: for altho' the Winters -are 
mudi move fevere in the Places of 
their natival Growth» than theyjge- 
nerally are in Englaad\ yet «heif 
SiuBmers being much watmer, they 
thrive mo^i better, and produce their 
Flowers -aiMl Fruit aonualHy; whofie- 
as it is with great Diflkul^r they arfs 
kppt alive ibr a l^ear or two in Eng^ 
Umd ; affd they have 4>at y^t flower* 
•d ia this Counti^f as J couJd learn. 
By the Appearance of fome Plants, 
wiikh I Jeceiv^d from Ktfw-Eng' 
i4md^ which were taken i^p on the 
feme Spot, the two Sorts grow pro- 
mifcupufiy; bi)t whether they are 
only acddental Varieties, I cannot 

The only Method to obtain thefe 
plants i^, \o procvnre .them from the 
places of their Growth, and to havi^ 
them taken up with laige Balis of 
Barth to their Roots, and plaivted in 
Tubs of Earth ; which muft be con- 
fian^ly watered during their Paiiag^ 
other wife tliey will decay before they 
arrive i-aad there is little Probability 
of railing thefe Plants from Seeds : 
{o that young Plants fhould be taken 
up to bring over, which a:e more 
likely to ftand here, than thofe which 
IVive.flower'd two or three times. 

s A 

Wibea the Plants 4ire brought ovef> 
they, ihould be planted into pretty 
lar|^ Pots ; which ihoold be filled 
jwith ibft ^ngy Earch, mixed with 
rotten Wood, Mofs, and Tur4 
which is v«ry like the natural Soil ia 
which they grow. Thefe Pots muft 
be confiant^ {iipplied with Water^ 
and ^aced in a ihady Situation in 
Summer ; but in /the Winter th^ 
muft be covered with Mofs, ^r ihel* 
ter'd under aFraaie, otherwife they 
will xu>t live in .this X^otry ; tho* 
they have much mose fevere F'roA in 
the Coontries where they natural^ 
grow; -but there th^ ar« covered 
with Snow, whioh mfiyht ^vgseaf 
Prote^on to tthem. Withihis Ma- 
nagement I have kept fomc of theiiB 
Plants alive tWQ Years ; bat thc^r 
made very little Ptqgrie. 

SATUREIA, Savoty. 
The 0)ar4iSUr4 are ; 

Jt is a .PUnt rf tbi nartidllaH 
£ind^ *with a lahiatidFUwir^ <whofif 
4tfpir Lip (erCreft) is4UviM ivtp 
tnjoQ Farts ; .but the lowir Lip (^ 
Beard) is di'uided into tbrie F^rt$. 
the middle Fart being crenated : thefe 
Biavsen esre prodtsc^-d .from the IVings 
of the Leanjis^ in et ioofe Order ^ und 
met in Whorles or Spikes ^ ess are sncfi 
if ibis Tribe ofFUnts. 
The Spuies are ; 

1. SATURBiAy2i/iaur. y. B. Gar- 
den or Summer-£ivory. 

2. Sat u RE I A montana, C.£,F^ 

3. Satureia Virginiana, Far. 
Bat, Firginian Savory. 

The firft of thefe Plants is aanual, 
and is propagated by fowing the 
Seeds upon a Bed of freih light 
Earth in March i and when the 
Plants are come up, they muft be 
tranfplanted into other Beds, place- 
jng them about four or five Inches 
afunder each Way ; obferving to do 
this in moiil cloudy Weather, ,be« 
4 K z caufe 

SA ^A 

ttufe at fuch times the Plant will mddei^ The Flowers knd Fruit arefx- 

foon take Root :' but if the Seafon eel to one Axis, fo as to refemhU the 

ihould prove hot and dry, they muft Tttil of a Lixeeret, . 

be diligently watered until they have The Species are; 

taken Root j after which they will i. S a uru a us racemofus^ fen ho*' 

require no farther Care, but to keep trjite's major, Flvm. Nov» Gen, Great* 

them clear from Weeds ; and in July er branching Lizards-tail. 

they will flower ; at which time they 2. Saururus racesno/us^ feu ho- 

will be fit to cut for medicinal Ufe : tryites minor, Plnnt. Nov,Gen, Lefler 

but thofe Plants which are left uncut branching Lizards-tail. 

will produce ripe Seeds in ^r/ZftRr^rr, 3. Saururus cauda etiwacet, 

provided the Autuinn be favourable. Plum. No^, Gen, Lizards-tail with 

The Winter-favory is an abiding a crooked Tail, 
Plant, and may be propagated by 4. Saururus y^/rVi plant sigineiSf 

Slips or Cuttings 1 which, if plant- cauda breviori. Plum, Nov, Gen, 

ed in a Bed of frefh light Earth in Lizards -tail with Plantain - leaves, 

the Spring, and carefully watered, and a (hotter Tail, 
will take Root in a fhort time, and 5. Saururus hotryites major, Jo* 

jnay tlien be tranfplanted where they Hi* plantagineis. Plum, Nov, Gen, 

are to remain. There feem to be Greater clufler*d Lizards-tail, with 

two Species of this, difTering in their Plantain-leaves, 
manner of Growth, and alfo in the 6. Saururus foliis ampHi rotun- 

Size of their Flowers. This Plant dis ^ umbilicatis. Plum, Nov, Gen. 

fhould have a dry Soil, in which it Lizards-tail with large round ambi' 

will endure the Cold very well, as licated Leaves, 
may be feen by its growing in fome 7. Saururus foUis ampHs coria* 

Places upon the Tops of Walls, //i, non umbilicatis. Plum. Nov. Gen, 

whe e it clefies the fevereft Cold of Lizards- tail with large faeart-fhapcd 

our Climate. Leaves, not umbilicated< 

Thefe Plants were ahtiently more 8. Saururus procnmbens minor 
cultivated in England than at pre- botryifes^ folio camofi cordato, Plnm. 
fent, they being very little in Ufe to Nov, Gen, Smaller creeping dufler'i 
what they were formerly, when they Lizards- tail, with a flefby heart- 
entered mofl Difhes of Soups, &r. fhap'd Leaf, 
but at prefent they are vtrj little 9. Saururus ^i/tki httmilis, fiHo 
ufed in the Kitchen, being chiefly carnofofubrotundo. Plum, Nov. Gen, 
cultivated for medicinal Ufe. Low Lizards- tail, with a roundiih 

SATYRION. f7V# Orchis. flefhy Leaf. 

SAVINE. Fide Sabina. 10. Saururus repons, folio trbi- 

SAVORY. Fide Satureia. . culan, nummulan^ facie. Plum,No9. 

&AURURUS, Lizards-tail Gen, Creeping Lizards-tail, wkk 

The CbaraSers are ; a round Leaf, having the Appear- 

// hath an apetalous Flovuer^ con* ance of Moneywort. 
Jiping of /at* Chives , tvhich open t*wo li. Saururus repens trifhjUns^ 

nvaySf andare full of very fmallPow- folio rotuntU, Plum, Nov. Gen, Crcep- 

der for Farina) : the Embryo rejis be- ing three-leav'd Lizards- tail, with a 

tvueen tnxiO Chives, vchich aftervfcrd round Leaf. 

hecomoi an oval Fruit, inclofing a 12. Saururus caulicnlis maeoh^ 

fingle Sad: to tbcjo Notes muji be fis, repents Plum, Nov, Gen, Creep- 

S A 

tng Lizards-tai], with a fpotted 

15. Sav KU B,vs JrMtefinu, lattr^" 

' tirafifoIi§^ frnSu hreviore fsT 0^a/» 

Jhre. Hwft, Shnibbjr Liaards-tail, 

with a Laurel-leafy and a (horter 

and thicker Fruit. 

14. Saururus arborefiiiu iatifi* 
Ua viJk/a^ frmSu graciii, Houfl. 
Tree-like Uzards-taily with a broad 
hairy Leaf/ and a (lender Fruit. 

The feven Sorts firft - mentioned 
grow to be (hrubby, and riie to the 
Height of four or five Feet, having 
Leaves placM alternately on their 
Branches. The lulus comes out 
from che Wings of the Leaves, which 
is ihap*d like a Lizard's Tail \ from 
whence they had their Names. By 
fome they are called long Pepper, 
from che Refejnblance their Mi 
bear to the long Pepper ; but the 
Fruit of thefe are not nfed, nor have 
they the Tafte of Pepper. Thefe 
Sorts were difcover'd to grow in 
Jamaica^ by the lace Dr. Houftwn ; 
and fome of them are defcribed hy 
Sir Han$ Sloam^ in his Natural Hi- 
tory of that I (land. 

The eighth, ninth, and tenth 
Sores are Plants of humbler Growth : 
thefe trail on the Ground, and emit 
Roots from their Joints, which faften 
themfelves into the Earth where-ever 
it is loofe ; by which Method they 
fpread to -a great Diftance. The 
Leaves and Stalks of the ninth Sort 
are very thick and fucculent, and re- 
main always green. 

The eleventh and twelfth Sorts 
are creeping Plants, which fatten 
themfelves to Trees ; by which means 
they •rife to the Height of eight or 
ten Feet, faften their Roots into the 
Bark of the Trees, and recei^re Part 
of their Nourifhment from thence. 

All thefe twelve Sons were difco- 
ver'd by Father Plumitr in the IVefi- 
hdits^ who has figur'd and defcrib'd 

S A 

them in his Hiftory of Amtrhmm 
Planes ; but feven of them were be^ 
fore defcrib'd by Sir Harts Slaasie^ in 
his Natural Hillory oijasssaica. 

The two laft Sorts were difcover- 
cd by the late Dr. Houftouss at La 
Vera Crus^ from whence he fent 
Samples of them into England, Thefe 
two Sorts grow much larger than 
either of thofe before- mentioned. 

Some of thefe Plants are called, 
by the Inhabitanu of Jamaica^ Spa- 
niQi Elder, from their being jointed, 
and their Branches Raving a great 
deal of Pith in them. Others of 
them, efpecially thofe which have 
Leaves ihaped like an Heart, are 
calPd Bauta Maria Leaves. 

Thefe Plants moll of them grow 
in moift ihady Places, in the warmed 
l^arts o^Jaurieai where many of 
them root into the decayed Trunks 
of Trees, and rotten Wood (efpeci« 
cially thofe which trail), and there- 
by they propagate fader than by 
Seeds ; for as they emit Roots at al- 
moft every Joint, each of thefe will 
make a feparate Plant. 

But as thefe Plants are too tender 
to bdir the open Air in this Climate, 
they mufl be preferved in a Scove, 
where the Air may be kept in. a mo« 
derate Temperature for Heat & and 
if they are placed in the Bark-bed, 
and their Branches^ permitted to trail 
on the Surface of the Bark, the Plants 
will fend forth Roots at every Joint, 
and falicn themfelves flrongly into 
the Bark ; fo'will thrive exceeding 
fall, and produce their Flowers and 

The Seeds of thefe Plants, when 
brought from abroad, feldom fuc- 
ceed in England i fo that the moft 
proper Method to obtain the Plants 
is, to have fome of their Cuttings 
planted into Boxes of Earth, in the 
Countries where they naturally 
grow ; and when they are well root- 
4 K 3 od, 

6 A & A 

t^-, ^ty may he fent ovtr to Jf^f* Mf& tU^ep - imp^ inuariumdi/hTrtit^ 

landf with Dlrciftions given to the which has likeivife tw§ Horns, assd 

Perfons to whoib Care they are in* Mv^Ceilt^ nokich «fv ftsU if JmaS 

traftcd, HOC tor let them have too Sef^. 
much Water (efpecially when they TheSpeeiif an i 

come into a cod Cilimate).; beczxrid f. $a3Ii»iiaga rpimdifi/is aUm^ 

iWolftuit then will be very prejtidi- C. B. P, White roand^leav'd Saad- 

cial to them. They myift jdfe fee firage. 

carefully guarded againft the Salt- a*. Saxii^raoa tthosdifeiia mUm^ 

water, which \till inFalliWy dellroy fimrtflmt, Beerh.hd. Whiterooml- 

them, if it be fuflrered to come to leav'd*Saxifrage, with ar double Flow- 

fhem. When the Plants arrive in or. 

Bngland^ they fhould be carefully 5. SAjfiPRACii JHfinti trj^^tf 

taken out of the Boxes, and each Jhreeifruleo.Toum, Mountain beati* 

planted into a feparate fmall Pot fill- liiie Sengreen, with a blue Flower. 
cd with frc(h light Earth, and then 4. SAi£iPRAGA/idi/h/io,JhrgsilS$^ 

plunged into a moderate Hbt-bed multi^ora. Toum, Many - ilower*d 

of Tanners Baric; obferving to fhadd Saxi^age, with an HottfIeek-leaf« 

diem from the Sun at firfl, until and a white Flower, eomnoniy caU« 

they have taken Root; after which ed Pyramidal Sedum. 
time they fhould have fVefh Air ad* j. Saxivumqa /eJi fiiia MnguJH$r$ 

knitted to them, in proportion to the /errata, T$urn, Satifrago with a oar* 

Warmih of the Seafon ; but in Win- fow ferrated Houfleek-leaf. • 

, ter they ipufl be kept pretty warm, 6. Saxipkaoa adfiUm biMosgi^ 

otherwife they will not live in this rens. C, B. P, Sax'frage bearing 

Country. Btilbs at the Wings of the Leaves. 

The furefl Method to make thefe 7. Saxifraoa 'vema nnnua t^umi^ 

Plants thrive in £*fFA?«y is, to plunge h'or, Inji, R, H. Dwarf ^nringm* 

the Pots inro the Bark in the Stove, nual Saxifrage, commo:.i) oiU'd 

and to fufFer the Branches of the Rue-leav'd WhJtMwgrafs. 
creeping Kinds to trail on the Sur- 8. Saxifra > mujcofa^ trifidtfi* 

face of the Bed; where they will ho. Inft, R. H. MofTy Saxifrage, 

ilrike Roots into the Tan, and will with a trifid Leaf, commonly caird 

thrive exceedingly. Thefe Plants Mountain Sengreen^ or Ladies Ca* 

merit a Place in every Colledlion of fhion. 

plants, for their remarkable Leaves, 9. Saxifraoa tridn^Iites Alping^ 

and the fihgular Strufture of their pailiJe lutta. Inft, R. H. Mooa- 

Branches ; as alfo for the Oddnefs tain Saxifrage, of a pale-ycUow Ok 

of their Flowers and Fruit, which lour, with a Leaf cut into three Seg« 

are, for the moft part, product stents, 
from tbe Wings of the Leaves. 10. Saxifraoa tridaSyUtts Af* 

SAXIFRAQA, Saxifrage. pina minor (^ 'uilirfa, Inft. R. ft 

The CharaQtrs arc; Small hairy Saxifrage of theitf/** 

^hz Flo^^vcr confiftt of fs'vtral with a Leaf cut into three Sej-* 

X>fa<i;»s placed orhieulArly^ivbich ex* SientS. 

tiartJ inform of a Ro/e : out ofnvhoji li. Saxifraga aiha fitr^ 

*wultlfd F!^ivsr-cup rifes the Pcintaii Pon^, Inft, R, H, White Rock 

ivbich commonly ends in tnvo Horns, Saxifrage. 
H^frd fiffrivard (urns, fo^etbtr <with 13?; SaXifraoa feds fM^^ Pye** 

Saxifrage, with ft ikwcd Uoufkck.- 

15. Sax I FRAG A faJiis fuhtotMfu&j 
femuis. hift. R. M. Saxifrage wkh 
roundiili iawsd Leaves. 

14. Saxipkaoa Aipina^ fiJ^ filiit 
creMad*a/p€rh, hft, R. U. Saxi&age 
of Uw A^^ with rough notcbed 
Leaves Hke Houfleek. 

15. SAZipaACA yWfV# Mfngo^Tt' 
tim^s dent at Uy fltrihus compaSis* 
Rmi Syn. Sd. y. Saxifrage with an ch- 
loag-rouBiiiihiodeated Leaf, and the 
Flowers grov^in^ in dofe Bunches. 

16. Sax:vr.m;a mmtatUL fjyrwmi' 
JslA, jcUo UKgiorg. hifi. R. H* 
Moun*^ till pyraniidai Saxifrage, ^i(h 
a long Leaf. 

17. bAXiFRAGA Pynuaica luttq 
Tmnima^ juii fpliL dinjiffims congtjiis. 
/V R' ii' 1 rj- icaft yellow Pjrr/- 
«iuM Saxtf;age, with Houfleek- 
leaves grov/ing very dole together. 

18. Sax I FR AG A Alpina minima^ 
fitiis cttfiiiy dt^'fum incur^is, Inji,. 

R. //. The leall Saxifrage of th« 
^jM« with iky-coloarM' Leaves, 
which bend downward. 

19. Saxipraga Alpina luteal fidi 
fili; hji. R. H, Yellow Saxifrage 
of the J^s, with an Houfieek leaf. 

ao. Saxifraca Pyrenaica trida* 
aylUes laii/oUa, lift. R. K PyrtHfan 
Saxifrage, with broad Leaves cut 
lAto three Segments. 

21. Saxipraga CaMtatrica l^i- 

fo!ia tridaJylitis rigidhr. Ittft, R. 

//. £rOAd (Itff-leavM Saxifrage of 

Bifiay^ with Leaves cut into three 


22. Saxifraca tridaSylitet Pyre' 
tmUa, pailidi hiea^ minima, Ittft, R, 
M. The leaft pale-ycUow Saxifrage 
of the Pyrentis^ with Leaves cat into 
three Segments. 

23. Saxipraga Pyrenaica^ foliU 
fmrtim inttgris^ parlim trifidU, hft, 
R. Hp Pyremean Saxi^ge, wiih 

S A 

Leftvea pardy intin, and ptrtlj cat 
into three Segments. 

24.SAXIFRAGA Pyrenaica minima 
liUea^ mufio fimilis, Inft. R. IL The 
leaft yellow Saxifrage of the Pyre^ 
nean Mountains, refembling Mofs. 

2^. Saxifraga annua Cretica mi^^ 
nima^ ieMeracet /o/io. Tount, Cor, 
The leaft annual Saxifrage of Cam* 
dia, with an Ivy-leaf. 

26. Saxifraca Pen/flvaniea,Jlo* 
ribus mufiojis. Hort, Eltb, Saxifrage 
of Penfyhfania^ with greenifh Flow- 
ers, growing branchy. 

The fitft of thefe Plants is very 
cpmmon in moift Meadows in di- 
vers Parts of England^ and is rarely 
cultivated in Gardens. This is what 
the College of Phyficians have di- 
rected to be ufed in Medicine, undec 
the Title of White Saxifrage, to di- 
ftingttifii it from Meadotu Saxifrage ; 
which is an umbelliferous Plant, of 
a vay diffierem Nature and Appear- 
ance from this. 

The fecond Sort is a Variety of 
the firft, which was found wikL by 
Mr. Jofepb Blindy Gardener at Bams^ 
who tranfplanted it into his Garden^ 
and afterward diibibuted it to feve- 
ral curious Petfons ; fince which time 
it hath been multiply^d fo much, a$ 
to become a very common Plant in 
moft Gardens near London ; where it 
is commonly planted in Pots, to ad^ 
orn Court-yards, &r. in the Spring. 

Thu Plant is propagated by OfT- 
tttSf which are fent forth from the 
old Roots in great Plenty. The bcft 
Seafon for tranfpianting tbem is iii 
yuiy, after their Leaves are decayed ; 
when they mail be put into freih un- 
dung'd Earth, and plac*d in the 
Shade until Autumn ; but in Winter 
they muft be exposed to the Sun, 
which will caufe them to flowek' 
ibmewhat earlier in the Spring. In 
Jprii thcfe Plants will flower ; and 
if they ace in lar^e Tuiti, will at 
4K 4 . tha( 

S A 

that time make a very Baitdfome 
Appearance ; for which Reafon oi6ft 
People fufFer them to remain three 
or four Years unremov*d, and when 
they are tranfplanted, always plant 
them in Bunches, that they may pro- 
ddce a greater Number of Flowers. 
If thefe Plants are put into the full 
Ground, they muft have a fiiady 
Situation; otherwife they will not 

I'he third Sort is a low creeping 
Plant, which lies upon the Surface 
of the Ground, fomewhat like Mofs : 
this grows wild in the Northern 
Counties o£ England ; and is rarely 
cultivated in Gardens ; tho* it de^ 
ferves a Place better than many 
other Plants, which are treated with 
great Care; for in tbe Month of 
March the whole Plant is covered 
with fine blue Flowers, which make 
a beautiful ^pearance on the Sur- 
face of the Ground. This Sort mul- 
tiplies very faft, by its trailing Bran* 
ches, which put out Roots at their 
Joints, and may be parted at Mi^ 
fhae/maj, which is the proper Seafon 
to remove the Plants. This Plant 
mud have a ihady Situation, and 
ihould be duly watered in dry Wea- 
ther ; otherwife it will not thrive. 

The fourth Sort is propagated for 
the fake of its fpecious Flowers : this 
is brought from the ^/pj^ and Pyre^ 
nean Mountains, <where it grows 
wild. It is ufually planted in Pots 
filed with freih light Earth, and in 
the Summerfeafon placed in the 
Sliade ; but in the Winter it ihould 
be exf ofed to the Sun ; and all the 
OfF-fcts ihould be taken oiF, leaving 
the Plant fingle, which will caufe it 
to produce a much ibronger Stem for 
ilowering : for when there are Off- 
fets about the old Plant, they exhaufl 
the Nouri(hment from it, whereby 
it 18 rendered much weaker. Thefe 
Off^-fet» muft be each planted in a 

s A 

feparate Halfpeny Pot filled witk 
frefli Earth, in order to fucceed the 
older Plants, which generally perilh 
after flowering : thefe OfF-fets will 
produce Flowers the fecond Year i 
fo that there (hould be annually fome 
of them planted, to fucceed the 
others. When thefe Plants are firong 
and healthy, they will produce a 
Stem of Flowers full three Feet high, 
which divides into Branches in a py- 
ramidal Order, and are befet with 
Flowers from Bottom to Top, fo as 
to make abeautiful Figure: and as it 
ufually flowers in June^ it is com- 
monly placed in Chimneys of Halls^ 
where it will continue in Flower a 
long time, provided it have Water 
duly given it ; and will afford an 
agreeable Profpedl. 
. I'he fifth Sort is alfo a Native of 
the Alps^ but will grow very well in 
Gardens : and tho* the Flowers are 
not very beautiful ; yet, for the Va- 
riety of its ferrated ever- green 
Leaves, it may have a Place in every 
^od Garden. This may be propa- 
gated by Off-fets, and requires the 
fame Management as the former. 

The fixth Sort is a Variety of the 
common white Saxifrage, from which 
it differs in bearing Imall Bulbs at 
the Leaves. This is not common ia 
Euglandi but is found wild on tho 
Pyreman Mountains, and in other 
moiff Places in Spain and haJy ; and 
propagates very fiidl by the Bulbs; 
which grow on the Stalks in tho 
fame manner as the ^ry Lily. 

The feventh Sort is a low annual 
Plant, which ufually grows on tha 
Tops of Walls, and on dry rabbiiby 
Places, and flowers in Jfril. This 
Plant has been efteemed a very good 
Remedy for the King's- evil, and 
othqr fcrophulous Dtlorders. Mr, 
Beyle, in his Treatife concerning the 
Ufefulnefs of Natural Philofophy, 
ha; reco^unpidcd this Herb to ba 

S A 

tolbfed in fmatt Beefy and drank for 
iomt Da^s ; which he fays will core 
die Kiag*s-evil> without any ieofible 
Eocaation, by confuming the Hu- 
monr, mitigating the Pain, difcuffiog 
the Tumours, and drying up the Ul- 
cers. The Time for gathering of 
tills Herb to dry, is in the Middle 
^ Apriif when it is in Flower i for 
It foon after perftfU its Seeds, and 
dies away. 

, The eighth Sort grows wild in 
feveral Parts of Ywkjlnre^ and other 
cold Countries. This fpreads on the 
Surface (A the Ground, and forms 
iffelf into a roundifli Tuft, which is 
exceeding clofe and foft, and hat 
the Appearance of Mofs at a fmall 
l>iftance • from whence fome of the 
Country-people give it the Name of 
}4idy^s Cttihion. This Sort may be 
propagated in Plenty by its trailing 
Shoots ; which, if they reft on the 
Ground, will put out Roots, and 
multiply exceedingly. It loves a 
moift fhady Situation. 

The ninth* tenth, eleventh, fe- 
'ventcenth, twenty-fecond, andtwen- 
ty*third Sorts are alfo fmall Plants, 
which lie clofe to the Ground, fome- 
what likje the eighth Sort ; by which 
means they pr<}pagace tbemfelves 
plentifully; they ar« all hardy 
Planv, hciog Natives of the 'Alpt\ 
Pyremtei^ and other mountainous 
Places : they require to be planted in 
a moift Soil, and a ihady Situation ; 
for if they are too much expofed to 
the Sun, they will not thrive ; nor 
will they continue long, if they are 
planted on a rich Soil. 

As thefe Plants do. not produce 
very beautiful Flowers, tbey are 
feldom regarded; and are rarely 

flanted in Gardens, unlcfs by fome 
erfons who are curious in Botany, 
for the lake of Variety. But yet 
fbcfe Plants may be introduced to 
plant about Eock-workj or between 

S A 

the Jointi of rufiic Buildings, wheiv, 

if they are in the Shade, they will 

thrive very well, and have a very 

good Efied to the Sight : for theie 

will fucceed, where Mofs cannot be 

planted; and having fo much the 

Appearance of Mofs, will be by moft 

People taken for it at a fmall Di« 

fiance : and as thefe continue green 

throughout the Year, they will muck 

better anfwer the Purpofe. 

. The twelfth, thirteenth, four- 

teenth, fifteenth, and nineteenth 

Sorts have broader Leaves, and ap- 

pear ytry much like fome Sorts of 

Houfleeks. Thefe are very hardy 

Plants, being Natives of Northern 

Countries ; therefore they muft ba 

planted in. a (hady Situation, and a 

poor Soil ; . but they will grow on 

drier Places than the former Soru. 

Thefe Plants are eafily propagated 

by Off-fets, which they fend out in 

great Plenty, and may be adapted to 

the fame Purpofes as the former, to 

adorn Rock -work, &r. and will 

make a pretty Diverfity. 

The twenty -fifth Sort is an annual 
Plant, which was found by jyr. 
Tourmfiri in the Ifland of Crete^ and 
is by fome preferv'd for the fake of 
Variety ; but there is no great Beauty 
in it. 

The twenty 'fixth Sort was brought 
from PenJyhiVfia to Mr. Pettr Col* 
Unfits I who hath diftributed it to fe« 
veral Perfons wbo are curious in 
preferving rare Plants. This Sort 
hath long Leaves, which fpread on 
the Surface of the Ground ; from 
between which arife the Flower- 
ilems, which grow about two Feet 
h:gh, and branch toward the Top, 
bearing CluAers of fmall greenilh 
Flowers. This is propagated by 
parting of the Roots, and ihould be 
planted in a (hady Situation; where, 
if it is duly waier'd in dry Wearber, 
it will thrive and fiower vitxy Tear 


s c 

plMifiinf ; Mid- maf be ritoiNwd a 
Fkce in a (kfldy Border, fof Vau«ty- 

SCABfOSA, ScabiMs. 
Tic C^r0^«rr are ; 

Ir Aei^/^ a fl^cuhus FUwtr^ eon- 
jyHng rf many mtefual Fbrets^ cm- 

•ftimff^ nMck •ccupy tht Middle ^ fov 
€m$ iai» f$m* at fiw Segments ; the 
rtfi^ vihich art fUtced at the Edge^ 
an§ kiahiated: eaeh 9fthefefit on the 
^ef efan Embry^y tvmch is crowned i 
mid re teatainedin a froper BmpaU^ 
«m#» ^ohlch aftevward becomes a- 
Caffmie^ either Jsmfie^ or ftmnel-Jhap' 
ad^ fregnant tvith a Saed cronjon^d^ 
mfhieh before nnas the Embryt, 
The Sfecies arc ; 

I. SCABIOSA fratenfa hirjkta, 
mmr o^inarmm, C.B,P, Comnon 
field Scabious. 

z. ScABioSA integrifoHa glabra^ 
^adieepTirmor/a. H. L. Whole-leav^d 
Scabious, or Dcrirs-bk. 

3. Sc A B I o s A flellata, foRo non dif* 
f€a9. C B. P. Starred Scabious, 

wicb an undivided Leaf. 

4. Sc A BIOS A ftellata^ fotio lad* 
mmto^ major. C. B, F. Greater 
larred Scabious, with a cut Leaf. 

^. Scab I OS A feregrina rubra, ca^ 
fiimU obloHgo, C. B. P. Red Indian 
Scabiou}, with iongifli Heads^ com- 
aonly called Muflc ScaUous. 

6. ScABiosA peregrina, cnpituh 
Mango^ fiore ceimco. H, R Par. In- 
dimn or Muik Scabious, with longifh 
Heads, and rfkfh-colourM Flower. 

7. Sc A BIOS A peregrina f cnpitulo 
ahUngo^ fiore atro pnrpnreo. H. R, 
Par. Indian or Mu(k Scabious, with 
loDgKh Heads, aiKi a dark - purple 

8. ScABIOSA, prregrina, rapttulo 
ahiongo, fiore f^jariegalo. II. R. Par, 
Indian or MuOc Scabious, with ob- 
loog Heads, and a variegated Flow- 

s c 

Bdinh. Bsdiaa clildiag Scabioes. 

to. Sci^MO< A AfiicanafmltofBim. 
Pae^.Bai.k. 4^rMmi fhni^ S». 

1 1 . ScABfOfrA Afneama fintufeem^ 
fika rigido fpUadente ferpoto^ fiore «/- 
hicaate* H, A. JfHeam (hnibby 
Scabious, witb aflnff (biniiig fenated 
Leaf, and a whi^ Flower. 

12. ScABiosA Alpina^ fioiio com* 
tauroi majoris, C. B, P. Alpine Sca- 
bkxM, wkh a greater Ctetaaiy-^ 

15. ScABiosA fimtiamms laiifdia 
aUfa CKP. While bfoad-leavM 
fbrubby Scabiow. 

i^. ScABiosA /hsHeaaj MJ^ 
fioribm esd carrttinm incliaamtibos. 
CB.P, Broad-le^vM flinibby Sca- 
bious, witb Flowers i«diBiiifi[ l» 

15. ScABrosA^^»#^^mr/ni|^^/li^ 
Xa alba. C B. P. Wbice DanenF* 
kavM (hrubby Scabious. 

16. Sc A Bros A muki^idofo^Oyfitn 
fiofvefienie. C. B. P. Scabious with 
a varioufly -divided Leaf, and a yd* 
lowifli Flower. 

17. ScABtosA mont ana glabra, Jo» 
ms/cabiofet vulgaris. C. B, P. Moon* 
tain fmooth-lehvM Scabious. 

id. ScABiosA moatana ktifih 
non lacimata, rubra bl prima. C. B, 
P. The irft red broad leavM mooa- 
tain Scabious, not jagged. 

19. ScABiosA laiJfolia rmbra mo 
ladniata, fecsmda. C. B. P Tfca 
fecond red broad-leavM Scabioas, 
not jagged. 

zo. Sc A BIOS A argentea anga/ltft^ 
lia. a B. P. Narrow filverleav^d 

21. ScABtosA Sienla fraiiedns^ 
laureolit folio y fmbtus ineano. hf. R- 
H. b hrubby Sicilian Scabious, with 
a Spurge-laurel-leaf, hoary under- 

22. ScABiOSA fi-Htefcensy pbit 


so s c 

$€ahicii9^ widr Siookgilly - flower^ /ira, H, Par. Amuial proli£Br4>iit 

ures. fiarred Scsbious. 

s^. ScAB«08i^ GrHiea frwtrfam^ 55. Scasiosa OrUniidu fidUtm^ 

icuLe nrfi folh. Toum-. Gor% fiHu '9ariisjfior$ carn§o^femiJUfcuUs 

Shrubby Qan^ Scabious^ widb a fiormnfiTnbriatu. EaftorofiarradSoi* 

BearVear-kaf!. bioos, witb variable Leaves^ and a 

24. %ah%\^%hfhaej€im^foUi$i^ flefli'CoIour^d Flower, wk^e Hali^ 
^^ inttgris^ ft^rt ectrmk^. Boerly* fiovets are fringed. 

JmI. rhrobls^ ScabiottSy witb lfa« The fiiA Sort ben aitntioiied 

lower Lifti^CA istire^ aod » blut grows wild in divert Parts of EHg* 

Flower. /om^ upon arable Land; a« dotb 'cb« 

2^. ScABios A pertnnij Sitnla^ fltn fecood in Woods^ and fiiady Places^ 

Jmifhurt9. Botrb, Ind, Pcrensiall ^i- almoft every-wbere. The firft of 

nUun S«abioni^ wkb a brimfloiie* thefe is wbat the College of Pbyfi- 

tolotir'd Flower. cians have diredcd to be ufed^ under 

26. ScABf orA Jhiimta Jrntrfemn^ tbeTide of Scabioaa» tho' the Peo*- 
Imtnufuliominori^mtmakeramttrma pie who ibpply the Markets gcneie 
hdf<?. Fhr. Bat. Shrubby ftacry*' rally bring the fecond Sore inilcai 
fieeded Scabiovn^ witb a fmaller thereof; but it may be eafily knowm 
St^kgillyflQwer-leaf. therefrom by its bairy divided 

27. ScABJosA Afriiatia fruiifctns Leaves. The fecond Sort the CoL- 
maxuiut^ fiiris ruwfis iff crtnatis^ lege have direded to be ufed un« 
mifior. Par, Bat, 6reatefl fhrubby der the Title of DtviU-bit ; which 
African Scabiou*, with rough and I^ame it received from the lower 
bfs notched Lewes. Part of its Root being commonly 

25. Scab 10s A Afticana/rut^fenu eaten off. 

wtaximayfiUis tenuiffimeincifii* Boerb^ Both thefe Plants are very com* 

itJ. alt. Greateil fhrubby j^rkan mon in the Fields aod Woods $ but 

ScabiooSp with Leave»^ y^xy £nely may be propagated in Gardens, by 

jagged. fowing their Seeds in the Spring ap« 

29. Sc A BIOS A abiJjUma amiia^ fo' on a Bed of frefh Earth ; and when 
Uis agrimmi^ nonmbit fimilibm, H. the Plants are come up, they mull 
£. The talleft annual'ScabiottS) with be tranfplanted, into other Bleds of 
I^eaves fomething Jike that of Agri* frefli Earth, at about eight or tea 
mony. Inches Di(bince ; observing to wa* 

30. ScABiosA fraxinell/e fiUis. ter them until they have taken Root; 
Jiifi. R. H. Scabious with white after which time they will require 
Dittany -leaves. no farther Culture, but to keep 

^i.ScABios A virg^pa/ioHs/oIh. them clear from Weeds; and the 

C B. P. Scabious with a leiler Tea- fecond Summer they will flower, and 

fd-Ieaf. produce Seeds : but their Roots will 

32. ScABiosA Lsifiiamcaf Ltdic^ abide many Years, and may be part* 
fimiUs, Inft. R. H. Portugal Scabi- ed to propagate the Species. 

i>as, like the Lulian one. The third Sort will grow to the 

33. ScABiosA ^///^/ii Hijpamca^ Height of four or five Feet, and 
amplijffimo folio. Lift, R. H, Sfamflo have a woody Trunk : this is pre- 
Aarr^ ScabioQS, witb a very large ferved in Green houfes in Winter, 
hp9ii. by fuch as are curious in foreign 


s c 

yimts. It m^ be propagated by 
pUncing Siipe orCattings in Pots of 
frefh Bartb, daring any of the Sum- 
Bier-momi» ; which, if placed in a 
Moderate Hot^bed» watered and 
Aadedy wiU take Root in a fhort 
ct»e ; after which they may be in- 
vred to the open Air by degrees, in- 
ta whicb ibey fltould be removed to 
continue abroad ontil Odnber^ when 
tkey mail be -carried into Shelter ; 
bi»t maft have as much free Air a» 
jpoffible in mild Weather ; for they 
oolyreqsire to be protected from 
ftard Froft, and frequently watered. 
This Plant produces Flowers moft 
Yiart of the Year, for which it is 
^jiiefly preferred ; tho* the Flowers 
IkaTe not more Beauty nor Scent than 
the common Field -fort. 

The fourth Sort vs an annual 
Vfont, which is pre(erved in the Gar- 
dens of the Curious; but the Flow- 
ers of this are very like thofe of the 
fcrmer Sort, and have no Scent. 

The hdiau or Muflc Scabious*s are 
pre&rv'd for the Beauty and fweet 
Scent of their Flowers, which con- 
tinue a fong time, Thcfc are pro- 
pagated by fowing of their Seeds ; 
the bed time for which is about the 
Latter-end of AA«y,. of the Begin- 
«ing of jMHt, that the Plants may 
get Stf ength before Winter ; for if 
they are fown too earlyin theSpring, 
they will flower the Autumn follow- 
ing ; and the Winter coming on 
lbo», wfl> psevest their ripening 
Seeds : beiicfes, there will be fewer 
Flowers upon thofe, thin if they had 
frnMkHTed ftrong Plants thro^ the 
Winter, and had fent fortb their 
Ftower-ftems in Spring ; for thefe 
will branch out en every Side, and 
produce a prodigious N mber of 
Flowers, and continue a Succeflion 
of them on the fame Plants from 
Jwne loSfftfmhr^ and produce good 
Setd& in Plenty. 

s c 

The Seeds of thefe Plants, fhodl 
be fown upon a ihady Border of 
frefh Earth (for if they are fown up* 
on a Place too much expo fed to the 
Sub, and the Seafon ihould prove 
dry, few ofthem will grow). When 
thePlants are come up, they may be 
tranfplanted into other Beds or Bo^ 
ders of freib Earth, obferving to 
water and (hade then antil they 
have taken Root ; after wfiicb they 
will require no farther Care, hot to 
keep them clear from Weeds till 
Michatltnas^ when they may be 
tranfplanted into the Middle of die 
Borders in the Pleafare • garden f 
where the feveral Sorts being iotcr- 
mix'd, will make an agreeable Va« 

They are extremely hardy, be- 
ing rarely injured by Cold, unkfi 
they have (hot up to flower before 
Winter ; but feldom coacinoe after 
ripening their Seeds. 

The; two African Tree Scabioos*! 
are abiding Plants, whicb are pre- 
ferved in Pots, and hoofed in Win- 
ter, as the third Sort : thefe may be 
propagated by. Slips or Cuttings, as 
the thir(l, and i^uire the iame Ma- 

The twelfth Sort is preferved by 
fuch as are curious in coUeding Va* 
cieties of Plants ; but the Flonren 
have no Scent: hpwever, as it is aa 
hardy P!ant, requiring no other Cul- 
ture than the common Field Sort, it 
nay be admitted, for Diverfity, m- 
to the Pleafure-garden ; becauie it 
will thrive in fhady Places, where 
lew other Plants will^ow. 

The thirteenth, fourteenth, &• 
teenth, fixteenth, feventecatb, e^h- 
teenth, nineteenth, twentieth, twen- 
ty-fourth, twenty-fifth, chirtieth,aBd 
thirty-£ri Sorts are all of then 
abiding Plants, which are hardy 
enough to live in the open Air la 

s c 

EngUM ; fo may be managed at 
hatn been direaed for the common 
Sorts of ScabioQs. 

The twenty-firft, twenty-iecondy 
twenty - third, and twenty • fixth 
Sorts, are alfo abiding Plaoti ; but 
'are fomewhat tenderer than thofe 
before- mentiooM : fo ibme Plants 
of each Kind Ihoaid be kept in Pots, 
tiat they may be (heiter*d hi Winter 
vnder a common Hot- bed -frame \ 
and the others mnft be planted in 
warm Borders, otherwife they wiH 
not live thro^ the Winters in this 
Country : and if the Soil in which 
Ihefe ^are phinted, is poor and dry, 
they will grow Ainted, and bear the 
Cold mucb tetter, than thofe which 
are planted in a rich Soil, and grow 
freely. Thofe Plants which are in 
Pots, and are placed in Shelter in 
Winter, maft have as much fwt Air 
as poflible in mild Weather ; other- 
wise they will draw up weak, and 
appear v«ry unfightiy ; (o they 
flioirid only be covered in very hard 
Frofis, and continually exposed when 
the Weather is mild. 

The twentyfeventh and twenty* 
eighth Sorts were brought from the 
Cape of Good Hope ; fo are more ten- 
der than the former : therefore thefe 
sttuiV always be kept in Pots, and in 
Winter (hoald be placed in an airy 
Glafs-cafe, where in mild Weather 
» they may have as much free Air as 
poflible ; they ihonld be frequently 
jvater'd, for they are very thirfty 
Plants. In fevere Froft they muli 
be carefully guarded ; but they will 
bear a little Cold pretty well. 

All the flirubby Sorts of Scabious 
may be propagated by Cuttings, 
^'hichmay be taken off during any 
of the Summer months ; and (hould 
bepbnted in a Ibady Border, and 
daly waterM in dry Weather, which 
will promote their taking Root; and 
then they may be potted, and placed 

s c 

in a fliady SitmftioR, tilf they J^Mfm 
taken new Root s a^ which tin* 
they may be pUced amongil other 
liardy Exotic Plants, in a i&ehier*d 
Situation, where they may remain 
until the End of Oa^r^ when tfaef 
muftbe removed iotoSheker. la 
fome favourable Seafons thefe Planes 
will produce good Seeds in Engiemii 
fo that the Plants mv^ be raiM 
from thefe, by-fowing thtm in wm 
open Rorder of light Earth aboa 
the Middle of Mareb ; and if chs 
Spring (hould psove very ^^ it will 
be aeceiTafy to water rheOronad 
now-and-thcn, which will forwaid 
the Vegetation of the Seed i ib chat 
the Plants will appear in aboot thivc 
Weeks aiier the Seeds are Town. 
When they come op, ihey muft hm 
kept clear from Weeds, and ui dijr 
Weather duly water'd ; and whea 
they are ftrong enoagh to craniplaii^ 
they (hoald be planted in Pots, and 
managed in the faaie manner aa 
thofe Plants which are propagated 
by Cuttings. 

I'he twenty-ninth, thirty-iiBcond. 
thirty third, thirty -fourth, and thir- 
ty • ^ffh Sorts are annual Plaoti; 
which are only propa^ttci by Seeda. 
Thefe may be managed ia the ikmet 
manner as hath been diredcd for tha 
Indian Scabioiis's. 

Ail the Sorts of Scabious ooatinac 
a long time in Flower, for whicb 
they are regarded ; for there is no 
very great Beauty so many of ti»eir 
Flowers : but as moft of the liardy 
Sorts produce Flowers near three 
Months fiicceiiiveJy, tbey siay be 
allowed a Place in the fiorden cf 
large Gardens, becaufe tbey feqaiia 
very little Caic to cultivate thenu 
And as the (hrubby Kinds continue 
in Flower moft Part of the Year, 
they make an agreeable Variety 
amongft hardy £^otic Plants ia 


s c 

to Venuf-^OB^. ' 

it haib a rvft^fitafid vaA»Uaied 
Fhwtr^ -nnfiJHng of ftfuirml Fttait^ 
n»bUh mm rmigid ^hictdanfy, and 
rsft 0m th€ EmftUtmnt \ mahitb in* 
tamis a Jrmit att^^ng tf twao ^nris^ 
hofuing i^ufo ^Me, ^icb rrftmbU m. 
The Species are s 

1. ScAKSix/riarM rvfiratv^ mtd'- 
^aris. C. B. P. ComaMQ Shep- 
lierds Neodle^ •with .beaked Seeds. 

2. ScA^Dix Creiieam^r, €. S* 
P. Great Shepkerds Needk ofCr#//. 

9. ScAKDiz Qretita muor, CJB.P. 
Smaller Shepherds i^eedle of Cr^r. 

4. ScAKi>ivX Orienialii^flore mO' 
mmm, Totpn. Car. dBatarn Sfaep- 
kesds Needle, wirii a very krge 

The firft of thefePIants grows 
wild amongft Coniy in moft Parts of 
Engiand. The feeond and third 
Sons grow wild in the Jiland of 
Candiai and the fourth Sort 'was 
difcovered by Dr. ^^ant^wi in the 

Thefe Plants are.pKferv*d by the 
Carious in Botany » ^or the fake es^ 
Variety ; but ace feldom admitted 
into other Gardens. ThePruit of 
thefe Plants, having Beaks greatly 
fefemblingGiane^Bills, may be taken 
for them ac a fmallDiihince ; but 
being ranged fomcwhat like the 
Teeth of a Comb, occafion'd the 
Kame given to it. 

They may be propagated by Seeds, 
which -ihould be i'own in Aotamn, 
foon after they are ripe, in the Place 
where they are defign*d to remain t 
which fhould be in a (hady Situa* 
tion ; and when the Plants are come 
up, they will require no farther 
Care, but to keep them clear from 
Weeds. In May the Plants -will 
flower, and in the BeglaaiDg x^ijuiy 

s c 

die|r iwdl 4peifea their ^Saeiis, ^ 
Ao««6er deeaar. 8«t if their Seofe 
are permitted to fcattv, the Plants 
will come «p wiAoot any jnaoncr of 
Case, ajMl beoome WcmU in 4he 

8CI1.LA, Squills. 
The Cinattaaerj asei 

// baik a Imigg^ mtrH ^Mim 
:ftM<, iibe an Omm : the Imrw mt 
ip$ad: ibe FUwerv aw like thefe ^ 
Qmitbogedumf or ^tbi Starnf Mj^ 
eintb: they.gne^v tsr.^ Jeag Sfike^Mad 
€ame ^ut H^eretiye Leanns^ 
The ^peefes*ne,i 

I. ScihLn *tmlgarh^a£40 ruhth 
C S. (P. iCommonired Squill. 

«2. SQihhei radke alba, C. B,P* 
The white SqoiU. 

Tiiefe Plants are verycoranea 
upon the-fandy Shores of ^^«, ani 
the Levant i tfrom whence thetsRoso 
are annually «brou^. to England, kf 
onedicinal U(e : -but altho' dide 
•Roots are brougbt^over chisfiy for 
Biediatnal Ufe, yet are they woni^ 
of being cultivated in levecy good 
Garden, for the Beaiity of their 
Flowers ; which make a veryhud^ 
ibme Appearance when Chey ut 
flrong Roots. 

I'he befl time to tranfplant thefir 
Roots is in May, when their Letves 
are, decayed : and -if the Roots aie 
brought from Abroad, if they oa 
he procured 'firm at that Seafon, er 
a little after, they flioold be plsoi* 
edin Pots of light.^tindy Earth, ani 
placed in the Windows of theGrooh 
hotife ; where, if they aie Uoi«ia{ 
Roots, they will {flower the Jtlt 

Theie Plants muft be preferred ia 
Shelter during the Winter - fesfim 1 
becaufc, if their Leaves are deftroy*i 
by Froft in Winter, the Roots ait 
fubjcfl to perffh : but in Samotf 
they fhottld be exposed to xhe opea 
Air, and iu dry Weather moft be 


s c sc 

fjc^uwii t^r writerHJ i ^ifcmSbf ^- 9. Sol mom <Mnrhi^, fiih ^ 

csog tile Sccicm dwir I^tm tic «», #««rV«r fimt^fimo, imtwfttrfmrwfiimtf, 

%r fbat they ^mm hi Fbim' : i»iit T. Otr. £aiem 'Clary, ««Mi n 

<«viB0n tke Rdcpa «re m ft State 4f 'ifavrp •poimbiifieCDiiy -)1^, ^Ml H 

'RBft, i3M)r.iflMciid iittVB but httle ^^tfo^lifli Top. 

Moifionc ; -fbr Wttvtiihac time will 40. Sglihiva frmim/lt^ fitA fir^ 

TOt rboD. n^ we |>M«ty'ba9dy» ^r«i#ir, ,/ft»v ySr^Miv - mAme, fMnr. 

ad <m1y tb^iie to 4»e flitlttrM MnnbwOlary^icb^iiMVfted-Lcavfe^ 

Awn ixMTd (Pmft ; 'bitt tnoft teie as «nd a ifik*vtA Ffowor. 

insoh fi(«e Air u |K)ftk id «pm The coomieii "Gflrtkn "Clwy ^ 

£CL ARE A, ClMy. ^cnl XMe ; botthe ociicr Sorts ut 

^ f/ a^trtkiii/itt^Bkmti'wM a Me of Variety, ^rnkxh 'tnufy >oilier 

iabUsMFiw>ir, Mmfifiiitg'^fmHhikf^ ^Sorto-cff Itffs !Note : lio>«FeT«r,<tMb 

^nf ihrUnder^f (^Bennd) is^^ in large Gardens, where, if they Ji^ 

^riM fnt9 ibrte Fkurih ^hi miMt imftrmix^d Among Other Itrge^fmvr- 

Segmint Mi9g^Mw mi ^Md: Mr ing Plants, they wiU aiFord a'piei^ 

9f thtFlvwer-cup rifa the FtMnti^ Variety ; efjiodatty Che ilfth, eighth, 

^ttrnMbyfimr^EmkyHtt^^jM^baf" ^hith,and tenth tots, whidi |}io* 

terwMrd hum fofo nufnfrvmdtfiBHds Mdaoe long Spibct df heantifel flmr* 

inchfadimanHjkfli^^9ihiA'nM^tbefiM ^trs, tmd coiltiiiiie ^ kn^ chMfe ai 

/i^ Finver-eup, , -filteuty. 

The ^/fWfi are ; live Flowers of the fisveirih 

1. ScLAREA. Ttf^^iy. /r. CUHl* -Bort are nsVi in ftnttfiw/, togire H 
mon Garden Clary. Flavour to the Rhmi/b Wxne9,whidi 

2. SeLARBA<Mi/ftfr// ioMi^ofa^ iUe bpswU at Z>«f /. 

woB^iffimo foli^ Tivam. ComttOn All thefe Sorts may be propagRfed 

downy Clary, wlth-a large Leaf. by fowing their Seeds upon a Bed of 

3. ScL«R%« ImtMAtisfiiiiB.T^m^. fre(h £flrch m Mtz-^ifr or .<!(^7 ; and 
Clary with a jagged* Leaf. when che Plants are ooan; up, they 

4 . Sc L A R E A iMfitamcm '^tHtnofa^ ■ Ihootd be tranfplanted into oeds of 
MpiiJSjtu yi/h, Tofif-n. Portugal ff«(h£Arth,'ftboat eight inches afan* 
Clary, with a large 'glutinoas Leaf. der, obferving to water them 

5. ScLAR«A InditOy Jiore ifarie- til they have taken Root; after 
gai9\ Twm. 'jb^'«s« Gkry, with^a which they will require no farther 
varirgated Flower, Care, buc to keep theni dear from 

6. ^CL^AREA rug9fii^errficof$y (ff Weeds until Mickatimaty when they 
Jaritti&to y^/r#. T^urti, Clary with ' (heuM be tranfplanted fnco the 
-a rough, waited, and jagged Leaf. Places where they are to rrmain, 

7. SchfkK^h giutinof a, Jhris infti placing them at a large Di'ftance ; 
^tmriegati harh^ ^mpla ca^a, Boerh, for they fprcad pretty far, provided 
I^d. Glutinous Clary, -with a yel- the Soil be good. If thcie Plants 
low variegated Flower, having a are planted for a Crop intended for 
large hollowBe^ird, commonly calPd tnedicinalUi'e, they {hould be plant- 
Jupiter's DiftaiF. ed in Rows two Feet and ao hill 

8. Sola RE A foHo faUite^ minfr^ af under, and the Plants eighteea 
Jfvi glabra. T^urn, Leltbr or fmooch Inches dittaat tn the Rows ; but che 

Ckry with a Sage-leaf. c^chef 

s c 

•ther Sorts to be placed in Borders 
fiioald be planted eight or ten Feet 
diftanc, being intermixed with other 
Plants. Some of thefe Sorts will 
endure many Years, provided they 
are plantied on a fjrefli Soil, not over- 
moid or rich i biit others rarely 
continue longer than the fecond 
Year, perifliiqg foon after they have 
perfe<fted their Seeds : thefe (hould 
therefore be often renewed from 
Seedst to have a Continaance of 
them I bat the other Sorts may be 
increafed by parting their Roots, 
the beft time for whichisatilf»f^«#/- 
sitf/, when their Stems begiato de- 

SCOLYMUS, The Golden- 

The Chara&ers are s 

nt nnbole Plant bath ibe JppMr* 
m»ce of a TbiftU : ibe Flowir comfifis 
0f many Half-JUrits^ 'wbicb rift Mr 
ibiEniryoes ; iatboftbeft are ftpa- 
rated hy a tbin Ltafi and on tbt Top 
of eacb Embryo is faftoiCd a UttU 
Leaf: tbefe are contained in a fcaly 
Empalement, ^nubicb inclofes tbi 

The Sped OS arei 

I. ScoLYMVS cbrjjfantbemmt. C. 
B. P. The Goiden-thifUe. 

a. ScoLYMUs cbryfantbemus an" 
muus, H, R. Par. Annual Golden- 

3. ScoLYMusi cbry/antbemws 
Jtfricanus procerior , H.R. Par, Tall- 
er African Golden-thiftle. 

The firl^ and fecond Sorts grow 
wild in the South o( France^ and in 
Spain } but the third Sort is a Na- 
tive of Africa, The firll and third 
Sorts are biennial Plants t bot the 
iecond is an annual, and periflies 
fooa after it has perfedted its Seedi. 

They are propagated by Seeds, 
which (hould be fown in Marcb, on 
a Bed of fre(h undung*d Earth, in an 
open Situation » and when thePia&ts 

s c 

ale come np, they fhoold be ke^ 
dear from Weeds ; and where thqr 
grow too dofe^fomeof them fiiodd 
be pulled out, fo as to leave tiiofe 
which are defign^d to reman, aboat 
.two Feet afander. This is all the 
Culture wbich thefe Plants leqairrs 
for as they fend forth Tap-roots, 
they do not bear tranfplanting weUi 
therefore they mnft be fown where 
they are to remain ; and if they 
are kept clear from Weeds, theywiU 
thrive very well ) and when the 
Seafons prove dry, will perfeft (heir 
Seeds in Autumn ; but in wee S«i» 
fons they rarely ever produce good 
Seeds in England', which reoden it 
difficult to continue the Species, widi- 
out p. ocuriog freih Seeds from A- 

TbefePIants are preferved by thofe 
Perfons who are curious in Botany, 
for Variety - fake ; bot axe lardy 
planted in other Gardens. 

SCORDiUM» Water-gennaa- 

The Cbaraders are ; 
Tbi Fiowert are like tbofe ofGer* 
mander, wbicb are prpdnc*dfrom tbi 
Wingi of tbe Leaives : tbe Flanaer^ 
cup i$ tiAitloms ; and tbi tnbok PUaU 
fmeils like Garlick. 

The Spiciis are ; 

1. ScoRDivM. C B. p. Com* 
mon Water-germander. 

2. ScoKDivu altirnm^/ve/alvim 
agrefiit. C. B. F. Wild - Age, 

3. ScoKDivufrmtifanstfilioeaf 
guftofalvi^tftonlnteolo, Botrb.bU, 
Shrubby Wild-fage, with a narrow 
Sage-leaf, and yellowish Flowers. 

The firlib of thefe Piano grows 
wild in moift Places in the Jfe of 
Ely^ in great Plenty i but nearXs** 
don it is propagated, in Gardens for 
medicinal Ufe. This Plant is in- 
creafed by parting the Roots, or 
from Cuttings or Slips : the bdl 


S G 

£me for this Work is the^Begimiing 
mi March. Thefe Slips muft be 
{ilaated in Beds of moid Earth, 
ai>ouc four or Eve Inches afunder, 
obferving to water them well until 
they have taken Root ; after which 
ihey will require no further Care 
but to keep them clear from Weeds, 
and in July the Plants will be fit to 
tut for medicinal Ufe, being at that 
time in Flower ; but it is not pros- 
per to tranfplant them every Year, 
£oT then the Crop will be fmaller} 
therefore every other Year will be 
diffident to renew thefe Beds : nor. 
ihould they be planted again upon 
the £une Ground, but upon a freOi 
Spot i oiherwiie they will not 

ThcWild-fage is very common 
in Woods, and ftiady Places, in di- 
vers Yzruoi England i and is rarely 
caltivated in Gardens, except by 
t]|o(e who are curious in Botany. 
This may be propagated by fowing 
the Seeds in the Spring upon a Bed 
•f freih Earth ; and when thePlants 
are come up, they (honld be tranf- 
f lanted out, at about a Foot afunder, 
upon a frelh light Soil, obferving to- 
v^ater them until they have taken, 
Root ; after which they will re- 
quire no farther Care but to keep 
them dear from Weeds ; for they 
arc extremely hardy, and wiil abide 
many Years in almofl any Soil or 

The third Sort is of a more ten- 
der Nature, and requires to be fliel- 
ter'd from feverefroft; to which if 
it be cxposM, it is often deftro/d. 
This may be propagated by fowing 
tlie Seeds as the former ; but when 
the Plants come up they lliould be 
]JacM in Pots of frelh Earth, and in 
Winter put in an airy Part of the 
Green-houfs, where they may enjoy 
Ae free Air when the Weather is 
Vol. III. 

s c 

mild ; ftr If they are to& much 
drawn, they are fubje^l to mould 
and decay. In theSummer-feafon 
they ihould be exposed to the open 
Air, with Mvrtles, and other foreign 
Plants ; ana mull be frequendy re- 
frefliM with Water. 

SCORPIURUS, Caterpillers. 

The CbaraStrs are ; 
It bath a papilionaceous Flotver^ 
out of njiibofi Empalement ri/es the 
Pointaly ivbicb afttmuard hecoma a 
jointtd Pody conrjoluted liko a Snail 
or CaUrpiller, baving a Seed in each 
Joint ^ which is, for the mojl part, of 
an onjal Figure. 

The Species are; 
. J. ScoKFiMKvs hupleuri /olio. C, 
B. P. The great rough Catcrpil- 

2. ScoRPiURUS hupleuri folio, cor- 
niculis afpetis, magis in fe contortis ^ 
convolutis. Mor. Hift. Prickly Ca* 

3. ScoRPlURUS hnpleuri folio, fi* . 
liquss It^jihus. Park. Theat. Smooth- 
podded Caterpiller. 

4. Scorpio Rus Jtliaua crajfa 
Boelii. Ger, tmac. Thick - podded 

5. ScoRPlURUS filiqua corhkata 
t^ ftriata X^lyffiponcnfts. H,R. Par. 
Caterpiller with a twiUcd Furrowed 

6. ScotLViXj KV s /oliis^iciiT, mint^ 
nux. Mor. Hift, The fmallcft Car 
terpiller, with Vetch-leaves. 

Thcfe Plants arr preferv'd in fevc- 
fal curious Gardens, for their Odd- 
nefs more than for atiy great Beau- 
ty { they are aU of them annual 
Plants, whrch are propagated by 
fowing their Seeds upon a Bed of 
freAi light Earth ; and when the 
Plants are come up, they (hould be 
thinned, fo as to leave them about 
ten Inches or a Foot afunder, be- 
caufe their Branches trail upon the 
4 L Ground ; 


Ground ; and if they kave not 
room, they arc apt to overbear each 
other, and thereby are very often 
rotted, efpecially in moid Seafons. 
The Weeds (hould alfo be diligently 
dear'd from thcm,otherwifc they will 
grow over and deflroy them: in Junt 
thefePIantswill produce fmall yellow 
papilionaceous Flowers, which are 
lucceeded by Pods, which of the firft 
S^rt are fo much like Caterpillers, 
that a Perfon, at a fmall Diflance, 
would imagine they were real Ca- 
terpillers feeding on the Plants ; and 
it is. for this Oddnefs of their Pods 
that thefe Plants are chiefly pre- 

Thefe Plants will feldom thrive 
well, if they are tcanfplanted ; there- 
fore the beft Method is, to pnt in 
three or four good Seeds in each 
Place where you would have the 
Plants remain (which may be in the 
Middle of laree Borders in the Plea- 
furer garden, where being intermixed 
with other Plants, they will afford a 
pleafing Variety). When the Plants 
come up, there ihould be only one 
of the mod promifing left in each 
Place, which (hbuld be con((antly 
kept clear' from Weeds ; and when 
their Pods are ripe, they fhould be 
gathered and preferv'd in a dry 
Place till the following Spring, in 
order to be fown. 

The firfl, third, and fourth Sorts 
are the bed worth cultivating, their 
Pods being large, and more viflble 
than the other,and are more in form 
ot a Caterpiller. 

SCORZONERA. Vipers-grafs. 
The CbaraSers are ; 

// b'ath a ftmiflofculous Flower j con* 
fifing of many Halffi'.rets^ •which 
reft upon the EmhryocSy tvhtcb are- in- 
tludtii in one common Empalemtnt^ 
twhich is fcaly : the Embryoes after- 
nuard become oblong Seeds ^ 'which Are 
fternifo'^d'witb Dnvn, 

S C 

T!ht Species vci 

1. ScoRZONERA UtifoUa fkuati. 
C. B. P. Common or broad-leav'd 
Vipers • grafs, with an indented 

2. ScoRZONERA latifoUa altera: 
C. B. P. Another broad -lcav*d 

3. ScoRZONERA laciniatis filiis. 
fount, Vipers-grafs with jagged 

The firft of thefe Sorts is wbat 
the College of Phyficians have di- 
re£led for medicinal Ufe ; and ic is 
alfo Cultivated for the Ufe of the 
Kitchen in divers Gardens near Im- 
don ; tho* at prefent it is not fo much 
propagated as it hath betn fome 
Years iince, when it was more com- 
monly brought to the Markets. 

The fecond Sort is equally as good 
as the firfl for all the Purpofes for 
which that is cultivated ; but as it is 
lefs common, it is rarely found ia 
England^ except in Botanic Gardens; 
where the third Sort is alfo cultiva- 
ted for Variety, but is never apply'd 
to any Ufes. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by fowing their Seeds in the Spring 
upon a Spot of frefh light Soil. The 
beft Method of fowing them is, to 
draw fhallow Furrows by a Liie 
about a Foot afunder, into which 
you fhould fcatter the Seeds, thinly 
covering them over about half an 
Inch tiiick with the fame light 
Earth; and when the Plants are cone 
up, thcry fhould be thinned where 
they are too dofe in the Rows, kav« 
ing them at leafl fix Inches afunder ; 
and, at the fame time, you fhould 
hoe down all the Weeds todefboy 
them : and this mull be repeated as 
often as is neccfl'ary ; for if the Weeds 
are permitted to grow among the 
Plants, they will draw them up ivcak, 
and prevent their Gro^vth. 


s c 

There are many People who (bw 
tbefe Seeds promifcaouily in a Bed, 
■nd afterward tranfplant them out 
at the Diibnce they would have 
them grow : but this is not fo well 
as the former Method^ becaufe their 
Roots commonly (hoot downright, 
tvhichy in being tranfplanted, are 
often broken ; fo that they never 
will make fuch, fair Roots as thofe 
which rem^n in the fame Place 
where they are fown : for when the 
extreme Part of the Root is broken. 
It never extends itfelf in Length af- 
terward I but only fhoots out into 
many forked fmall Roots, which are 
not near fo valuable as thofe which 
are large and ftrait. Thefe Roots 
siay be taken up when the Leaves 
begin to decay ; at which time, they 
have done growing ; tho' they may 
remain in the Ground until Spring, 
and may be taken up as thdy are 
ufcd : but tUbfe which remain in the 
Ground after March will fhoot up 
their Flower ^ ftems s after which 
they are not fo good, being (ticky 
and drong. 

If you intend to fare Seeds of 
'Aefe PlantS) you ihould let a Parcel 
of the bed remain in the Places 
where they grew ; and when their 
Seems are grown to their Height, 
they fiiould be fupported with Stake), 
to prevent their falling to the 
Ground, or breaking. Tn Junt 
they will flower \ and about the Be- 
ginning <A Augufl their Seeds will 
ripen, when they (hould begatherM, 
and prefcrV'd dry till the Spring fol- 
lowing, for Ufe. 


The CbaraHers are ; 
Jt hatb an anomaloui Fio<vi:er^ con^ 

Jlfting 9/ one Leaf^ g^p^^g ^ ^«'^ 
SiJes^and generaliy globuLtr^cut^ as it 
^x/erry into t*wo Lift ; ufti/er the vp- 
per cnt of<whicharet*ViJofmailLeu''jes: 

s c 

the Poiffal H/es out of tit flt^tr- 
cuPf which afterward turns to aFruii 
$r Hajk, ivith a roundijh-pointed End^ 
opening into t^vo Diofifonj, parted in- 
to t*wo Cells hy an intermediate Par^ 
tition^andfullofJmallSeeds^ 'tubicb 
adhere to the Placenta. ' 
The Species arc ; 

1. ScROPRULARiA nodofa fcetida. 
C, B. P. Stinking knobbed»root' 
ed Figwort. 

2. ScROPHULARiA afuattca ma- 
jor, C, B, P. Greater Water Fig- 

, huci folio glabra, 7ourn. Spanijb 
Figwort, with a fmooth Elder - 

4. SCROFHULARIA ffii7Jr/in^l Iir/T- 
tanica^famhuei folio lanuginofo .Toum . 
Grcaieft Portugal Figwort, with a 
woolly Elder- leaf. 

C. ScROPHVLARiA rutM cantna 

_ ^ _ • _ 

di&a ^vulgaris, C. B. P. Figwort, 
commonly called Dog's -rue. 

6. ScROPHULARiA faxatilis luci' 
da, laferpitii MaJJilienJis foliis, Boc. 
Muf Shining Rock Figwort, with 
Leaves like the Mar/iilles Lafer- 

7. SCROPHULARIA glatiCC folio, 
in amplas lacinias divifo. ^fourn. Fig- 
wort with a Tea- green Leaf, divided 
into large Segments. 

8. ScROPHULARiA fiUtS fill CIS 

enodo laciniatis^ *vel rata conina luti- 
folia. C. B. P. Figwort with Leaves 
jagged after the manner of Fern, or 
broad kavM DogVrue. 

9. ScROPHULARiA flore lutCO. C. 

B. P, Figwort with a yellow Flow- 

10. Scrophularia/j//> urticfT. 

C. B. P. Figwort with a Nettle- 

11. ScROPHULARiA hetjnic^ fo- 
Ho. Injf. R. //. Figwort with a 

,4 L z 12. Sc'.o- 

s c 

!2. ScROPHULARiA fcwodcmiig 
folio. Mor. Hijf. Figvw)rt with a 

13. ScROPHULARiA peregrina 
firuttfcens^ foiiis teucrii craffiufculu, 
Brtyn, Cent, Foreign (hrubby Fig- 
wort, with a thick Tree German- 
der-leaf. . 

1 4. Scao P Hu L AR I A Lufiianica 

/rntifiens^'vgrbenacie foiiis, Inft, R. 

H. Shrubby Partiigal Figwort, with 

. Vervain leaves. 

15. ScROPHULARiA Creticafru- 
tefcens^ folio nimrio croffiori, Tourm. 

. Cor, Shrubby Figwort of Candia^ 
with a thicker variable Leaf. 

16. ScROPHULARiA Grata frM- 
tefciHS £5" fertnnis^urtica folio, Tourm. 
Cor, Grtok (hrubby and perennial 
Figwort, with a Nettle-leaf. 

17. SCROPHVRARIA f^i^r^^r, Iw 

naria folio f fore rubro, ^omn. Cor, 
Ephefian Figwort, with a Moon- 
wort-leaf, and a red Flower. 

18. ScROPHULARiA Oriemtmlis^ 
foiiis tannahinis, Totim, Cor, £aft- 

ern Figwort, with fiailard -hemp- 

19. SCROPHULARIA Orientolis^ 
cmplijjimo folio^ caule alato, Totms, 

Cor. EaAtrn Figwort, with a large 
Leaf, and a winged Stalk. 

20. ScROPHULARiA Orsentalit^ 

tilia folio. Toftm, Cor, Eaftern 
Figwort, with a Li me- tree leaf. 

21. ScROPHULARiA OrientaJii, 
ehryfantbemi folio^ fore minimo 'ua- 

riegato, Toum. Cor, Eaftern Fig- 
wort, with a Corn-marigold Icafyaud 
the leaft variegated Flower. 

The firlt Sort here mention*d 
grows wild in great Plenty inWoods, 
and other fliady Places, in divers 
]'art>s of England^ and is rarely cul- 
tivated in Gardens : but this being 
the Sort which the College of Phy- 
£cians have directed for medicinal 
Ufe, under the 1 itle of Scropbstlariu 

s c 

major t it is by fome pre fe rfrfin 
their Phyiic-gardens. 

The fecond Sort is alfo vtry com- 
mon in moiftPbcesi and by theSides 
of Ditches almoft every-where : this 
is alfo an offdnal Plants and ftands 
in the Catalogue of Simples, under 
the Title of Betonica aqumiica^ i, #. 
Water- betony, becaufe the Leaves 
are fomewhac like tbofe of Be- 

Thefe two Plants may be eafily 
propagated in Gardens, by fowiag 
their Seeds early in the Spring upoa 
a Bed of fre(h Earth, in a Ihady Si- 
tuation ; and when the Plants are 
come up, they ihould be tranfphmt- 
ed out into a ilrong moift Soil^about 
two Feet afunder, obferving to water 
them until they have taken Root ; 
after which they will require no fiir- 
ther Care, but to hoe down the 
Weeds between them, from time to 
time, as they are produced. Tiie 
fecond Year thefe Plants will (hoot 
up to flower ; and if their Stems arc 
fiziFered to remain, they will pro* 
duce Seed : but the Herb is general- 
ly cut for Ufe, juft as the Flowers 
begin to open ; for if it ftands lon^ 
er, the Leaves change, and the whole 
Plant contains much lefs Jaic& 
Theie Roots will abide many Years 
without renewing : but it will be 
proper to tranfplant them every 
other Year, otherwife their Rooti 
will fpread over each other, and 
thereby deftroy themfelves. 

The third and fourth Sorti art 
▼ery beautiful Plants, being worthy 
of aPlacein every goodGardenitbeie 
are fomewhat tenderer than the for- 
mer Sorts ; tho' they will endure 
the Cold of our ordinary Wincen, 
if planted in a light Soil, and a 
warm Situation. Thefe mav be 
propagated by fowing their Seeds in 
the Spring, upon a Bed of freih 


s c s c 

Sarth ; and wlien the Plants are they ihoald be often renew'd from 
come up, they ihould be tranfplant- Seeds. 

cd into fiedsoffreih Earth, at about The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
fix Inchea Diftance from each other, twenty-firft Sores are biennial Plants, 
obferviag to water and fhade them which very rarely live longer than 
until they have taken Root ; after two Years. Thefe feldom 'flower 
which they will require no farther the (ame Seafon their Seeds are 
Care, but to keep them clear from fown s or if they do, it is generaily 
Weeds, and in very dry Weather to pretty late in Autumn ; fo that they 
refrefli them with Water. do not pitxluce good Seeds : but 

At Micbatlmas fome of them may when the Plants grow ihort, and do 
be tranfplanted into the Middle of not put out their Flower-fiems the 
n^arm Borders in the Pleafure-gar- firfl Year, they flower very ftrong 
den ; and the refl maybe planted in- early in the following Summer, and 
to Pots fiird with frefli light Earth, produce good Seeds. Tbefe Sorts 
which in Winter ihould be (heltered are hardy enough to endure the 
under a common Hot- bed-frame. Cold of our ordinary Wintrrs very 
where they may be covered in frofty well, provided they are planted in 4 
Weather ; but in mild Weather dry undunged Soil. 
they fliould have as much free Air The twelfth, thirteenth, four- 
as poflible. Thefe Plants, thus (hel- teenth,fifteenth,fixteenth,eighteenth, 
ter*d,will flower very flrong inMay; nineteenth, and twentieth Sorts aro 
and if duly watered in dry Weather, abidingPiants, theirRoots continuing 
will produce ripe Seeds in 7«/y, many Years ; and the eighteenthSort 
which may be gathered in the Pods, creeps at the Root, fo that it pro- 
and preferved for fowing. The pagates very faft that way, as alfo 
Roots ofthefe Plants will abide three by Seeds. This is an extreme har- 
or four Years, unlefs deflroyed by iy Plant, and will live in almofl any 
great Cold ; and may be parted, to Soil and Situation ; but flioold not 
increafe them : but the(e Plants be planted too near other Plants, be*» 
which are propagated from Slips, caufe it creeps fo far, as to interfere 
feldom flower fo ilrong as thofe pro- with fuch Plants as grow near it. 
duced from Seeds ; fo that it is the The other Sorts will endure the 
bell Way to raifc every Year fome Cold of our ordinary Winters very 
from Seeds to fuccced the old well, if they are planted in a fliel- 
Roots. tered Situation ; and when they are 

The fifth, iixth, feventh, and planted in a lean rubbiihy Soil, they 
eighth Sorts are alfo tender, and will not grow too freely, but will be 
will rarely endure the Cold of our flinted, and endure a much greater 
Winters without Shelter, unlefs in Share of Cold, than when they are 
fome very warm Situations ; there- planted in a rich Soil,where they be- 
fore thefe fhould be planted in Pots come very luxuriant, 
fiird with fieih light Earth, and (he!- All thefe Sorts arc propagated by 
tered in Winter as the two former See'is, which fhould be fown on a 
Sorts. Thefe may be propagated B^-d of lightEarrh »n the Spring ; but 
from Seeds, as the former Sorts, ft often happens, that the Seeds will 
Thefe Sorts feldom ab<de longer lie in the Ground a Year, or longer, 
than two Years, and muft be defend- before the Plants come up ; fo tha^ 
^ fiom Froll in Winter -, fo clut the Ground ihould uo: be diAurbed 

4L 3 if 

s c 

if tHe Plants do not appear the firft 
Year : but it (hould be kept clean 
from Weeds, and wait until the 
Plants come up ; and when they are 
fit to remove, they fhould be tranf- 
planted where they are to remain. 
Thefe Sorts are preferved by thofc 
tvho are curioas in the Study of 
Plants ; bat are rarely propagated 
in other Gardens. ^ 


The CbaraSers are ; 
Tbt Empalement of tbt Flotuer is 
•f the Lip-kind ; ibi upper Segment 
refemhling an Helmet ; and is dim- 
ded into three Segments ; the middle 
being broad and concave ; but the 
ether tivo are narrow and plain : the 
£eardf or lonver Lip, is divided into 
ttvo equal Segments : tbeCslyx^ hav- 
ing aC over, contains a Fruit refemhling 
theUtel of aS Upper orSboe; v/hichCba- 
raSer isfufficient to diftingvijb it from 
^11 the other Genera of this Clafs. 
The Species are ; 
1. Scutellaria foliis ovatis fer^ 
ratis, fpica interrupta. Lin. Hort. 
Oiff, ScuU-cap with oval fawed 
Leaves, and an interrupted Spike. 

2. Scutellaria /b/m cor data- 
ianceolatiscrenatis. Lin. Hart. Cliff. 
Marfh common Scull-cap, 

3. Scutellaria foliis ovatis 
€renatiSf fpicis imhricatis . Lin. Hort. 
Cliff. Alpine Scull-cap, with a Ifu^e 
flower, and an imbricated Spike. 

4. ScvT E\.Lkti\ A foliis incifo fir' 
rat is utrinque glcbris^fpicatetragona. 
Lin. Hort. Upfal. Jlpine Scull-cap, 
with fmooth fawed Leaves, and a 
Jarge Flower with a fquare Spike. 

5. Scutellaria foliis cord^tO' 
lanceoLth firratis^ pedunculis multi- 
fioris. Tier, Lejd. Scull-cap with 
heart -fhaped fawed Leaves, and 
many Icng Flowers growing upon 
each FootdaJk. 

6. Scutellaria foliif cordati$ 
§bti(fii ohiufe (erratis^ J^icis foHofu^ 

s c 

TUr. Lejd, Scull-cap with blani 
heart-lhajped fawed Leaves, and a 
leafy Spike. 

7. Scutellaria foliis eeri^t^- 
ohlongis acuminatisferratiSffpicisfuh' 
nuiis. Flor. Leyd. Scullcap with 
oblong pointed heart-(haped Leaves, 
which are fawed, and the lower Part 
of the Spike naked. 

8. Scutellaria fiUis pinnatiji' 
£s. Lin. Hort. Giff. Eaftern Scull- 
cap, with elegant cut Leaves. 

9. Scutellaria jffCAM, /0&'' 
magis laciniatisyfiore luteo. Hoa7 
Eaflern Scull-cap, with Leaves mod 

The fecond Sort is a common 
Weed, which grows plentifully by 
the Side of Ditches, in mod Parts of 
England ; therefore is not admitted 
into Gardens : this was formelj ti- 
tied Lyfimachia galericulata. 

The firft Sort grows plentifally in 
Italy ^ and other warm Countries, in 
moid Places: this is a Plant of no 
great Beauty ; but is kept in Botanic 
Gardens for the fake of Variety. 

The third and fourdi Sorts aw 
Natives of the ^i^i ; the Branches 
of thefe trail upon the Gfound ; and 
at the End of each there is a Spike 
of large Flowers, which in one Sort 
are blue, with yellow Falls ; and 
thofe of the other are white : tli« 
Flowers of thefe Plants continue i 
Ipng time ; fo a few Plants of eadi 
Sort may be admitted to have a 
Place in large Gardens, where they 
will add to the Variety : thefe per- 
fe£k their Seeds very well in £*f- 
land ; fo that they may be propa* 
gated in plenty : the Seeds may he 
fown upon a Bed of common Earth 
about the Latter-end of March \ and 
when the Plants are fit to remove, 
they may be either planted in the 
Borders of the Pleafure- garden, of 
into Nurfery-beds, where they may 
ftay till the following Autumn ; &nd 

S £ 

ihcn they ihoold be planted whece 
they arc defign'd to remam : they 
arc vciy hardy Plants ; therefore 
will thrive in anySituation, and con* 
tinnc federal Years. 

The fifth, fixth, and feventh Sorts 
liavc Dprfght Shoots ; and the Flow- 
ers of thefe arc prgdoc'd in long 
Spikes; bat they are fmall^ and have 
litde Beauty ; fo the Plants are only 
preferved in the Gardens of the Ca« 
rioos, for the fake of Variety : they 
«re hardy perennial Plants, and per- 
.fefi their Seeds in plenty every Year; 
fo may be propagated in the fame 
manner as the /ormer. 

..The eighth and ninth Sorts have 
trailing Branches, which are eamiih- 
cd with elegant Leaves ; thole of the 
•ighth Sort being fhapcd like Ger- 
mander, and are hoary underneath : 
thofe of the ninth Sort are deeply 
iawed/and are hoary on both Sides : 
thcfc produce Spikes of yellow 
Flowers, which make a pretty Ap- 
pearance, and continue long in 
Beauty j fo that they deferve a Place 
in every curious Garden : thefe Sorts 
arc pretty hardy, in refpeft to Cold ; 
but they fliould be planted on a dry 
Soil, otherwife they will not live 
thro' the Winter ; nor do thefe ^ 
Plants thrive well in Pots ; there- 
fore they (hould always be planted 
in the full Ground : they perfeft 
their Seeds well every Year ; fo 
young Plants fhould be annually 
raifed, becaufe they feldom continue 
longer than two Years. 

SEC ALE, Rye. 

The Chara^crs are ; 

Tke Tlvujtrs ba<ve no Lea*ves^ hut 
coufiji of/e'veral Stamina, lAihich are 
produced from the Flouuer-cup : thefe 
JFlouuers are c(.Uc£icd into a fiat Spike ^ 
and are difpofed alm'yfi fingly : from 
thi Flo-uoer - cup rifs the Fointal\ 
which rftericard he coma an oblong 
Jlinder Seed, inclofcd in an Uufh^ 

S E 

n»kich tufoj before thi Fiower-etip •• 
this differs from Wheats in halving a 
flatter Spike, the AnAjn larger , and 
more naked. 

The Species are ; 

1 . S B c A L B byhernum, nfil nfajuf^ 
C. B. P. Common or Winter 

2. Sbcale v/Tffwffir & minus. C 
B. P. Leflcr or Spring Rye. 

The firfl Sort is what the gene- 
rality of Farmers propagate, and is 
ufually fown in Autumn, at the 
fame Seafon with Wheat : and in 
many of the Northern Counties, as 
alfo in Wales, they are often mixed 
together : tho' I think it mufl be 
vexy bad Hufbandry ; for the Rye 
will always ripen fooner than Wheat; 
fo that if the latter is permitted to 
ftand to be fully ripe,the former will 
fliatter : nor can this be pradtifed 
where the People are not accuflom^d 
to eat Rye-bread ; for altho* it is by 
ibme accounted good when mixed^ 
yet it being fo ytry clammy, few 
People, who have been fed with 
Whjcat, will ever care to eat the 
Bread made of this. 

It is generally fown on poor, dry, 
gravelly, or fandy Land, where 
Wheat will not thrive ; and in fuch 
Places may anfwer very well : but 
on fuch Land as will bear Wheat, it 
is not proper to fow Rye ; iince of 
late Years that Wheat has been at a 
low Price, the other has been worth 

When Rye is fown, the Ground 
fhould not be too wet ; and if it 
fhould happen, that much Rain falls 
before the Kyt is come up, it often 
rots in the Ground ; but it is not 
long in coming up, it being much 
fooner out of the Ground than 

The fmall Rye may be fown in 
the Spring, about the fame time 
with Oats, and is ufually ripe asfoon 
4 L 4 as 

S B 

s^ the other Sort : bat if the Seafon 
proves weCy it is apt to ran much to 
Straw ; and the Grain is generally 
lighter than the others ib the only 
Ufe of this Sort is to fow upon fuch 
Lands, where the Autumnal Crop 
may have mifcarried. 

The general Ufe of Rye is for 
Bread, either alone, or mixed with 
"Wheat ; but (as was before obferv- 
ed) it is only £t for fuch Perfons 
wiio have always been ufed to this 
Food, few other Perfons caring to 
eat of it : nor have I ever heard of 
its having been exported; fo can ne- 
ver be worth cultivating in gene* 
ral ; tho' I have been informed it 
will yield a (Irong Spirit, which per- 
haps may occanon its being more 
cultivated, fince the pernicious 
Ufe of Spirituous Liquors is now 

Rye is ^Ifo fown in Autumn to 
afford green Feed for Ewes and 
Lambs in the Spring, before there is 
plenty of Crais : when this is in- 
tended, the Rye ihould be fown 
early in Autumn, that it may have 
Strength to fumi(h early Feed : the 
great Ufe of this is, to fupply the 
want of Turneps, in thofe Places 
where they have failed ; as alfo af- 
ter the Turneps ^re over, and before 
the Grafs is grown enough, to fup- 
ply green Feed for the Ewes ; (o 
that in thofe Seafons, when theTur- 
ne ps in general fail, it is very good 
Hufbandry to fow the Land with 
Kye, efpecially where there are 
Stocks of Sheep, which cannot be 
well fupported, where green Feed is 
wanting early in the -Spring : there- 
fore thofe Farmers, who have large 
jive Stocks, fhould have feveral Me- 
thods of fupplying themfelves with 
fdfHcient Feed, id fome fhould fail s 
for as Turneps are a y^Ty precari- 
ous Crop, fome Land fhould be 

ipwn with Cple-fiP^iWhicli will fup- 

S E 

ply the Want of Turneps in Win- 
ter : and if fome of the Ground, 
which was fown late with Turneps, 
which had failed, was fown in Aa- 
tamn with Rye, that would be pro* 
per to fupply the want of Cole-feed 

SECURID ACA, Hatchet- vetdi. 
The CbaraStrs are ; 

It bath a papilionaceous Fhnov^ 
out of nubofe EmpaUment rifis tbt 
Fdntal^ luhich aftemjuard bec^imis a» 
upright, plaiu, articulated Pod, com- 
taining in each Joint a rhomboid 
Seed, having a Notch on the innar 

We have but one Species of this 
flsLnt in England; viz. 

Secvridaca Itttea major, C. A 
P. The greater yellow Hatchet* 

This Plant grows among the 
Corn in Spain, holy, and other warm 
Countries ; but in Englandit is pre- 
fervid in Botanic Gardens, for the 
fake of Variety : this may be pro- 
pagated by fowing the Seeds ia 
Borders of frefli light Earth in the 
Spring, in the Places where they are 
to abide ; for they feldom fuccecd 
well, if they are tranfplanted : thej 
fhould be allowed at leaft two Feet 
Diftance, becaufe their Branches 
trail upon the Ground. In Jam 
thefe Plants will flower, and in Jn* 
gn/f their Seeds will ripen, when 
they fhould be gathered, and pre- 
ferved for Ufe. A few of thefe 
Plants may be admitted into every 
good Garden for Variety ; tho* 
there is no great Beauty in their 

SEDUM, Houfleek. 

The CharaBers are ; 
The Flower confifis of fevered 
Leaves, vohich are placed orbicular' 
ij, and expand inform of a Rofe ; out 
ofmhofe Flffwer-cup rifet the Pointal, 
vsbi^h afttrward tarns to a Fruit, 


SB S £ 

tmp^fidj At it wiri, §f many Sied- like the common Sort, coUe&ed like 

v^i/j^ refnabling Hujks^ which an a Rofe. 

c^IUSidimtoafrriBfHiad^ and full 14. Sehvu Jfram mMiaHMm^f^ 

of /mall Suds. liisfiArtuMdis^dtntibtuAlhis/erratiM 

The Sptciis are 1 cwftrtim natis. Boirb, Imd. Jfri" 

t. Sedum majui 'uulian, C.B.P. cam moantainHoafleek, with round* 

Common great Houfleek. ifli indented ferrated Leaves, wi(& 

2. Sej>vm mnuj Ititmrn, /oli$ acu" white Edges. 

/«. C.B.P^ The moft ordinary iS.SKHjjuJfricamMmfruitJctai^ 

Prickmadam, or Sharp-poinud yel- folio longo firrato tonftriim nato. 

low Hoafleek. Boerb. Ind. African ihrabbj Houf* 

3. Sedvm minus luioam, ramuUt leek, with long ferrated Leaves. 
rtfixij C B, P. Yellow Stone- 16. ^^nvumajusmomannm^dimm 
crop, with reflex'd Branches. iatisfoUis^ altemm, C. B. P, An* 

4. Sedum parvum acre, floro lu* other great mountain Hoafleek,witli 
//i. ^. B. Wall-pepper, or Stone* indented Leaves. 

ciop. 1 7. Sedum majus montannm^ /»• 

5. Sedum «/««/, a rape San^i Hit non deniatis^ Jloribus rabfutibmt. 
Fincentii. Rati Sjh. Stonecrop of C B, P, The great moantaim 
Ss» Ftncnu^j HocL Houfleek, with indented Leaves^ 

6. Sedum minus tirctifolium al- andrediih Flowers. 

inm. C. B. P, White - flower'd 18. Sedum teretifolinm mqjus^ 

Stonecrop, with taper Leaves. flore a&o, Mor, Hort. IL Bla/^ 

7. Sedum m/jMf/, circinato folio, GireaterHoufleek, withtaperLeavesy 
C/B.P. Letter Stonecrop, with and a white Flower. 

round Leaves. 19. Sedum minus, latoi^ ^^J^ 

8. Sedum majus *vnlgari finale, canh, Portlandicum Bclgarnm. H. 
glohnlis dtcidentibus, Mor. Hifi. R, Par. Small Par/ZsW Houfleek. 
Jiouileek like the common Sort, with a broad and thick Stalk, 
throwing off the young ones. 20. Sedum Alpinum ro/cnm mim 

9. Sedum montanum tomtntofum, dinm^ acuto folio^ bamatodu majus,, 
C B. P. Mountain woolly Houf- /f. R. Par. Greater bloody Rofe 
leek, commonly called Cobweb Houfleek of the ^i^/, with a fhaip* 
Houfleek. pointed Leaf. 

10. Sedum Mtf/v/ arhore/cens. J, zi, Siovu Jlpi^um ro/eummidt- 
B. Greater Tree Houfleek. nm, aculco rubentg, H. R. Pan 

11. Sedum iwiz/ii/ arborc/cens^fo^ Middle Rofe Houfleek of the^i^x. 
His elegant ijfimi variegatis tricolori' with redifli Prickles. 

tus. Boerb. Ind, Greater Tree 22. Sedum Alpinum rofeum aiiV 

Houfleek, with beautiful variegated sens, miride i^ fubhirfntum, H» R, 

Leaves. Par. Small Rofe green and hairy 

12. Sedum Canarinum^foliis om- Houfleek of the Alps . 
ninmmaximis. H. A. The greateft 23. Sidvu Alpinum /Mir/uium^ 
Houfleek of the Canaries. folio longiore. H. R. Par^ Hairy 

13. ^Evvyi Afr urn faxatilcy folio- Houfleek of the ^/j^/, with a Ibngc^ 
lis fedi vulgaris , in rofam *vere compo^ Leaf. 

fit is. Boerb. Ind. A/tican Rock 24. Spdum Alpinum fubhirfutum, 

Houfleek, with imali Leaves^ conna fioris purpurafoeni!, difco wi- 


S E $ £ 

ttf. H. R. Par. Hairy Honfleek ipay be propagated by plantiog tbe 

cf the i^/j^» with the Borders of a OfF-fets ( which are produced in 

pnrplifik Colour^ and the Middle great Plei^ty from the old Pianb) 

any time in Sommer. It requires 

15. SeduM minw tergtifolium lu- to be placed very dry ; for if iti 

. C, B, P. Small taper4eav*d Roots are moift, the Plants will rot 

ytSkm Boofleek. in cold Weather. 
' x6. Sbdvm mhmt tiretifoKum The fecond, third, fourth, iixdi» 

mktrum. C. B,^P. Another fmall and feventh Sorts grow in pknty 

leav'd Houfleek. npon Walls and Buildings in diiTen 

:r7. Sedvm iMglfoUum^ citrw Par^s oi England^ where they pro- 

Mor. K R. BUf. Long- pagate themfelves by their trading 

;V*d Houfleeky with a citron-co- Branches, fo as, in a ihort time, to 

\K Flower. cover the whole Place, provided 

2S. San u Id mmmum lutetmy nm tl^ey arc not cut off. The fixth Sort 

. 7. B. Tbe fmalleft yellow is alfo prefcribed by the College of 

BoofEeeky which is not acrid. Pfayficians, to enter fome officinal 

29. Sbdum mnimum non acre, Compoiitions ; bat the People who 

«£«. Rati Hijl. The leaft fupply the Markets, commonly fell 

fiouileek, which is not acrid^ with the Wall -pepper indead of this : 

A vhhe Flower. \yhich is a very wrong Pradice ; be- 

yx SfDUM Jlfiftum, ftwi falU- caofe the fixth Sort is a very cold 

df. €. B, P. Alpine Houlleek, Herb, and is accordingly direded 

with a pale Flower. to be put into cooling Ointments : 

31. Sedum AifinMm,rtthro magna and the Wall -pepper is an exceed- 
fort. C. B. P, Jlpine Houileek, ing (harp acrid Plant (from whence 
with a krge red Flower. it received the Nume of Wall-pep- 

32. StT>vvtHifpanum,foKo giaitco per), which renders it contrary to 
msuio^ fiore alhido. Beerb. Ind, alt. the Intention of the Phyiician : 
5|^^Houileek,wirh a pointed Tea- therefore whoever makes ufe of 
green Leaf, and a whitiih Flower. thefe Plants, (hould be very careful 

33. Sedum falujln fuhhirfutum to have the right; otherwifeitisbet- 
fmfartum, C. B. P. Rairy purple ter to ufe the common great Sort, in 
BUtr& Houileek. which they are not fo liable to be 

34. Sedum eebinatvm^ njilftella- imposed on. ' 

imm^fiort albo. J, B. Starry Houf- The fifth Sort is a Native of & 

lcck,witha white Flower. Fiment^s Rock in Cornwall, from 

35. Sedum ecbinatum^ fare lutea, whence it hath been taken, and dif- 
J. B. Prickly Houfleek, with a tribute^ into the feveral Gardens of 
yellow Flower. fuch Perfons as are curious in pre* 

The firft Sort is vtrj common in ferving a Variety of Plants. 
England^ hckng often planted upon Thefe Plants arc all extreme hl^ 
the Tops of Houfes, and other Ay^ and will thrive exceedingly, if 
Baildiogs; where, being prcfe rv'd planted in a dry Soil, and anopca 
dry, it will endure the greatcft Cold Situation, where they will propa- 
of our Climate. This is directed by gate themfelves by their trailing 
the College of Phyficians to be ufed Branches, which tnkc Root where- 
in Medicine, as a great Cooler. It ever they touch the Ground. 


S E. S E 

The eighth and ninth Sorts pro- ranges. Myrtles, and 6ther Trea^ 
ps^te chemfelves by (MF-fets, in the in a Green-houfe ; becauTe the Pciv 
manner as the common Sort ; tho* fpiration of thofe Trees renders ehe 
the eighth throws off the yoangones Air of the Place damp ; and whea 
from the Top of the old Plants, the Hoaie is dofely (hut up, this 
which, falling on the Ground, take Air is often randd ; which, being 
Root, and thereby are increafed very imbibed by the Houfleeks, wil 
plentifully. Thefe are both very caufe their Leaves to Mi off, anl 
haidy ; and if planted in a dry rub* the Plants will decay foon ^ter s 
bilhy Soil, will thrive, and endure whereas, in an open airy Gla(s-cafe« 
the fevcreft Cold of our Climate. where there are none but fucculent 

The tenth Sort is propagated by Plants, there will never be near ^ 
planting Cuttings during any of the much Damp in the Air ; and in fuck 
Summer-months, which Ihould be Places they will thrive and flower 
laid in a dry Place a Fortnight af- almofteveryWinter, when the Plants 
ter they are cut from the old Plants, have gotten fufHcient Strength. Thefe 
that their wounded Parts may heal Plants, in naoift Weather, will fenl 
over before they are planted, other- forth long Roots from their Bran-, 
wife they are fubjed to rot. Thefe ches, four or five Feet from the 
ihould be planted in Pots filled with Ground : and if the £anh is placed 
frefli light iandy £arth, and placed near to thefe Roots, they will ftiiioe 
in a fhady Situation (but not under into it, and the Branches may be 
the Drip ofTreesjyobferviog to give afterward feparated from the oli 
them now-and-then a little Water, Plants. 

when the Earth is dry : but you muft The eleventh Sort is a Variety of 
be very careful not to let them have the tenth, which was accidentallf 
too much Moifture, which will rot obtained in the Gardens of the late 
them. . Duchefs of Biaufirt at Badmingtom^ 

When they have taken Root, they from a Branch which broke off from 
may be removed into a more open one of the plain Sort of Houdeek- 
Situation, placing them amongfl trees by Accident ; and being plants 
other Exotic Plants, in a Place where ed in Limc-rubbifh afterward, be* 
they may be defended from flrong came beautifully variegated ; from 
Wmds; in which Situation they which Plant there have been vaft 
may remain until Autumn, when Numbers raifed, and diftributed into 
they mufl be removed into the Con- many curioosGardens, both at home 
fcrvatory, to be prcferved from Cold and abroad. This is propagated in 
in Winter, which will deftroy them, the fame manner as the former, and 
Tho' they do not require any arti- requires the fame Management in 
ficial Heat, but only to be proftdled Winter : but the Soil in which it is 
from Froft; yet do they require as planted fhould be one Half frefk 
inuch free Air as pofiible in mild iandy Soil, and the other Half Lime« 
Weather ; therefore the beft way of rubbifli and Sea-fand, equally mix- 
prcferving thefe Plants is, to have ed, in which it will thrive much 
an airy GlaTs-cafe 5 in which many better than in a rich Soil : you mud 
Sorts of Ficoides, and other fuccu- alfo be very careful not to give it too 
lent Plants, may be intermix'd with miich Water in Winter, which will 
thefe, where they will thrive much caufe it to caft its Leaves, and de- 
bcttcf than if placed amongft O- cay. With tliis Management thefe 


S E 

Phntt^mll grow to be eight or teo 
Pcet high, and wiU produce beaud- 
liii Spikes of Flowers every Year^ 
which are commonly in fieauty in 
Winter ; and are thereby more va- 
luable, for coming at a Seafon when 
lew other Plants dki fk>wer. Some- 
times thefe Plants will produce ripe 
Seeds, which, if permitted to fall 
upon the Earth of the Pots, will 
come np the Summer following, 
from whence a great Stock of the 
Flaats may be produced ; tho* as 
tbey fo eaiily take Root from Cut- 
tings, there will be no occafion to 
popagate them any other way. 

The twelfth Sort feldom produces 
any Side-branches, but grows up to 
one fii^le 'large Head, with very 
large Leaves. This is only propa- 

Ked from Seeds; for when the 
nt^ipredttce their Flowers, they 
always decay as foon as the Seed is 
iipe$ therefore the Seed ihould 
cather be ibwn in Pots filled with 
li^bt iiandy Earth, as foon as it is 
xipe, or permitted to ihcd upon the 
Pots where they grow ; which muft 
lie ihehered from the Froft in Win- 
ter; and the Spring following the 
young Piants will come up in 
nenty ; when they ihould be tranf- 
planted into Pots filled with frefli 
light Earth, and expofed in Sum- 
ner, with other Exotic Plants, in 
Ibme well - ihelter'd Situation, where 
they may remain until OShhir^ 
wheo they fliould be housM with 
the foregoing Sorts, and managed in 
the fame manner as hath been di- 
lefled for them. Thefe Plants will 
flower in four or five Years from 
$eed, provided they are well ma- 
Baged ; after which (as was before 
f»»d) thcv ufually decay ; therefore 
it is necedary to have a SuccefTion of 
yoaag Plants, that there may be an- 
nually icmc to flower. This Sort 
Mrhcr belongs to the Saxifrage than 
thi» Genus. 

S E 

The thirteenth and fourteenth 
Sorts are 6f a fmaller Growth : thele 
rarely rife above fix Inches highs 
but fend forth a great Quantity of 
Heads from their Sides ; which, if 
taken off, and planted in frefli light 
iandy Earth, will take Root, uid 
make freih Pkmts, which may be 
preferved in Pots, and hoofed ia 
Winter with the other Sorts before* 
mentioned, aud require to be treated 
in the fame way. 

The fifteenth Sort grows to be 
ihrubby, and may be propagated by 
planting the Cuttings in the nunner 
diredled for the Tree Houfleek, and 
muft alfo be housM in Winter, and 
treated in the fame manner as hadi 
been already direded for that Sort. 

Thefe are all of them very oma^ 
mentil ' Plants in the Green-houfe, 
and add greatly to the Variety, when 
placed amongd other curioos Exodc 

The other Sorts of Houfleek are 
very hardy Plants, which will thrive 
in the open Air in EngUmdi and 
may be eafily propagated by OflF-fets 
or firanthes, which will readily take 
Root. Thofe Kinds which tiail oa 
the Ground (as many of thefe do), 
will pufh out Roots from their 
Branches, and thereby fpread them- 
felves to a great Difiance : but .the 
thirty - fecond,. thirty - fourth, and 
thirty-fifth Sorts are annual Plants, 
which are only propagated by Seeds; 
but if their Seeds are permitted to 
fcatta- on the Ground, the Planu 
will come, up in Autumn, aiKi re- 
quire no other Care, but to clear 
them from great Weeds, which, if 
permitted to grow amongft thcnit 
would overbear and dellroy them. 

Thefe Plants are preferved in the 
Gardens of fome Perfonf, who are 
curious io Botany ; but are very rare« 
ly admitted into other Gardens ;tno' 
they may be very ornamenul, whm 

S E 

rigbdy difpofed ; for there are no 
Plants fo proper to plant oa the 
Walls of Rains, or ocher ruftic 
loildings, where they will thrive 
without any Trouble, and endure 
tbe greaCefl Drought, and are never 
iBJured by >'ro(b. And as tbere^ is 
a great Variety of Species, which 
differ greatly from each other, not 
only in their Flowers, but alfo in 
the whole Face of the Plants ; fo 
they will afford an agreeable Varie- 
ty, il they are properly difpofcd. In 
planting of thefc Plants, there is no 
other Care required, but to lay a 
Futle naoifk Earth on the Joints of 
the. Walls or Buildings where they 
are defigned to grow, and therein to 
plant fome of the Plants in fmall 
Banches, which will foon take Root, 
and in one Year's time will fpread to 
a confiderable Dilhince. l^he belt 
Seafon for this Work is a little be- 
fore Mtcbaelmas^ that the Plants may 
be rooted before the hard Froil comes 
on. The annual Kinds will alfo 
grow in the fame manner, and will 
Jhed their Seeds, and maintain them- 
felves without any Trouble, when 
they arc once fix'd in the Place. 
Thefe Sorts will moft of them grow 
from the Joints of Walls, which are 
perpendicular, where fcarce any 
other Plants will live ; which renders 
them more valuable, efpecially as 
xhey arc fo eafi^y propagated. 

The eighteenih, twenty- fifth, and 
twenty -fixth Sorts produce long 
Branches, which hang down from 
the Walls wh«re they grow j there- 
fore ihould be difpofed near the 
Edges of Buildings, or on the Tops 
of ruftic Houfes, and near the Sides, 
>vhere chey will trail, and make a 
pretry Arpearancc. 

The twenty eij^hth, twcnty-nintli, 
and thirty - iecoud Sorts have the 
>\(pearance of the Stone -crop: 
thife have (hon Brandies, and fmall 

S E 

Leaves, |vodadng their Floweis m 
the Tops of Shoots, wiiich ai« let- 
dom above three or four Inches (lig^ 
but fpread and form into dofe large 
Bundles; and where they fcatter 
their Seeds, if there is but a faatt 
Share of Earth, the Plants will tx)fDe 
op, and multiply ib fail, as to co- 
ver the Top ot an Houib in a feir 

The £xteenth, feventcenth, nine- 
teenth, twentieth, twenty -firA, and 
twenty- fecond Sorts grow in doft 
Heads, fomewhat like the comoMMi 
Houfleek, and are propagated bf 
Off fets in the fame manner t theie 
may be difpofed on the Tops of 
Walls and Buildings antermired 
with the comnK>n Sorts of Hodled^ 
where they will make a pretty Di* 
verfuy, being very different in their 
Appearance, and produdng a great 
Variety in their Flowers. 

SEED : The Seed of a Plant 

fids of an Embryo, with its Coat 

Cover. The Embryo, which 

tains the whole Plant in Miniatmi^ 

and which is called the Gena or Bodl, 

is rooted in the Plattntn or Cvtyie^ 

don^ which makes the Coat or /^w- 

Ucrum, and ferves the (anw; Purpote 

as the Secundims^ i. e. the Ci^shtm 

and Amnisg in Animals. 

A Method for raifingfu<b Sefdj^vkirk 

have hard CoaiJ or SMJt fur* 

rouniing thfm^ and that han€ heem 

judgtd very dijtcult^ if mti '^ifffi' 

Jtble^ /• be raifed in England. 

Jn the Year 1724. I had a Pared 

of frdh Cocoa-nuts given me, whicb 

was brought over from Barbados z 

part of theie Nuts I diveftcd of their 

outward Coat or Huik,and the other 

part I left intire, as I received them. 

Both thefe Parcels I planted in 

large Tots fill'd with good frcfti 

Earth, and plunged the Pots into 

Hot beds made of Tanners Bark, 

£iv*ng them gentle and frfc^uenc 


S E S E 

Waterings, as the Earth 4n the Pdts I then covered the Nuts over vriA 
IcexnM to require ; but not one out the Bark two or three Inches thicki 
of the whole Number haid made any and placM the two Pots oyer them in 
Attempt to (boot, as I cduld per- their former Station. 
ceive ; and upon taking them out of In this Place I let the Nats re-' 
the PotSy I found they were rotten, main for fix Weeks; when remore- 

Aboat four Months after, I re- ing the two Pots, and uncovering 
ceived another frefh Parcel of Co- the Nuts, I found them both fliot 
Coa.- nuts from Barbaihs, ^ich I from the Hole in the Bafe of tlie 
treated in another manner : from Fruit an Inch in Length ; and from 
Part of thefe I cut off the outer Coat the o;her Snd of the Fruit were fe- 
or Hulk, and the other Part I left veral Fibres emitted two or three 
intire, as before : but fuppofing it Inches in Length. 
Was owing to my planting the other Upon finding them in fuch a For* 
Parcel in Pots, that they did not wardnefs, I took them oat of the 
ibcceed, I made a frefh Hot-bed, Bark, and planted them in large 
with Horfe-dung, and covered it Pots filled with good firefli Eanh i 
Itver with frefh fkriYi about eighteen plunging the Pots down to the Rims 
Inches thick, in which I planted the in Tanners Bark, and covering the 
Nuts; obferving, as before, to fup- Surface of the Earth in the Pots half 
ply it with convenient Moifiure, as an Inch with the fame ; foon after 
alfo to keep the Hot-bed in an equal which, the young Shoots were abore 
Temper of Heat, which I was gui- two Inches long, and condnued to 
jled to do by a Thermometer, gra- thrive very well, 
duated for the Ufe of Hot-beds; but, I communicated this Method to 
with all my Care, I had no better fome of my Acquaintance, who have 
Succefs than before, not one of the tried it With the fame Succefs; and 
Nuts making anEffay towards fhoot- if the Nuts are frefh, fcarce any ^ 
ing. them mifcarry. 

The Year following, I had ano- This led me to try, if the fame 
ther Parcel of Cocoa-nuts given me. Method would fucceed as well with 
which, confidering my former ill other hard-fheird Exotic Seeds; 
Succefs, I planted in a different man- which I could not, by any Method 
ner, as follows : I had before tried, get to grow; u 

Having an Hot-bed, which had the Bonduc or Nickar tree, the i^i/w 
been lately made with Tanners or Wild Liquorice, the Pbaftoht 
Bark, and which was fiU'd with Pots BrafiUanut iobis millofii fimgtntlhn^ 
of Exotic Plants, I remov'd two of Maximus Hermanni^ or Horfe-eye 
the largeft Pots, which were plac'd Bean, with feveral others ; and I 
in the Middle of the Bed ; and, open- have found it both a fuft and expe- 
ing the Tanners fiark under the ditious Way to raife any Sort of 
Place where the two Pots flood, I hard-fhell'd Fruits or Seeds, 
plac'd the two Cocoa-nuts therein. For the Heat and Moifture (which 
laying them fide-ways, to prevent are abfolutely necefiary to promote 
the Moillure (which might defcend Vegetation) they here enjoy in an 
from the Pots) from entering the equal and regular manner, the Tan- 
Hole at the Bafe of the Fruk, and ners Bark (if rightly managed) keep- 
thereby rotting the feminal Plant ing near an Equality of Heat for 
upon its firft germinating. three Months j and the Water which 


S E 

^dicends from the Pots, wlien they 
are watered, is by the Bark detained 
from being too foon diffipatedi 
which cannot be obtained in a com- 
mon Hot' bed, the Earth in fuch be- 
ing worked away by the Water, and 
thereby leaving the Seeds often de- 
ffitute of Moifture. 

Some of thefe Seeds I have had 
{boot in a Fortnight's time ; which, 
I am inform^, would not have fb 
done in a Month, in their natural 
Soil and Climate. 

I have alfo found this to be an ex- 
cellent Method to reflore Orange 
(or any other Exotic) Trees, which 
hare fuiEer'd by a tedious PaiTage, in 
Deing too long out of the Ground ; 
infomuch that I recovered two 
Orange-trees^ which had been ten 
Months without either Earth or Wa- 

SENECIO, Groundfel. 
The CbaraBers are ; 

It huth a JUfculow Flvwir^ c§n^ 
ffiing of mam^ Fiortts^ dii^ided into 
Jeveral SegmiUtSj fitting on the £»- 
liryOy contained in an Empalemcnt, 
cwfifliug of one Leaf^ and dinjided in* 
to many Parts^ afterward becoming of 
a conical Figure : the Embryo after- 
ward becomes a Seed, fumijh'd nvith 
Donjon ; at nvbicb time, tbe Empale^ 
ment is reflex* d^ to make 'way for tbe 
Seeds to efcafe. 

The Species ZTC; 

1 . Sc K E CI o minor *vulgaris, C. B, 
P, Common Groundfel. 

2. Seh E CIO jifrica/ius altijjimus^ 
hlattaria 'vtl bier acii folio, H. L. B* 
Talleft African Groundfel, with a 
Mo thmu 1 ! ei n-leaf . 

3. Senecio Miderafpatanuif rapt 
foUo^ floribus maximis^ cs^us radix a 
nonnullis Cbina dicitur, tiort. Eltb, 
The China Root. 

/4. Senecio jEgyptius^ folio ma- 
tricaritr, Boerb, Ind. ait. Egyptian 

Groundfel^ with a Feverfew -leaf. 

s E 

$. Senecio Boneuienftt fetrpterMm 
fcens, foliis imis corom^, Hort. Elth^ 
Purplifti Groundfel of Buenot Ayrts^ 
with Under-leaves like Buckihon- 

The firft Sort here mentioned ii 
one of the moH common Weeds op* 
oh Dunghils, old Walls, and Gar- 
dens, that we have in England-^ lb 
that, inftead of cultivating it, it in- 
quires fome Pains (o ^t^cyy it is 
Gardens : for if it be fuffer'd to feed 
in a Garden (which it foon will da^ 
if permitted to iland)^ it willbe vox 
difficult to extirpate it. This as Ibme- 
times ufcd in Medicine ; but its chief 
Ufe in England \a to feed 3irds. 

The fecond Sort is. kn anaoit 
Plant, which grows three or foar 
Feet high; having large Leainea^ 
which are ilightly cut on the Edgea.^ 
This is in plenty in the warm Para 
of America^ ^ well as in Africa : m. 
both Places it is a croubielbcBe 
Weed ; but in England it rardy |»o. 
duces good Seeds, unlefi the Piaato 
are raifed oa an Hot-bed i and bcsi^ 
a Plant of no Ufe or Beauty, it m 
rarely cultivated in Gardens, 

The fourth and fifth Sorts arc alfi> 
annual Plants : the fourth is a Na- 
tivc of Egypt, and is of humble 
Growth : the fifth Sort was brpQs;bc 
from Buenos Ayres : this grows up. 
ward of two Feet high. Both theje 
are very hardy Plants ; and if dieir 
Seeds are permitted to fcattcr in « 
Garden, the Plants will come uii^ 
and become Weeds there. . 

The third Sort hath large tuber- 
ous Roots, which are ordcr'd fcr 
medicinal Ufe, under the Title of 
China Root. This is a perennial 
Plant, whofe Roots remain fevcni 
Years; but the Stalks and Leaves 
decay annually in the Auiunin ; fo 
ibat the Roots remain in an unadive 
Slate all the Wiatcr and Spring, asid 
in Miiy the new Leaves and Stalks 


S. E 

tomt oat; but the Flowers do not 
al^r till the Middle of 7«/jr; and 
if the Seafon proves favourable, the 
Seeds will ripen very well : however* 
Mi the Roots increafe pretty faft, the 
Seed^ are feldom fown. 

This Plant is too tender to livie 
abroad in the Winter ; fo the Roots 
mail be" planted in Pots filled with 
light rich Earth ; and, daring the 
Summer-feafon, the Plants may be 
cxposVl in the open Air, with other 
Exotic Plants* in a (heiterM Situa- 
tion ; but in Winter they muft be 
placed in a warm Stove. Daring 
the Summer-feafon* when the Plants 
are growing* they will require con- 
fiant Watering in dry Weather; bot 
after the Leaves and Stem decay, 
diey (hould have but little Water ; 
fer too much Moiftare will rot the 
Koots* while they are inafkive. 

The bed time to part the Roots of 
this Plant is in the Spring, aboat the 
Middle* of i^r'V, before th^y begin 
n> fhoots but if the Stalks of the 
Plant are earthed up, while they are 
growing in the Summ^-time, they 
will put out Roots ; fo that it may 
be propagated in plenty. 

Thefe Plants, havii^g no ereat 
Beauty in their Flowers, are feklom 
admitted into Gardens, unlefs by 
thofe who. are curious in Botanical 
Studies : however, the third, being 
if medicinal Plant, may be allowed 
a Pface in fuch Gardens where there 
are Conveniencies for preferving 
Bxotic Plants. 

The C/jar/rffers arc ; 
ne Flowery far the mnjl part^ con* 
ftjis offinfi Leaves^ nuhicb are plaetd 
€rbicttlarhff and expand inform of a 
Rofe : the Point al aflemvard becomes 
a plain incurred bitvalve Pod^ tvbicb 
is full of Seeds f each being feparated 
by a double thin Membrane^ 

There are fcvcral Plants which 

S E 

have been ranged in this Gents; 
flikoiC of which are now placed onder 
that of CaJJta^ under which Tide 
they are mentionM ; but as the offi- 
cinal Species of this Genus has been 
long known in the Shops by the 
Tide of Senna^ I have chofen to 
continue it under that Name here; 

, Senna Alexandrint^ fiw fotds 
acutis. C B, P. Alexeuidriem Senna, 
with pointed Leaves. 

The Leaves of this Plant are an* 
nually imported from the Lewaet^ 
being much us*d in Medicine ; and 
in the fame Bales, there are freqaeat^ 
ly many of the Pods with their Seeds 
internjix'd with their Leases: fo that 
from thefe Seeds the Plants may be 
raisM in England^ by fuch as are 
curious in Exotic Plants. 
^ The Seeds (hould be fown early 
in the Spring, upon a good Hot* 
bed ; and when the Plants are come 
up, and are ihx>ng enough to tranA 
plant, they fhould be each planted 
in a fmall Pot fili'd with light rich 
Earth, and plungM into a freOi Hoc- 
bed, in order to bring the Plants for- 
ward : for as this is an annual Plant, 
unlels the Plants are brought forwanl 
in the Spring, they will not floweria 
this Country : therefore they mot 
be conftantly kept in the Hot-bed all 
the Summer* obferving to admit 
plenty of Air in warm Weather ; by 
which Method I have frequeif dy bad 
this Plant in Flower ; but it is vtrf 
rare that they perfect their Seeds ia 

if the Seeds of this Plant were 
fent to South-Carolina^ the Plaao 
might be propagated there, fo as to 
furnifh plenty of the Leaves, to fup- 
ply the Confumption of Great-Bri* 

In the Wefi Indies^ the Inhabit* 
ants make uie of the Leaves of fe- 
veral Species of CaiTia, inilead of 


S E S E 

tUs Plaftt ; and alfo of thofeof the drlls by which they faften themf^Ii^ 

PotBckuMiy or Flower-fence, which to whatever Trees ^ them. 

11 ire^uently by them call'd the true They may be propagaced either 

Senna. by Seeds» or from Layers « for € 

S£NNA THE BL A']>D£R. Fidf their Branches are laid ia theGroimd 

Colruea. in the Springs they will make good 

SENNA THE SCORPION. Roou before Winter ; fo may be 

J^iJi Emeras. taken off from the old Plants, and 

SENSIBLE PLANT. Fidf Mi- planted into ieparate Pots. 

]iK>fiu If they are propagated by Seeds 

SEPTINERVIA. Fidt Planta- (which moil be obtain^ from the 

go. Countries of their natural Growths 

SBRJANIA. for they do not pcrfed them in Etrg' 

. Thn Name was given to thb ^ar^ij, they muft be fewn on an 

Geaas Of Phmt^ by Fathef P/mmVr, Hot- bed early in the Spring; «nd 

who difcover*d jEhem in Jmtn'ca, in when the Plants are come up, and 

HoBoar to the Reverend Father Pi^i- are £t to tranfpknty they ihould be 

^ Serjeant, wHo wa^ of the Order each put into feparace Pots iiird with 

of the Mhtimst and a Perfon well frelh light Earthy and plung*d into 

voded in tke Knowlege of Botany a moderate Hot -bed of Tannein 

andPhyfic. Bark, obferving to fhade them nntil 

The G&in^£^/ ave } .they have taken new Root; after 

Je hath m roft^ftfofidJhwtr^ ton^ which time they (hould have a large 

fifthigvffcur4ft tntre Leav$s, ijjhicb Share of free Air admitted to them 

"an plaad in u circular XMter: froM every D;y, when the Weather is 

nnhife Fltwcr-cup strifes the Pointal^ warm, otherwife they will draw up 

^bich ttfttmnapi he$mes a FrmU too weak. As thefe Plants advance, 

cm^ed ^ ihtig Cells ba*ving thru their Branches mad be fupported by 

if ^ings, and ^mch C$11 cmtaming ^m ^ StzkeSf to prevent their trailing 

rcamlSeei, ' overoth^r neighbouring Plants; and 

The Sfmcitt are: when their Shoots are too tall to re- 

i.Serjania fcandens polyphylla main under the common Frames, 

& racemm/a, Pladt. Nont, Qen, they (hould be ihifted into larger 

Clirabiag and branching &erjania> Pots, and plung'd into the Bark-bed 

with many Leaves. in the Stove; where they muft be 

z»%2K}An\fL fcandensenntttpbyllu placed on the Backfide, wirh Gra- 

& raamofa. Plum. Nov. Gen, nadilki's, and other climbing Plants; 

Climbing and branching. Serjania, which fhould be fupported by an 

with nine Leaves. Efpalier, on which they wiil climb 

3. 8«iLjANiA fcamienSf tripbylla to the Top of the Stove, and make 

& raeemofa. Plum, 2hv. Gen, a Variety, as their Leaves always 

Climbing and branching Serjania, remain green. 

with three Leaves. In Che Sumrnqr-feafon, when the 

I'hefe Plants were found by the Weather is warm, they (hould have 

late Dr. William Uoufloun^ at La a great Share of free Air admitted 

Vera Crux and Campechy, where to them, by drawing down the 

they grow to a great Height, when- Gla(res of the Scove every Day 3 but 

ever they grow near large Trees to they are too tender ro thrive in the 

iiipport them ; for they have Ten- open Air in Errgland, even in the 

Vol. lil. , 4M Middle 

S E 

Middle of Summer ; hthey (hoald 
be confUndy kept in the Scove^ 
where they Ihould have a moderate 
Degree of Warmth in Winter ; in 
which they will thrive better than in 
a greater Share of Heat. 

SERPYLLUM, Mothcr-of- 

The Chara/fers are ; 
// i^ath trailing Branches^ nuhicb 
an not fo njjooJy and hard as thofe of 
^bymt ; but in ivety other reJ^tS is 
t hi /ami. 

The Species are ; 

1. SfiRPYLLUM 'vulgare n^Jus, 
fipre purpureo. C. B. P. Greater 
common Mother-of-thyme, with a 
purple Flower. 

2. Serpyllum vu/gare minus, 
C. B. P, Common fmaller Mother- 

3. Serpvllvm ntulgare^flore am- 
ph. Rati Syn. Common Mother-of- 
th} me, with a large Flower. 

4. ScRPYLLUM citratum. Ger. 
Emac, Lemon- thyme. 

5. Serpyllum ed9re juglandis. 
J,B. Mother -of -thyme fmelling 
like Walnuts. 

6. SsRpYLLUif *vulgare hirfutttm. 
Itaii Syn. Hairy wild Thyme. 

7. Serpyllvm latifdium bir/u- 
turn. C. B. P. Broad leav'd hairy- 
wild Thyme. 

8. SsRPYLLUM vulgdtre minus ^ 
fort albo, a B. P. Greater wild 
Thyme, with a white Flower. 

9. Serpyllum vulgare majus^ 
folio ex alho k^ njiridi *vario, H. L, 

I^fler wild Thyme, with variegated 

The eight firft - mcntion'd Sorts 
grow wild upon Heaths, and other 
large open Places, in divers Parts of 
England ; where, in the Summer- 
time, when they are in Flower, they 
afford an agreeable Profpedl ; and 
b^ing trod upon, emit a grateful 
aromatic Scent. Their common 

S E 

Plaees of Growth are upon fnuD 
Hillocks, where the Ground is dry 
and uncultivated ; where, in a ihort 
time, they propagate themfdves 
plentifully, both from Seeds, and by 
their trailing Branches, which take 
Root at their Joints, and extend 
themfelves every way. 

There are but two of thefe Spe- 
cies commonly cultivated in Gar- 
dens; nn%. the Lemon-thyme, and 
that with ftriped Leaves ; the firft 
for its agreeably Scent, and the odier 
for the Beauty of its variegated 
Leaves. Thefe were^ formerly phnt- 
ed*to edge Borders ; but as they are 
very apt to fpread, and difficult to 
preferve in Compafs, they are difoM 
at prefent for that Purpofe. 

All thefe propagate themfehrc; 
very faft by their tnuling£randie9> 
which (hike out Roots from their 
Joints into the Earth, and thereby 
make new Plants ; fo that from a 
Root of each there may foon be a 
large Sto^k increased. They may 
be tranfplanted either in Spring or 
Autumn, and love an open Situa- 
tion, and a dry undung*d Soil; ia 
which they will thrive and flower 
exceedingly, and continue feveial 

It may not be improper here to 
take notice of a common Mifiake, 
which generally prevails conceraing 
this Plant ; which is« that the Sheep 
which feed upon this Plant, affbfd 
the fweetefl Mutton : whereas it is 
very certain, that the Sheep will net 
eat it; nor, fo far as 1 have been 
capable of obferving, is there any 
Animal that will, it being extreme- 
ly bitter to the Tafte. 

SERRATULA, Saw wort. 
The Chara^ers are ; 

It hath a flofculout Flower^ cfKJip- 
ing of fiver al Florets^ divided into 
many Parts reft ing on the Embryo^ end 
contained in afcaly Erttpalemait^ lik§ 


S E 

ti the gremtir Ctntaury ; from n»}hUh 
this iifftri in having fmalltr Heads ; 
uti from the Knaptveed^ in ba'ving 
tbt Borden of tht Lea'oii cut into 
Jmall fbarf Segments ^ refemUing the 
Teeth of a 80*10. 
The Species are s 

1. Serratvla vulgaris, fore 
furpnreo, C, B.P. Common Saw- 
wort, with a parple Flower. 

2. SERRAT(JLA^tfrr candido, C, 
B. P. Common Saw-wort^ with a 

. white Flower. 

3. Serratula Firginiana, fo/iis 
rigidis. Par, Bat. Saw-wort of 
Virginia, with ftifF Leaves. 

4. Serratula fraalta altera, 
emgufio flanteginis folio. Bocc. Muf. 
The tailed Saw-wort, with a narrow 

5. Serratula ^^tf//tf centauroi^ 
dtt montana ItaUca, Bocc. M»f The 
taileft Saw-wort of the Italian 
Moantainsy refembling Centaury. 

6.Serratula Nonjehoracenfis al- 
tijjima, foliis doria mollibus fubinca- 
nis. Par. Bat^ The tallcft Saw-wort 
cf Now York, with ibft Doria-leaves, 
which are white on the Under-fide. 

7. Serratula annua, femine ci' 
iiari elegant ijffi mo. Boerh. Ltd. alt. 
Annual Saw wort, with Seeds fur- 
niihM with elegant Hairs» common- 
ly caird Crufina Belgarum* 

8. Serratula annua, feminihus 
nitidijjimis, ad bafin compreffis. Hort. 
Chelf. Annual Saw-wort, with very 
neat Seeds, comprefled at their 

The iirfl and fecond Sorts are 
pretty common in the Woods, in 
divers Parts of England; (o are fel- 
dom admitted into Gardens ; but as 
they are Plants which will grow- in 
the dofeft Shade, they may be in- 
troduced to plant under Trees in 
large Plantations ; where they will 
thrive and flower extremely well, 
and add to che Variety. Thefe Plants 

S E 


are eafily propagated by parting of 
their Roots in Autumn, ib as that 
they may be well-rooted before 
Spring : otherwifethey will not flow- 
er vei-y ftrong the following Seafon. 

The third stod fufth Sores are Na- 
tives of Nortb'Jmerica, where they 
are very common in the Woods. 
Thefe are hardy Plants, and will en- 
dure the Cold of our ordinary Win- 
ters very well; bat if they are plant- 
ed* in the full Ground, they fhould 
have a moid light Soil ; otherwife 
they will perifh in dry Weather, un- 
lefs they are duly watered. The third 
Sort feldom rifes above two Feet 
high in this Country ; but the £xth 
Sort will fometimes grow to the 
Height of five or fix Feet, if it is 
planted in a moift rich Soil i but this 
laft Sort is very late in Flowering ; 
fo that if the Seafon proves cold, it 
many times will not flower in this 
Country. TJiefe are both abiding 
Plants, which may be propagated 
by parting of their Roots ; the beil 
time for which is in the Spring, juft 
before they begin to (hoot ; for as 
thefe continue growing in Autumn, 
until the Froft puts a Stop to them, 
it would be dangerous to tranfplant 
them in Winter. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts grow 
wild in the mountainous Parts of 
Italy and Spain ; but are , hardy 
enough to refill the Cold of this Cli- 
mate; fo may be IntermixM with 
the other Sorts in Woods, or nnder 
Plantations of Trees, where they 
will make an agreeable Variety. 
Thefe Plants may be propagated by 
Seeds, which fhould be fown early 
in the Spring on a Border of frefh 
£arth ; and when the Plants appear, 
they (hould be carefully weeded, and, 
in very dry Weather, muft be fre- 
quently water'd ; which will bring 
them forward, and make them foon 
fit to tranfplant. When they are rc- 
4 M 2 mov*d. 

S E S E 

SiOvMy they mofl be pknted in a gfo*ue: fhiPmntml^<wbiehrtfe$hrihe 

ihady Border, about fix laches apart, y MiddU ofth§ FUwir^ ttfltrtmard hi- 

and kept duly watered, until they have comes am oiloMg fwr-eomn^d Pod, «f • 

taken new Root; after which time wided into four difilnS Cellsy molnik 

they will require no farther Care» are nplete 'with efeuleniS$eds» 

but to keep them clear from Weeds, The Species are ; 

till Michaelmas^ wr.en they fliould i. Sesamum. J. B. CommOB 

be tranfpianted where they are de- Qily-grain. 

HgnM to remain. 2. Sesauu^ afterum, foUis trif* 

The feventh and. eighth Sorts are dis, Orientale^ femine oh/cmro. Fbdi. 

annual Plants, which grow about Phyt, Another Baflem Qily-gnim» 

three Feet high. The Leaves of with trtfid Leave*, and dark-co- 

thefe Plants are very curioufly cut lour'd Seeds, 

into many Segments, ivhich are fine- 3. Sesamum Qrieiitule trifidam^ 

f awed on their Edges : thofe of the Jlore niveo. Hort. Compt, Eaflem 

eighth Sort are the mod beautiful, Oily-graio, with trifid Leares, and 

being coverM with an hoary Meal, white Flowers, 

and the Seeds flatted at their Baie. ' « Thefe three Sorts are often pre- 

The Flowers of thefe Plants are mifcooufly cultivated in the Fickb 

fmall ; fo make no great Appear- of Syria^ £gypt$ Candia, &c. wbeie 

ance; but the Seeds are clofely fitf- the Inhabitants nfe the Seeds for 

nifii'd on their Crowns with fine foft Food ; and of late Years the Seeds 

Hairs, which expand at the Top, of this Plant h«ve been introdocM ia 

and appear like the Hairs of a Pain- Carolina^ where they fucceed ex- 

ter's Pencil fpread open ; fo that tremely well. The Inhabitants of 

when the Seeds fall on the Ground, that Country* nsake an Oil from the 

they are moved about by the leaft Seed, which will keep many Yean, 

Motion of the Air ; and when they and not take any randd Sstell or. 

are laid upon Paper, it is difficult Tafte, but in two Years becoina 

to clofe them up ; for by moving of quite mild ; io that when the warm 

the Paper, the Seeds are apt to creep Tafte of the Seed, which is in the 

out, by their Hairs moving each Oil when firft drawn, is worn oC 

other ; from whence the Dutch have they ufe it as Sallad-oil, and for att 

titled the Seeds Cr^r/rrj. the Purpofes of Sweet-oil. 

If thefe Seeds ar6 fown upon a The Seeds of this Plant are iHb 

Bed of light Earth in March, m the nfed by the Negroes for Food; wliidi 

Place where they are to remain, they Seeds they parch' over the Fire, and 

will require no other Culture, but then mix them with Water, and Hew 

to thin them where they are too other Ingredients with them ; wbid 

clofe. In Jiffy they will flower, and makes an hearty Food. Sometimes 

ripen their Seeds in September, a fort of Pudden is made of thc£( 

SESAMUM, Oily-grain. Seeds, ia the fame manner as widi 

The Chara^ert arc ; Millet or Rice, and is by fomc Per- 

7he Fiowjers are produced from the fons efteem*d ; but is never nfed for 

Wings of the Lea^ues^ nuithoat am^ thefe Purpofes in Europe, This is 

Foot'ftalk : the Flower-cup confifts -of calPd Benny or Bonny in Carobna, 

one Leaf divided into fi^e longfleu' In England thefe Plants are pre- 

der Segments : the Flower is of one ferv'd in 3ocanic Gardens, as Curio- 

Leaf, in Shape like thofe of the Fox- fitics. Their Seeds muft be fovm in 


S E S E 

tke Spring upon an Hot-bed; and 2. Sbsili ftrnme, filio g!auc9 

wlien the Plants are come up, they longiori, VatlL Perennial Wild- 

moil be traafplanted into a fr^ Op^gnel, with a longer fea- green 

Hoc-bed^ to bring them forward. Leaif. 

AfJDer they have aoqair*d a tolerable 3. Sesbli, qua fermUt fade ^ Tbap<^ 

Degree of Strength, they ihould be Jia fina furhitb Gallorum. ^, B. 

]Jaiited into Pott filPd with rich Boerb. Ind, alt. Wild -fpignei with 

light iandy Soil, and pkng*d into the Pace of Giant-feneU fuppo&'d 

another Hoc-bed, managing them as to be the Turbith of the Gauis. 
hath been directed forAmaranthus's; 4. Sesbli qua Saxi/raga Panno^ 

to whicklfhallrelertheReader, to nica. Cluf. Hift. Botrb, Ind, alt. 

avoid Repetition : for if thefe Plants Wild-fpignel, or the Portugal SslxX' 

are not b^nght forward thus in the frage of Clufius, 
former Part of the Summer, they The three firil Sorts are abiding 

will not produce good Seeds in this Plants, whofe Roots will continue 

Country I thoogh after they have feveral Years » but the fourth Sort 

fiowerM, if the Seafon is favourable, is a biennial Plant, which perifhet 

they may be expos*d in a warm Si- foon after it has perfeded its Seeds, 
tnacion with other annual Plants. Thefe may be propagated by 

When thefe Plants have perfected fowing their Seeds, which is beft 

their Seeds, they decay, and never done in the Autumn ; for when the 

continae longer than one Seafon. Seeds are fown in the Spring, they 

The Seed of the iirft Sort is men- frec^uently lie in the Ground till the 

tion*d in the Lift of OiHcinal Simples next Year, before the Plants ivill 

in the College Difpenfatory ; but appear; whereas thofe which are 

is rarely us*d in Medicine in J?/rfAi»</. fown in Autumn, always rife th^ 

From nine Pounds pf this Seed, following Spring. Thefe Seeds (hould 

which came from Carolina, there be fown in Drills, about eighteen 

were upwards of two Quarts of Oil Inches afunder, in a Bed of frefh 

prodacM; which is as great a Quan- Earth, where they are defign*d to 

tity as hath been known to be drawn remain ; and in the Spring, when ' 

from anv Vegetable whatever ; and the Plants come up, they (hould be 

this, I luppofe, might occaiion'its thinnM where they are too clofe, 

being calPd Oily-grain, * Jeaving them about (ix Inches Di- 

8£S£]9[, Wild-fpigoel. fiance in the Rows ; after this the 

The CbaraSlirs are ; Plants will require no farther Care, 

ItbatbaroftandumbellaiedFlonv' but to keep them conitamly clear 

#r, confifting ifftnjtral Lea*vtSy plac*d from Weeds ; and the feccnd Seafon 

in a Circl?, and rtfting on tbe Em- they will produce Seeds. Taefe 

palementj ivbicb a/terward hecomis Sorts, which are permitted to re- 

a Fruity composed of t<wo long Seeds, main after they have feeded, (hould 

tubicb are cbanelled: to tbefe Notes have the Ground gently dug every 

smtft be added, Tbat tbe Leafves an Spring between the Rows, to loofea 

broader andjhorter tban tbofe of Fe- the Earth ; • but ther^ fhould be Care 

nel, * taken not to injure their Roots with 

The Species are ; the Spade. The Plants love a nnoift 

1. Sesbli perenne^ folio glauco hre- Soil ; for when they are fown on a- 

viore. VailL Perennial Wild fpig- dry Soil, they do not thrive near fo 
ncl, with a fhorter (ea-green Leaf. well j and fcldom psrfe^ their Seed?, 

4 M 3 unlefs 

S H S H 

unlefs the Seafon proves moift, or With Flowen coUeded in round 

they are duly watered. Heads. 

SHERARDIA. 4. Shbrahdia noHflera^fteecha&t 

This Name was given to this Ge- ferrati foUi folio. Vaill, Nov. Gm, 

nus of Plants hy yLovSitMx Faillant^ Round-flowering Sherardia, with a 

who was Profeflbr of Botany at Parhy Leaf like the fawed-leav*d Stcrchas. 
in Honour to Dr. William Sberard, ^. Sheraedia ocymi folio Isatw^^ 

who was the mod famoas Botanift of nofi, fUrt purpureo. Vaill. Nov, (kn, 

his Age. Woolly Sherardta, with a Baiil*leaf» 

There have been feveral Plants, to and a purple Flower, 
which this Name has been applied 6. Sherardia teacrii folio, fim 

by various Perfons ; one of which is purpurto, Vaill. Nov. Gen. Sherardia 

nearly akin to the Blites; but that with a Tree-germander-leaf, and a 

Plant has been fince named Galenia. purple Flower. 
Another is very like the Aparine or j^SHtKAVnnhfrmtefcems^teturiifi" 

Goofe-grafs *, fo that there requires lio^Jlore caeruloo purpurafcenteamptif' 

fome other Epithet to be apply 'd to fimo. VailL Nov. Gtn. Shrnbby She* 

diftinguifh each Genus. But as this rardia, with a Tree-germandet'leafy 

Genus of Plants has been long efta- and a large purpliih-blue Flower. 
blifhM by Monfieur Vaillant, I have 8. Sherardia teucrii folio, fore 

chofen to continue it under that coccineo. Vaill. Nov. Gem. Shenudia 

Title, notwithftanding Dr. Limueus with a Tree germander-leaf^ and a 

has join*d this to the Vervain ; but fcarlet Flower. 
as thefe have but two Seeds, and the 9. Sherardia jpicata^ fo&oat' 

Vervain four, they may be fepara* gufto ferrato, fore cotruko. Houf. 

tfd. Spiked Sherardia, with a narrow 

The Cbaraffers are ; fawed Leaf, and a blue F/ower. 

It bath a labiatid Fkwer, coH' lo. Shek akhi a fpieataffiore far* 

ftfting of one Leaf, wbicb is divided pureo, femnibus majoribus, lamgiori* 

into Jive Paris at the Brim ; the Up' bus, (5f laxitu digeftis. Houft. Spiked 

fer-lip being divided into tv/o, and Sherardia, with a purple Flower, and 

tbe Under-lip into three Parts : the larger longer Seeds, which are loofe- 

Ovary, vjbich is at the Bottom of the ly difperfed in the Spike. 
Flovter-cup, aftervoard becomes a dry II. Sherardia verbena foUo fit* 

Capfule, containing tvfo oblong Seeds : rotundo crajfo, floribus cceruliis,J^ta 

tQ tbe/e Notes may be added. That the longiffima ^ crajjijjima. Houft. She- 

Leaves grow oppojite by Pairu rardia with a thick roundiih Ver- 

The Species are ; vain leaf, and blue Flowers, grow- 

1. Sherardia repens nodiflora. ing in a ytxy long Spike. 

Vaill. Nov. Gen. Creeping Sherar- i a. Sh e ra rdi a /oliis oblongitfer- 

dia, with Flowers growing in round ratis, flore ceeruleo, fpica longiffima. 

Heads. Houft. ' Sherardia with oblong faw- 

2. Sherardia repens, folio fubro* ed Leaves, a blue Flower, and a sfxy 
iundo crajfo, vodiflora. Vaill. Nov. long Spike. 

Gen. Creeping Sherardia, with a 13. Sherardia arbfrefcens wo£- 

roundifh thick Leaf, and Flowers Jl»ra, filiis rugtjis l^ ferratis, fere 

coIle6led in round Heads. purpureo. Houft. Tree- like Sherardia, 

3. Sherardia incana vodifora. with rough fa wed Leaves, and purj^e 
VailL Nov* Gen. Hoary Sher^dia, Flpwei-s growing in a round Head. 


S H 

The firfl of thefe Plants, being a 
Native of Europe, will thrive in the 
open Air in this Country. The 
Seeds of this Kind ihoald be fown 
iQ the Springy on a Bed of frefli 
iigbt Earth, in a warm Sitaatioii, 
where the PJants are defign*d to re- 
main (for they do not bear tranfplant- 
]<ig»anlefs thePlants are very yoang): 
and when the Plants are come up, 
tbey ihoald be thinned, fo as to leave 
them a Foot afunder ; and if they 
are kept clear from Weeds, th^ will 
leqoire no iarther Care. The 
Branches of this Plant trail on the 
Ground, and {end forth Roots from 
their Joints, whereby they may be 
propagated ; but if they are not 
confined, they will not produce ma- 
iiy Flowers. 

All the other Sorts, beingNatives 
of the warm Parts of JMuricat 
are too tender to thrive in the 
open Air in Emglandi but as moil of 
them are anousJ, they m^y be raised 
by fowing of (their Seeds on an Hoc- 
bed ; and ii the Plants are brought 
lbr%vard early in the Spring, they 
will flower, and produce ripe Seeds 
before Winter, 

The feoond Sort was found by Dr. 
WilHam HouftoiMf growing plentiful- 
ly in Jamedctu This Plant trails 
its Branches on the Ground, and 
emits Roots from the Joints, as the 
former ; therefore doth not pro- 
duce many Flowers. 

The fourth Sort was found in great 
Plenty at La Vera Qru%^ by Dr. 
Houft(mn ; as were the ninth, tenth, 
eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth 
* Sorts at Camfeehy, by the fame 

The third, fifth, and dxthSort grow 
plentifully in Jamaica, and Dtveral 
other Places in the JVefi' Indies ; from 
whence I have received their Seeds. 

The fcventh Sort is a very fpeci- 
otts Pl^nt^ mid UierefQire merits a 

S H 

Place in every good Colleftion* 
This produces long Spikes of large 
blue Flowers, which continue a long 
timei and make a fine Appearance. 
This is alfo an annual Plant, not- 
withfhinding it has the Epithet of 
Shrubby given to it ; for it always 
flowers the fameSummer it is rais'd: 
but if it is not brought forward ear- 
ly in the Spring, and confbntly kept 
in the Stove or Glafs-cafe, it will not 
perfedt Seeds in this Country. The 
Seeds of this Kind were fent to Eng* 
land by "hAt, Robert Millar, Surgeon^ 
who gatherM them near Patutma. 

The thirteenth Sort rifes to be 
nine or ten Feet high, and hath a 
woody Stem. This will abide ma-> 
ny Yearsy provided it is preferv*d in 
a Stove in Winter. During the 
Summer-feafon, this Sort may be 
plac*d in the open Air in a warm Si« 
tnation; and in hot Weather muft 
be frequently water'd : but in Au- 
tumn, when the Nights grow cold, 
the Plants muft be remov'd into the 
Stove, and in Winter they (hould 
have a moderate Share of Heat ; 
with which Management the Plants 
will thrive very well. 

All thefe Plants are propagated 
by Seeds, which (hould be fown 
early in the Spring on a moderate 
Hot-bed ; and when the Plants are 
Gon^e up, they (hould be each tran(^ 
planted into a feparate fmall Pot fill- 
ed with light rich Earth, and plung*d 
into a moderate Hot- bed of Tanners 
Bark ; obferving to (hade them from 
the Sun every Day, until they have 
taken new Root ; after which time 
they (honld have a large Share of 
free Air admitted to them in warm 
Weather, and muft be frequently 
waterM. When the Plants have 
(illM thefe Pots with their Roots, 
they muft be (h'fted into largcrPotsj 
and if there is room for the Plants 
to grow under the GUiiVs of the 
4 M 4 Hot* 

S I 

Hot-bed, widiotttbeiftgfcorclieEE b^r 

the SuQ, they ihoald he plang'd ia- 
to thb famti Bed a^n : but if thers 
ifi not room, they muA be placed in 
the 6tovt« where they may baue 
f Qom to grow in Height. In yuJ^ 
there Sorts which are annoal will 
begin to flower, a|id their Seeds will 
ripen the Beginning oi Septembtr. 

SI C YOIDES, Single-feedod Ca- 

The Cbara^irs are; 

// hath an ixp£Mdled helUfiafd 
flcmer^ confiJUng ofong Iab/^ svbick 
is cut into Jtieral Stgments at tbg 
Brim : of tbe/e Fiowers, fomt ari 
MaUj tuiich adhere to no Embryo l 
and others are Female^ <wbicb refi on 
the yowig Fruity nvbkh is after^uiard 
inlargedto tbe Size of an Almomd-ker* 
«f /, and is flat and frieklj^ containing 
one Seed ef t ho fame Shape. 
The Species are ; 

1 . S I c V o I DE 8 Americana^ fmBm 
tchinatOyfoliisangulatis, Lift, R,H, 
Jmerican Sicyoides, with a prickly 
Fruit, and angular Leaves. 

2. SiCYOiDls Americana^ fm&u 
echinatOj foliis laciniatis. Plum, Amt'* 
rican Sicyoides, with a prickly Fruit, 
9U^d jagged Leaves. 

Tbefe Plants arc preierv^d in fbme 
curious Gardens, for the iake of Va- 
riety ; but as they have licde-Seau- 
ty, and are not ufeful, they are not 
much cultivated in England, They 
are both annual Plants, which may 
be propagated by fowing their Seeds 
in the B(*ginningof ^r/7, on aBor- 
d«*r of frefli Earth, in the Place 
where they are defign'd to remain ; 
and in about a Fortnight^s time the 
Plants will appear ; which at fird 
are very like Cucumber- plants, and, 
as they grow, will trail on the 
Ground, and fallen ^emfelves to 
whatever Plants grow near them, by 
their Tendrils ; To that they fhould 
be either fown near an Hedge, where 

s I 

diey may climb up, or be aOoved a 
conftdeo^lc Share of room ; odicr- 
wife they will run over the Plaatt 
which are near them. When tbe 
Plants are come ap* they will re* 
quire no farther Car^ but to keep 
i^cm ckar from Weeds, and dun 
them whef e they grow too elofe to- 
gietber. Jn^Saaifthey will produce 
their Flowers, and in As^nfi the 
Seeds will ripen ; which, if permit- 
ted tt) fcatter, will produce a Sop- 
ply of young Plants the SoUowiag 
Spring, without any Care. 

SIDEltlTIS, Ironwort. 
The CharaSers are ; 

It is a Plant with a iabiatod 
Flower^ confining of one Lemf^mshtfo 
UpperMp or Crejt is nprigbt, hot ib9 
Under 'lip or Beard is difuidod into 
three Parte : out of tbe FioRjoer'cnp 
rifes tbe Poimtai^ altondod^ at it were^ 
by four EmbryoeSf which afUmoeeri 
tnm tofo numy oblong Seods^ Jbut tf 
in anHnfk^ nvbicb *was b^ore the 
Flower 'cnp : to tbefe Marht aen^ to 
added. The Flonvere groaning in 
Wborles at tbe Wings rf tbeU^es, 
nmbich are cut like a Creft, and differ 
from the other Leawes of the PlamU 
The Species are ; 

1. ^ii>%%i't\^ hirfitta proeeuAens. 
C. B, P. Hairy trailing Iron- 

2. SiDSUiTli Alpina, byffnpi fi- 
lio. C. B, P. Hyfibpleav'd Iron- 
wort of the Alps, 

3. SiDERiTi8 0ri>«/4r/f/, pblomi* 
dis folio, 7, Cor. EaAcrn IronworC, 
with a PhlomiS'leaf 

4. SiDBRiTis Angliea, Jhnmtja 
radice. Parity Theat, Engiijb Iron- 
wort, with a flrumofeRoot, common* 
ly calPd ClonMis All-heal. 

5. SiDBRiTIs aryvenfls rwibra. 
Park. Theat, Narrow-leav'd All- 
heal or Ironwort. 

6. ^IDERITIS foliis birfutiu pro 
funde crenatis. C. B. P. Ironwor*" 


or AU-ImsJ, with kury CMlMttd 

7« SiOBRiTM HU^tea ir$Sa^ 
light Sfomjk All*koJ» with a Mr-> 

ft. SisBEixis KJ^iea ernuUa 
frtetfminUf'Jhrt «/^ «uy^. /ir^. R^ 
H. Gfcater trailing ^^m^ AU« 
heal, with a white Flower^ 

9. SiABaiTis m/pmcm hihmi^ 
w^fm imgaftifiiia crtn^im.. bfi* R* 
M. Sfani/b Allheal, with a bica- 
aunons Scent, aad a namw creaa-* 
ted Leaf. 

to. Su»BaiTis Hf/fiamca fmH* 

& ama tamifcaUt^ Jnfi^ R» & 
Sfani^ ftinkmg ikMOth All-heal, 
with a purplifh Flower^ and whitifh 

11. SiDBBiTis Bi^mua fhUi^ 
fiemt^fm iignp/hr. Inft.RM* ^hrqb- 
bjr or more woDdy6i>4ffy^ AUheal. 

12. SiDBRiTia PynnaUmhxff^^ 
filufmimmafrocHmiim^ h^, RM* 
The Icafk tratliiig hySbp-kav'ti All- 
heal of the Fjrnuit, 

13. SiDEBiTis mntsmif trifii» 
fi&a. Bami. Icm. MoaataiiiAU-' 
heal, with a trifid Leaf. 

14. SiDsaiTis Cretica maxim€^ 
tymafiri Vakniim faae. T^wrv. Cor^ 
The greater All - heel of CoBd^^ 
with the Pace « of O^fmmfinm Fa^ 

15. S IBB BIT I s Crt/iVtf tomnUt/a 
tMndidiffimayJiareluiio. TourM, Cor. 
The whitelt woolly All-heal of 
Catufy^ with a yellow Flower. 

The Ibarth Sort here mentioned 
grows plentilbUy by the Sides of 
Bitches, and ia other moift Places, 
Mk divers fzxts6i England i to is ve- 
ry rareTy introducM in Gardens » be- 
caafe it is a very bad Weed where- 
ever it once gets Place: for the 
Koots creep very kit onder-groand. 


aad will fooB over-fua a laigeSpoe 

ofGroar^ if they areoot coafin^d. 
ThisPbat recciv'd the Name of 
Cloavtu JJJ'iwU from Mr. Gtrard^ 
who wai lookiAg for Herbs in Ktt^^ 
where be (aw a Maa who had cot 
his Leg to the Bona with a Scythe^ 
as he was mowiog the Grafs, to 
whom he olierM his AfliHaBce to 
core hisWoaadi which theC6an« 
try-man chjirliihly refuting, crept to 
the Ditch-iide, where there was plcai- 
ty of this Piam growiag ; fome of 
whkh he gathered, and bruifed,aa4 
^plied it to the Wound, tying it 
cloie with his Haadkerchief ; whi^ 
ia few Days healed the Woimd» 
wiAoatany other Application ; foe 
which Reafon Gerard has recordel 
the Story in h^ Herbal, for the fie- 
Mik of Mankiad, 

The £fth Sort is atfo a Native of 
lingUmd^ aad gtows aaioogft the 
Cora, or other Crops on arable 
Land. This is an annual Phmc; 
which periflies foon after it hasii* 
peaM Seeds. 

^ The other Sorts arc moft of dieia 
bieanial Plants, which commonly 
perfea their Scedl the fecond Smo* 
mer, and feldom continue much 
kn^cr. Thefe asay be all propa* 
gated by Seeds, which (hould be 
ibwn inAatoan^ foon after thef 
areripq.; far when they are kept oat 
of the Groead till Spring, they verjr 

Thefe Seeds (hootd be ibwa on a 
Bed of frcfh undung'd £arth, ia an 
open Situatian ; and when the 
Plants come up, they ihoqld be 
thinned whefre they grow too ck>fe 1 
and if they are kept dear frojsi 
Weeds, it is all the Culture they re 
quire. If, when thefe Plants are 
eftablifh'd in a Garden, their Seeds 
are permitted to fcatter, the Pianta * 
will come up, and maintain their 



Plaice^ prOTided they are not over-' dieodiers are not : bat as thk Flaat 

borne hy large Weedi. ' has been joined to them by other 

AH the Soru of All>heal are fiip- Botanic, I have chofen to coatimie 

posM to have an aftringent Quality, it here, as I have not been aUe to 

and are accounted good to he«l examine the Charafters myielf. 

Wounds, and may be applied either Thefe Plants areNatives of wann 

inwardly or outwardly. Countries ; fo cannot be preferv*d in 

SIDEROXYLUM, Iron-Wood. EnglanJ, nnlefs they are placed in a 

The CharaQirs are ; warm Stove. They are propagated 

^he Empalemtnt of the Flower by Seeds, when thefe can be pn>- 

t9nfifis efmi Leafy vebkh is cut into cured from abroad. Thefe moft be 

Jhfe Segments : the Tknuer is hell- fown in Pots filFd ^fvith rich light 

Jbapedy and M^tndeJ into f'oeParts ai Earth, and plongM into a good 

the Brim : in the Centre of the Flow- Hot-bed in the Spring, in order Co 

<r is fituated the roundijh Pointesl, get the Plants forward early in the 

mttended hyfinn Stamina : the Pointal Seaibn. When the Plants are fit to 

aftemnmrd becomes a rotmdijb Btrry^ tranfplant, they Ihoold be each pat 

heswieg pnt CiU, containing font into a feparate (mall Pot filled with 

Seeds. good Earth, and plong*d into a 

The Species are ; frefli Hot-bed. In the Winter dicy 

t. SiDEROZYLVM initmi. Urn. mufi be plungM into theTu-bcd 

Vtrt. Cliff. Smooth Iron- wood. in the Stove, and treated in die iame 

2. ^ir>%%oxY\MU feUisIemceola* manner as hath beoi dixededfiv 

!»'/ ex adwrfi Jitis. Iron-wood with feveral tender Plants from the (ane 

fpear-ihap*d Leaves growing oppo- Countries. As the Plants obtain 

fite. Strength, they may be treated moie 

|. SiDiROZYLOM^Me^* ^^^ hardily, by placing them inthediy 

Bort. Cliff, Prickly Iron-wood. Stove in the Winter, and giving 

The Wood of thefe Trees being them a greater Share of free Air in 

very dofe and fdid, has given oc- Summer $ but they muft not be pia* 

cafioa for this Name being applied ced abroad; for they are too tender 

to them, it being fo heavy as to fink to live in the open Air in the Sam- 

in Water ; and the Title of Iron- mer-feafon in Es^Utad, 

wood having been apply'd to the The firft and fecond Sorts I hare 

Wood, by the Inhabitants of the propagated by Layers ; but thde 

Countries where it grows, has occa- were two Years before they had 

fion*d the Bocaniils to conftitnte a made good Roots : and fometises 

Genus by this Name. But as the they will take from Cuttings ; but 

Charadleis of the Plants have not this is a very uncertain Method of 

been fo well examined as could be propagating them : nor do tie Plants 

W)ih*d,occafion'd bytheir not flower* fo raised ever grow fo vigoroufly ts 

ing in Europe^ it is very probable, thofe which come from SMs ; fb 

that the three Species here mentioned that when thofe can be procnrU it 

may not agree in every Part ; as I is the bell Method to propsgaco 

think the third will not : for in them. 

fbme dried Samples of the Tree, The firft Sort hath large oval 

which I have received from ^mm* Leaves* (haped fomewhat like thofe 

r«, it appears, that this is Male and of the Bay- tree ; but fmootber, and 

Female in different Plants, which blunter ^t the£ad. Thefe arc pis- 


S I 

ced on tlie Bfluiches without Or^er ; 
as the Branches alfo are prodac*d. 
This nrelf flowen ia England i 
bat the Leaves coatinae all the 
Tear green. 

The feoottd Sort grows more up- 
right and regular ; the Leaves, 
which are finalTer»and more pointed, 
than thoie of the firft,are p1ac*d op* 
police on the Branches ; and thefe 
continoe green through the Year. 

The third Sort has pennated 
Leaves, which are fomewhat like 
tfaofe of the Maftich-tree; and the 
Branches are armed with Spines, 
which are producM in Clufters, and 
are fmall. The Leaves of thisTree 
£dl off in the Spring, a little before 
riie new Leaves appear, when the 
Flowers come out ; but it has not 
producM any Flowers in Englnad* 

The CbaraSirs are ; 

li batb €9mp9Wid Flowirs, nvhicb 
have an Empa/ement c»mpos*d of fiu$ 
narronv LeavtM^ lubicb fpread open, 
and ixttnd beyond tbe Flower : tbe 
Utrmapbrodite Flo'voers are tnBulons, 
nvbieb are placed on tbe Dijk : tbe 
Femalg Flowers^ nvbicb arefitnated on 
tbe Border , are ftretcbed ont Uke a 
^omgneitacb oftbefe are fucceeded 
fy one oblong narrova black Seed, 
nvbtcb is inch fed in tbe Empalement, 

We have but one Species of this 
Genus ; v/^. 

SiCESBECicxA. Lin, Hort. Cliff, 
Sigefbeckia. We have no Englijh 
Name for this Plant : this here 
loentionM was apply*d to it by Dr. 
Unmeusy in Honour to Dr. Sigejbecky 
who was Profeflbr of Botany at 

This Plant is an Annual, perifli- 
ing at the Approachof Winter. The 
Seeds of it were brought from the 
Eaji' Indie J, where it is a troublefome 
Weed ; but in England it will not 
produce ripe Seeds, unlefs thePlants 

s I 


are nusMon anHot bedyand broag^c 
forward in the Spring: then the/ 
maybe planted out in warm Bor- 
ders the Beginning of ^nne : and if 
they are fupplyM with Water an dry 
Weather, they will grow near four 
Feet high, and fend but many Branch- 
es. The Flowers are produc*d at 
the Extremity of tbe Shoots, which 
are fmall, and of a yellow Colour; fa 
make no great Appearance ; there* 
fore it is only preferv^din the Gar- 
dens of thofe Perfons who are curi- 
ous in the Study of Plants. 

SILAUM, Meadowfaflufrage. 
The C bar offers are; 

// batb a rofe and umbellated 
FUwer, conjifiing of femeral Leantes^ 
placed circularly^ and refting upon ibt 
Empalement, ivbicb afiemuard be* 
comes a Fruit composed of two Jhort 
cbaneltd Seeds : to *wbicb Notes mujt 
be added, Tbat tbe Leagues are nterm 
narrow, and tbeFlowers are ofapak* 
yellvw Colour, 

The Species are ; 

1. SfLKVU quibufdam^ Jlore luteo* 
lo. J. B, Common Meadow faxi- 

2. SiLAUMjW ligujiicum,ferw- 
U folio, Inft. R. H. Boerb. Ind. alt. 
Saxifrage with the Leaf of Giant- 

3. SiLAVM quod ligufticum Crete* 
turn, f olio faniculi, caule nodofo/Toumm 
Cor. Boerb, Ind. Candy Meadow- 
faxifrage, with a Fencl-leaf, and m 
knobby Stalk. 

4. SiLAUM quod ligufiicum, cicu^ 
ta folio, glahrum. Tourn. Boerb, Ind, 
alt^ Meadow - faxifragc, with a 
fmooth Hemlock -leaf. 

The firfl Sort is direded by the 
College of Phyficians to be us'd ia 
Medicine : this grows wild in Mea- 
dows, and other inoift Pafturcs, in di- 
vers Parts of England', but the other 
Sorts, not being Natives of this 
Country, are only to be met with in 



Bftttnic Gardens; where tkej are 
preferv^d for the (ake of Variety. 

All thefe Sorts are propagated by 
Seeds, which may be fowD in Au- 
tumn OR a Border of frefli Earth in 
a fhady Sitaation ; and when the 
Rants are come np, they will 
require no farther Care, but to keep 
them dear from Weeds; and, where 
^y grow too clofe, to thin them, 
lb as to leave them about eight or 
ten Inches afunder ; which may be 
^one by hoeing them, in the fame 
manner as is pra£lis'd for Carrots, 
Thefe Plants will ftower and feed 
the fecond Summer, and the Roots 
^ the three firftSortswill abide fome 
Years; bat the fourth Sort com* 
ttioiily perifhes ibon after it has pro* 
^oc'd Seed. 

SILER, Sefeli or Sermountaui. 
The Cbara&en are ; 

2> hath a r^fi and unAittated 

flmver^ conjifiing 9/ fiveral Ltaves^ 
mishlch an ranged orbicularlyj and 
wtfi OH the Emfalimtntt ^iuhich bf 
€omes a Fruit annpo/td of t*wo largi 
oB/ang fwrr9<v9cd Seeds ^ having fb/ia* 
cesus Bidges on one Side : to theft 
Notes may heqdded^ ^batthi Lobes of 
the Leaves art large ^ long^ mndintire, 
gxceftiag their Extremity ^luhere they 
arejtightly eut into three Parti. 
The Species are ; 

I. SiLBR montanum aa/us, Mor, 
Umb. Greater Ser mountain. 

3. SthZtimotttanum eutgufiifolinm* 
fari, Narrow-leavM Sermountain. 

The firil Sort is ufed inMedicine, 
by the Diredion of the College of 
Fhyiictans.The Seeds of this Sort are 
the Semen Sefcleos of the ShopSyWhich 
enters in Compositions ; and the 
green Herb is alfo ufed ; for which 
fome of the People, who fupply the 
Shops, often impofe on their Cufto- 
mers the Mountain Oiier, which, by 
trandating Siler an Oiier, may afford 
them fome Pretence. 

5 I 

The fecond Sort difien tttm die 
firft, in being foraewhat lejs, and 
having narrow Leaves : this is foond 
wild in Auftria^ and the former Sort 
grows on the Alps and Jfeeenimes^^aA 
other moantaiaooe Parti ^liafy vA 

Thefe Plants maybe propagated 
by Seeds, which (hould be fowain 
Autumn, fogn after they are ripe, on 
a Border of freih undiuigM Earth ; 
and in the Spring, when the Plants 
will appear, theyihoald be kept coa- 
Hantly clear fJromWeeds; and in voy 
dxy Weather ihould be wamcd, 
which will greatly piomote their 
Growth* Where the Plants come 
up too dofe together, they (hoold be 
thinned, fo as to leave them three er 
ibur laches apart ; which will be 
fufHcient room for them the firft 
Seafon : and at Michaelmai, when 
their Leaves decay, fome of the 
Plants may be carefully taken up, 
fo as not to cut or break theirRooc, 
and traafplanted into a moifkfliady 
Border, about eighteen Inches afoa- 
d^x, where they may remain for 
Continuance. If thefe Plants thrive 
weH, they will produce Seeds the 
fecond Seafon ; other wife it will be 
the third Summer before tbey flow- 
er and feed ; after which the Roots 
will abide many Years, and gready 
increafe in their Size, and wHi pro- 
duce Seeds every Year. 

The Culture which thefe Plants 
require, is only to keep them clesr 
from Weeds ; and every Spring, joft 
before thePlants put out theirLeaves, 
to dig the Ground between thcai 
gently, fo as not to injure' their 
Roots ; and when their Flower-ficms 
are advanced, to place fome Sddts 
down by them, to which their Stems 
ihould be falkened with Bafs, to fup- 
port them from being broken down 
by Winds ; for as thefe Sterna rife 
to the Height of fom: or five Feet, 


4o, Triieil tiieir Umbeb t>f Seeds are- 
fbnnedy which are generally pretty 
iarge and lieavy, thqr often oocafiaa 
their Stems failing to the Groond^ 
where they are not fupported. 
Thefe Plants flower the Latter end 
of Junt ; and t&eir Seeds ripen to- 
ward the Latter-end of Augu/t, or 
the Beginning of Stfttmhir. 

SILIQUA. ^f^ir Ceratonia. 


SILPHIUM, Shrnbby fiaftard 
Chryfanthemiun . 

The Cimra£ien are ; 

li bath a esmpound Fiovur^ compa* 
fed 9f Jrvtral Fkrits^ 'which an in» 
cludtd in one comm§n fcahf Empale^ 
wunti thofe fltrets in tht Middle hi' 
ingHermaphrodite^ *which are/unnel- 
Jhapedj and indenud at the Brim : hut 
the Border it ocenpiid hy FtmaU Fio" 
retSf 'which c